Century 2000 - 1000 BC
Timeline: 2000 to 1001 BCE
In the Fertile Crescent the use of copper tools has become widespread.
There is a shift to a more scarce metal for use as money: silver.
Near what today is Haifa, Israel, at least two neolithic dwellers are
infected with tuberculosis.
Another wave of settlements is about to begin into what today is
Give or take a century or two, Malay people begin migrating from the
Asian mainland, across the ocean, to join others on Indonesian islands,
bringing with them the cultivation of rice and domesticated animals.
People called Mon migrate from Central Asia to the southern tip of
Burma, where they begin growing rice. People leave the Mulucca Islands
and migrate eastward to islands north of Australia.
The Sumerians have been overrun by Amorites and are to disappear as a
recognizable people. Their writings, stories and gods are to endure.
Sumerian language is to be what Latin will be in Europe in early modern
1900 Egypt is united again, followed by the rule of Pharaoh
Amenemhet I. Common people have failed to win political power, and
local lords are subservient again to one king, but common people and
lords have won recognition of having an afterlife like kings. And more
importance is given by all to the goddess of justice, Ma'at.
Migrants in magnificent little boats reach Micronesia.
An Amorite king at Babylon, Hammurabi, extends his empire from the
Persian Gulf to the city of Haran. He builds roads, creates a postal
system and sees himself as conqueror of the world. Babylon is lush with
agriculture. In the name of his god of justice, Hammurabi gives his
subjects laws about mistreatment of each other.
Along the Yellow River (Huang He), conquerors start building what would
be known as the Shang civilization, eventually to stretch four or five
hundred miles. The main concern of the Shang kings is power. They take
slaves and practice human sacrifice to please the gods they fear. Women
are subservient to men. Shang kings claim to be descended from
ancestors who reside in heaven. Canals are dug for irrigation.
A literate people move through Canaan, take control of some cities
there, and then they conquer northern Egypt. They have horses and
light-weight chariots and introduce the Egyptians to the wheel, new
musical instruments, new techniques for making bronze and pottery, new
kinds of crops, new gods and new weapons of war. The Egyptians call
Rainfall declines in the Indus Valley and Mohenjo-daro civilization
disappears. By now Indo-European hunter-gatherers and farmers have
moved into Sweden and have learned to endure winters there.
Between now and 1500 BCE, small pit house villages appear in the Tucson
Basin and probably in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico.
In these villages, archaeologists will find the remains of maize (corn)
"ubiquitous." (History of the Ancient Southwest, Stephen H. Lekson, p
In Egypt, leavened bread is being baked.
Among Hebrew families (the likes of Isaac, Jacob and his wife Rachel)
the males rule. Women are regarded as the propery of their fathers or
husbands and act only with their consent. Men are allowed serveral
wives. A man can easily divorce a wife by putting her out of the house,
but a wife was not allowed to divorce her husband. Marriages occurred
around the age of thirteen for boys and girls.
Hittites from Asia Minor, with horses and lightweight chariots, sack
Babylon, ending the dynasty that had been created by Hammurabi. Then
The Egyptians drive the Hyksos from their land. The Egyptian king,
Thutmose I, and his subjects pursue the Hyksos through Canaan and into
Aryan nomads with horses and light-weight chariots packed in their
wagons drop out of the mountains eastward into the Indus valley. They
bring with them their sacred hymns and oral history - stories that
express their desire to please the gods, including their god Dyaus
Pitar (Sky Father).
Hurrians, from the Zagros Mountains, dominate the city of Mari, on the
upper Euphrates, and Nuzi, a thriving commercial center. They have
overrun and dominate the Assyrians. And around this time they battle
the Egyptians who are still in the north around Syria.
1457 (May 9)
Egypt's army led by Pharaoh Thutmose III battles a Canaanite coalition
led by the King of Kadesh: the Battle of Megiddo. The Egyptians rout of
the Canaanites forces. It will be described by Wikipedia as "the first
battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable
detail," including body count, and the "first recorded use of the
Around now, Mycenae Greeks invade and conquer Crete. Minoan
civilization will fade.
Give or take a century or so, along the humid coast of southeastern
Mexico, Olmec civilization begins.
In Egypt a water clock is invented.
The Egyptian king, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) rules. He tries to force
his subjects to worship the god Aton, whom he believes is the god of
the universe. Egypt has withdrawn from Syria and Canaan.
The Assyrians have benefited from the decline of the Hurrians, and they
control all of Mesopotamia.
Sometime around now, give or take three or four centuries, people
having what anthropologists describe as the Lapita culture begin to
sail from islands in the Bismarck Archipelago (just east of New
Guinea), eastward into the Pacific. Lapita culture includes pottery,
domesticated pigs, dogs and chickens, root and tree crops and fishing.
Writing has appeared in Shang civilization, with characters partly
pictorial and partly phonetic, and bronze casting has developed.
Ramses II becomes King of Egypt, in his early twenties. The early part
of his reign will focus on building cities, temples and monuments.
Sedentary villages of agriculturalists are in what today is the middle
of Mexico's far north.
Ramses II dies, in his eighties.
On a stele in Egypt, Pharoah Merenptah memorializes his victories in
Canaan. In the last 3 of 28 lines of text he describes a campaign in
Canaan "Israel had been wiped out...its seed is no more." The pictogram
used for Israel indicates a tribal or nomadic people lacking a
Tribal peoples from Central Asia had been moving westward with their
herds, running from droughts. They are pushing other tribal peoples
into Asia Minor. Hittites are overrun and begin to disappear as a
recognizable people. Waves of illiterate migrants overrun Greece,
beginning a "dark age" there. Brown-skinned people begin migrating
eastward into Polynesia, to the Tonga and Samoan islands.
The Anasazi, or Ancient Pueblo Peoples, have moved to around where the
states of Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico will meet.
In China, aristocrats are concerned with their status and they keep
records of their family tree, Common common people had no surnames and
no pedigree and did not participate in ancestor worship. Unlike
aristocrats, marriage among them was without formality and without
state or religious sanction. Aristocrats looked down on this with
disdain, but wealthy married men felt free to buy a girl from a
commoner family and keep her as a concubine. The father selling his
daughter made a little money and may have felt that he was getting rid
of another mouth to feed and someone whose labor he did not need. For
common people, unlike aristocrats, there were no individualized family
surnames. All families in a village might have the same surname.
People in boats, perhaps escaping from invasions into Greece, raid the
coast of Egypt and are driven off. They land farther east and are to be
known as Philistines.
A century or so after the arrival of the Philistines, Hebrews,
occupying hilly regions in the Land of Canaan, combine their forces for
the first time and confront an army of Philistines near the Philistine
outpost at Aphek, and they lose the battle.
The Hebrew David conquers and subjugates Amorities - also known as
Canaanites. David has acquired some Canaanite culture and is a man of
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