9 th Century, 801 to 900 AD
The war against the Ainu ends. The emperor, Kammu, has left
court-appointed aristocrats as leaders of his army, and an aristocrat,
Sakanoue Tamuramaro, has emerged as a war hero and the first person
with the title of Shogun.
The Abbasid caliph, Harun al Rashid, decress that Baghdad Jews are wear
a yellow badge and Christians are to wear a blue badge.
The new Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, son of al Rashid, Abdallah al-Mamun,
sends people to Constantinople's empire to collect scientific works by
The kingdom of Wessex wins in war and becomes the dominate
power in England.
In China, the Tang Dynasty limps along politically. A reckless
teenager, Jingzong, has inherited the throne - the second emperor in
five years. In the eyes of court eunuchs he has filled the court with
incompetent persons, and they have him assassinated.
In Norway, two women are buried in a Viking ship. In the year 2008 it
will be called the Oseberg ship. One of the women will be described as
"upper class" and her skeleton indicating that she had led a hard life.
The older woman, in her 70s and perhaps over 80, has cancerous tumors
in her bones, perhaps having spread there from breast or uterine cancer.
Eunichs in China have chosen Wuzong (age 36) as emperor, and while
doing so they murder two rivals to the throne and the mothers of these
In Scandinavia and increase in population has inspired people called
Vikings or Norsemen to venture out in longboats. This year, give or
take a year or so, Vikings land and build a settlement on the south
bank of the River Liffey, founding what will eventually be the city of
Buddhism, imported from India, has grown in China. Wuzong is an ardent
Taoist, and he begins a campaign that will close Buddhist shrines and
temples, return Buddhist monks and nuns to lay life and confiscate
millions of acres of Buddhist land. Buddhism in China is to survive but
never fully recover, while its rival, Confucianism, enjoys a renewed
Vikings journeying up the Seine River and arriving at Paris in search
of loot are bribed not to attack.
A Muslim scholar in Baghdad, al Kindi, is using translations of
Aristotle - unavailable in Western Europe - to create a neoplatonic
school of Islamic thought.
Gunpowder is described in a Taoist book of alchemy, the "Classified
Essentials of the Mysterious Dao of the True Origin of Things."
In Japan, the Nakatomi family has changed its name to Fujiwara.
Fujiwara women have married into the royal Yamato family and they have
given birth to Yamato emperors. The Fujiwara family runs the government
and their taking power is described as having begun - a power that the
Fujiwara family is to keep for three centuries.
Christian missionaries develop the Cyrillic alphabet from written Greek
- an alphabet that in modern times is used in Russian, Serbian,
Bulgarian and other languages.
Vikings have attacked at Constantinople. A new phase in Scandinavian
(Viking) aggression has begun. Encouraged by former successes, the
Scandinavians are beginning to attack in greater number.
Vikings voyage up the river Seine and attack at Paris, up the Rhine to
Cologne, and they attack at Aix-la-Chapelle.
Vikings have reported that land is more available abroad. Their growth
in population has eliminated the availability of land at home. Moving
from more densely populated areas, Scandinavians have begun moving to
less densely populated areas and settling down. Rurik of Scandinavia
has established a dynasty at Novgorod.
In England, an Army of Danes has overthrown the kingdoms of
Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.
Someone in China produces a book of pages and paper.
The last writing on a stele in the major Maya city of Tikal is dated as
A Sufi, Tayfur Abu Yazid al-Bistami (Bayazid), has been spreading his
wisdom. A change has been taking place in Islam, as religion had when
the Roman Empire was disintegrating. Muslims are no longer looking with
hope to a god that is a glorious conqueror. Instead they are looking
for a sense of well-being through a personal relationship with Allah.
The Sufi movement is bringing Allah down from his heights and sees Him
as a loving friend - the way Christians saw Jesus.
Vikings settle in Iceland.
The Maya city Tikal is abandoned. Other Mayan cities in the surrounding
lowland area are collapsed while some cities in the northern Yucatan
Peninsula continue to thrive. (map)
King Alfred the Great of Wessex has rallied England against Viking
attacks. Vikings are settled and remain in Northumbria and East Anglia
while a Viking army has sailed back to the continent.
For sometime the horse collar has been spreading in Europe, invented
more than 1000 years earlier in China. The collar prevents choking a
horse, ignored by Roman farmers. The collar allows a horse to pull
heavier loads, needed for pulling plows in Europe's heavy soils.
By now a Muslim trading settlement has been established on the coast at
Zeila, on the northern Somali coast, about 150 miles south of the mouth
of the Red Sea.
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