11th Century, 1001 to 1100 AD
Mahmud, an Afghani and militant Muslim, has secured his rule. He vows
to take the word of Allah to the Hindu kingdoms of India every year, by
sword and fire.
From Greenland, Leif Ericson (Erikson) son of the Eric the Red, has led
an expedition with a crew of 34 men to the coast of North America.
China's elite believes that their neighbors should be awed by China's
greatness and by its favor from the heavens. They base their foreign
policy ideas on this and the belief that if the Chinese nation behaves
morally that neighboring kings will give China the respect it deserves.
Confident of his moral superiority, China's emperor responds with
pacifism to military incursions from the Khitan of Manchuria. He
appeases the aggressions of the Khitan by ceding permanently to them
that part of China which they occupy, including Beijing, and he agrees
to pay the Khitan annual tribute (taxes).
Sweden's king, Olof Skötonung, converts to Christianity, and when a
king converts to Christianity, his subjects also
Division has weakened India. Through the Khyber Pass, Muslims on
horseback have been raiding temple towns in northwest India and
carrying back to Ghazni as much booty as they can - much of its wealth
stolen from temples. The raiding stops after the Indians agree to pay
tribute to the Afghani ruler, Mahmud. The Indians begin sending to
Ghazni annual trains of elephants laden with gifts.
A 21-year-old Dane, to be known as Canute the Great (Cnut I), has
invaded England with a powerful fleet.
Canute has conquered much of England. He marries the widow of the king
of Wessex, Ethelred (Aethelred II) - a devout Christian. Canute
converts to Christianity and proclaims his intention to rule in a
Christian fashion, and he strengthens political and commercial ties
between England and Normandy.
Canute's brother Harald, king of Denmark, dies, and Canute becomes king
Avicenna, (Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina) the greatest
thinker and person of medicine of this and surrounding centuries, is
forty years-old. He has 17 more years to live, a lifetime in which he
will have composed 276 books on medicine, physics, astronomy,
chemistry, mathematics, economics and religion. He believes in
empiricism and rationalism and thinks scientifically. He has been
accused by fellow Muslims of "unbelief," to which he replies: "If I
have turned from Him who is blessed by birth, there's no true Muslim
left on earth." His "Canon on Medicine" will be translated
into Latin and begin influencing Europe in the 12th century - a book of
830 pages. At Amazon.com and Barnes & Noble his work will have
a five-star rating.
Putting people to death for heresy has begun in Europe, fourteen said
to have been burned to death at the city of Orleans on order of the
French king, Robert the Pious.
Canute occupies Norway with a fleet of fifty ships from England, with
the help of Norweigan nobles he drives the Norwegian king since 1016,
Olaf II Haraldsson, into exile.
Olaf II Haraldsson returns to Norway and falls in battle.
The archbishop of Milan, Heribert, seizes members of a group that
rejects infant baptism and has them burned to death.
The Chola dynasty, now led by Rajendra I (1014-44), ruling from
southeast India, has conquered the island of Lanka. In Hindu society in
general, wealth has been accumulating at the top. A few princes have
thousands of servants and hangers-on. A greater percentage of
agriculture is being taken from free peasants, and more of those who
work the land are laborers bound to the land, locked in place by their
caste - the Shudras.
Rulers in China have failed to keep China strong militarily. Tangut
(Tibetan) warriors have been making incursions into China.
The Tangut occupy China's ethnically diverse northwest, and China buys
peace by agreeing to make tribute payments to them as well as to the
Khitan of Manchuria, who are still ruling at
In Japan, in place of a national army or local government militia,
wealthy landowners, acting with some independence, have formed little
armies of their own. Their armed men are called samurai (men who
serve), or bushi (warriors). They are little more than opportunists of
violence, but they will consider themselves a class above the common
farmer who labors hard to grow the food upon which everyone depends.
The globe is warming, which is improving crop production and increasing
populations. In Europe the "High Middle Ages" begins.
In a doctrinal dispute, the Church in Rome accuses the Christians in
Constantinople of allowing priests to marry, re-baptizing Roman
Christians and deleting "and the Son" from the Nicene Creed." The last
of these accusations was untrue. The Church in Rome excommunicates the
Church in Constantinople, and the Church of Constantinople
excommunicates the Church in Rome. The schism between Roman Catholicism
and Eastern Orthodoxy has become final.
Turks have been moving westward through Transoxiana and into Persia.
Islam has been fragmented and unable or unwilling to rally to defend
its frontier. The Turks have conquered much of Persia and now from the
Fatimid Dynasty they conquer Baghdad.
The Almoravids (al-Murabitun), puritanical Islamic reformers, have
amassed a following and an army fired by religious fervor and an
interest in booty, and they have moved from their base on the
Mauritanian coast and they seize power in Morocco and western Algeria.
The Almoravids found Marrakech.
William I of Normandy ends Anglo-Saxon rule in England and becomes its
first Norman king of England. Many French words are to become English
Previously Hildebrand had thwarted attempts to make him Pope, and he
had proposed what became the choosing of Popes by the College of
Cardinals. Now Hildebrand becomes Pope Gregory VII.
Berbers of Morocco, fervent Muslims, declare war on the non-Muslim
kingdom and empire of Ghana centered at city of Kumbi.
Gregory VII is pursuing church reform and is in conflict with the
"Roman Emperor" in Germanic lands, Henry IV (a descendant of
Charlemagne's rule). The issue is Gregory's decree that anyone who
accepts a church position offered by a layman will be deposed and any
layman who gives a church position to anyone would be excommunicated.
Gregory excommunicates and deposes Henry. Nobles relish power taken
from Henry. And, to restore himself, Gregory crosses the Alps to
Canosso, in Italy, where Gregory grants him absolution - forgiveness.
Pope Gregory again excommunicates and deposes Henry. This time, Henry
uses a power that a few kings have in greater amount than does the
pope: Henry goes to Italy with an army and takes power in Rome.
Christianity has been expanding against Muslims since Charlemagne took
Barcelona in 801. The Christian king of Castile and Galicia, Alfonso
VI, has been inviting Christians in Islamic Spain to his kingdom. Now
he expands militarily to Toledo, in central Spain. The Christian
reconquest of Spain is underway.
Pope Gregory VII dies. The Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV, still controls
Normans were originally hired by Italian principalities as mercenaries.
Then the Normans started conquering in southern Italy on their own, and
they became rulers accepted by the papacy. Now they conquer Sicily,
ending two centuries of Muslim rule there. Arabs are allowed to
continue working in public administration.
The kingdom of Aragon expands southward to Valencia.
The Seljuk Turks have been expanding against the empire centered at
Constantinople. They have conquered Jerusalem. The Turks were also
Muslims, however they did not allow Christians to visit their holy
sites. Pope Urban II responds to a call for help from the emperor at
Constantinople and organizes what was to become known as the First
Crusade. Urban II announces that Christ will lead any army that goes to
rescue the Holy Land.
The first wave of the crusades begins, from Sweden into Finland, to
convert the Finns to Christianity.
Pope Urban II condemns the crossbow as "hateful to God." There are no
firearms as yet, and the crossbow seems too deadly in its ability to
pierce chain mail, and too impersonal, unlike the sword and lance,
which can be parried up close.
Well-trained knights defeat Muslims near Nicaea, and later in the year
the Crusaders reach Antioch.
Jerusalem falls to the Crusaders, who slaughter the city's Jewish and
A Persian, Omar Khayyam (Ghiyath al-Din Abu'l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim
Al-Nisaburi al-Khayyami), writes his poem the Rubaiyat, including lines
translated as ...
Come, fill the cup, and in the fire of spring Your winter-garment of
repentance fling: The bird of time has but a little way To flutter-and
the bird is on the wing.
Ah, Love! could you and I with Him conspire To grasp this sorry scheme
of things entire, Would not we shatter it to bits, and then Remold it
nearer to the heart's desire!
Educational videos offered
Welcome to Our World of
a modern open area for learning
and understanding the mysteries
of the plant world!
Our Herbaceous Plants
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Plants Video package is sold
separately or as part of a
package is a
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Pharmaceutical Plants Video package is
sold separately or as part of a
The Poisonous Plants
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2 disc. 2-hour collection exzaming the
Poisonous compounds in and from plants
Poisonous Plants Video package is
sold separately or as part of a