Century 20 - first 10 yr.
Century  20 (1901-1910)


 Jan 1  A new century begins, continuing tough working conditions for laborers and Europe's conflict between nationalism and empire. Europe's elite and the Church are giving moral support to empire. Austria-Hungary's emperor, Franz Joseph, sees himself as most ethical.

Jan 10  Oil is discovered at Spindletop in Beaumont, Texas.

Jan 22  Queen Victoria dies at age eight-one. Edward VII is crowned.

Jan 30  In Kansas, Carrie Nation, age 54, 6 feet tall and 175 pounds, accompanied by hymn singing women, is smashing up saloons.

Feb 1  In this month's issue of North American Review, Mark Twain has an essay titled "To the Person Sitting in Darkness." The article is critical of the Boer War, activities regarding the Boxer Rebellion and the US war in the Philippines. Some others are calling for support for "our troops." An American general in the Philippines complains about the loyalty of some at home.

Feb 5  Recognizing their diminishing influence in Central and South America and wanting to cultivate the United States as a counterweight to Germany's influence in that region, the British sign the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty with the United States. With this treaty they approve US construction of a canal so long as the US recognizes neutrality of access.

Feb 23  Britain and Germany agree to a border between German East Africa and the British colony of Nyasaland.

Feb 26  In China, the Boxer rebellion is winding down and foreign powers are asserting control. In Beijng two leaders of the Boxer Rebellion, Chi Hsui and Hsu-Cheng-yuo, are beheaded.

Mar 1  Britain, Germany, Japan and the US are unhappy about China's government letting Russia build railways in Manchuria.

Mar 2  The United States Congress passes the Platt Amendment, limiting the autonomy of Cuba as a condition for the withdrawal of American troops. The amendment declares the right of the US to intervene militarily in Cuban affairs.

Mar 4  President McKinley begins his second term.

Mar 15  Britain's Lord Kitchener is haggling with the Boer general, Louis Botha, over conditions for ending the Second Boer War. No agreement has been reached as the Boers continue to want autonomy if they are to be within the British Empire.

May 3  Fire destroys 1,700 buildings in Jacksonville, Florida. It started as a boiler explosion in a candle factory. Next it spread to a mattress factory and beyond, out of control. Fires are often big because of poor equipment and use of horsedrawn wagons.

May 9  Australia opens its first parliament in Melbourne.

May 23  The US military captures the Filipino independence leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, at his headquarters in the northeast of Luzon Island.

Jun 12  Cuba, occuppied since the Spanish American War in 1898, becomes a United States protectorate, meaning the US assumes responsibily for protecting Cuba from other counties while Cuba supposedly remains a sovereign power.

Aug 14  Aviation pioneer Gustave Whitehead flies a motor-powered aircraft in Connecticut. In 2013 Jane's All The World's Aircraft will recognize Whitehead as making the first manned, powered, controlled flight.

Aug 25  A US army nurse, Clara Maass, age 25, dies after having volunteered for medical experiments that prove mosquitoes carry yellow fever.

Sep 6  At the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, an anarchist mill worker, Leon Czolgosz, shoots President William McKinley. On the ground and bleeding, McKinley calls Czolgosz a "poor, misguided fellow" and asks that he not be hurt. McKinley will die eight days later.

Sep 7  The Boxer Rebellion in China officially ends with the signing of the Boxer Protocol. In China, the Dowager Empress, Cixi, signs an agreement with foreign powers formally ending the Boxer Rebellion. Boxer leaders other than she will soon be executed. Chinese nationalism will, however, live on.

Sep 14  Theodore Roosevelt succeeds William McKinley as President of the United States.

Sep 28  A surprise attack by anti-US forces on Samar Island in the Philippines kills 48 US soldiers.

Oct 16  US President Theodore Roosevelt invites African American leader Booker T. Washington to the White House. Many southern whites react angrily to the visit. In the South racial violence increases.

Oct 29  In New York, Leon Czolgosz is executed in the electric chair. His having claimed that Emma Goldman influenced him philosophically has made her a target of hostile public opinion.

Dec 3  President Roosevelt delivers a 20,000-word speech to the House of Representatives asking Congress to curb the power of trusts "within reasonable limits."

Dec 10  It is the fifth anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death. In Stockholm the first Nobel Prize ceremony is held.

Dec 12  The first Morse code radio signal is sent across the Atlantic Ocean, from England to Newfoundland.

Dec 20  The Mombasa-Victoria-Uganda Railway is completed with a final spike at the Lake Victoria port city of Kisumu, Kenya.


Jan 8  With the Boxer Rebellion defeated, China's Empress Cixi, with her nephew the emperor in tow, returns to her palace in Beijing.

Jan 8  In New York City a train collision in the Park Avenue tunnel kills 17 and injures 38. This will be followed by the state banning steam locomotives.

Jan 10  In New Zealand the Nurses Registration Act of 1901 comes into effect, making New Zealand the first country that requires state registration of nurses.

Jan 28  An ad in the Washington DC Evening Times reads: "Don't look old! Keep your hair! COKE DANDRUFF CURE." Coke is a reference to cocaine, not quite yet illegal.

Jan 28  The Carnegie Institution for scientific research is founded with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie.

Jan 30  Britain has been considering an alliance with Germany but Germany is demanding that Britain join its alliance with Austria-Hungary. So Britain has been looking elsewhere. It settles its differences with the United States and today signs an alliance with Japan.

Feb 9  Fire levels 26 city blocks of Jersey City.

Feb 11  In Brussels, police clash with people demonstrating for universal suffrage.

Feb 18  President Roosevelt prosecutes the Northern Securities Company, a railroad trust, for violation of the Sherman Act of 1890. The company controls the Northern Pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad and other associated lines.

Mar 25  In the United States, Irving W Colburn patents a mass production sheet glass machine.

Mar 31  The Russian Marxist, Lenin, is about to turn 32. His book What Is to be Done is to be published this month. In it he describes his elder in the socialists movement, the German Eduard Bernstein, 52, as having abandoned Marx's scientific socialism. Bernstein wants to update Marxism, taking into account Marx's failed predictions. Lenin is fervent and sees no failed predictions.

Apr 5  In the land of his birth, Georgia, on the Black Sea coast at Batumi, Stalin (real name, Jughashvili), 23, is an impoverished but bright young man devoted to anti-establishment politics. He has been organizing oil workers into action, made easier by horrible working conditions while foreign oil company executives are living in mansions and sailing their yachts. There are clashes between workers and police. Blood flows. Stalin on this day is arrested and to be put in prison.

Apr 8  His Majesty, the Tsar of all the Russias, wishing to give fresh proof of his peaceable and friendly disposition towards His Majesty the Emperor of China, agrees to evacuate Manchuria in three stages. China agrees to protect Russia's railway, all Russian subjects and their undertakings. Russia considers its railway to its warm water port, leased from China and renamed Port Arthur, as vital.

Apr 13  A new car speed record of 74 mph (119 kph) is set in Nice, France, by Leon Serpollet.

May 20  The US recognizes Cuba as a republic independent of Spain. This is to be Cuban Independence Day.

May 31  Britain has crushed Boer resistance. With the four Boer states Britain signs the Treaty of Vereeniging, officially ending Boer War.

Jun 6  By now the Empress Cixi has issued an edict exhorting the gentry "to influence their families to refrain from 'the evil practice' of foot binding women." Also, her government this year attempts to improve relations with her subjects by lifting a ban on marriages between Manchu males and Chinese females.

Jun 12  In Australia most women are granted the right o vote and to stand in elections. As in the United States, Wyoming for example, it is more of the greater progressive nature of frontier regions than areas dominated by conservative establishments and traditions, as in England.

Jul 3  On Broadway in New York, the song "In the Good Ol' Summertime" is introduced. This year it will sell a million copies in sheet music,

Aug 22  Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first American President to ride in an automobile when he rides in a Columbia Electric Victoria through Hartford, Connecticut.

Sep 3  Paleontologist Barnum Brown is in Montana working at the site near the town of Jordan, where he recently discovered remnants of a dinosaur to be known as Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Oct 1  This month, France's Governor-General Paul Beau arrives in Vietnam. Every province is assigned how much alcohol they must buy, and the Vietnamese are prohibited from distilling their own drinks.

Oct 23  For five months coal miners have been on their biggest strike ever. They want higher wages, an eight-hour day and recognition of their union. Mine owners have refused to negotiate. One of the owners, George Baer, cites Darwinistic struggle as his reason for refusing, and in a letter leaked to the press he claims that the "rights and interests of the laboring man will be protected and cared for not by the labor agitators but by the Christian men to whom God in His infinite wisdom has given the control of the property interests of the country." President Roosevelt has ordered a commission to solve the conflict. Speaking before the commission, Baer closes his argument saying, "These men don't suffer. Why, hell, half of them don't even speak English." On this day, October 23, the strike ends. Owners don't have to recognize the United Mine Workers' union but they accept an arbitration board and the miners have won a nine-hour day and a 10 percent wage increase.

Dec 9  British, German and Italian governments want Venezuelans to pay debts owed Europeans. Their warships arrive in Venezuelan waters to impose a naval blockade.


Jan 1  Edward VII, Britain's monarch, is proclaimed Emperor of India. His mother, Queen Victoria, was Empress of India.

Jan 17  A German ship, Panther, involved in blockading Venezuela, gets aggressive and enters the lagoon of Maracaibo, near a center of German commercial activity. The ship exchanges fire with a fort but because of shallow waters can't get close enough to the fort to be effective. It withdraws.

Feb 11  In California growers have combined into the Western Agricultural Contracting Company (WACC). Japanese and Mexican beet-field laborers combine into the Japanese-Mexican Labor Association (JMLA) and accuse WACC of artificially suppressing wages. JMLA complains that WACC forces workers to pay double commissions and to buy at inflated prices at the company store.

Feb 13  With arbitration by Britain, Germany and Italy reach a settlement with Venezuela. Venezuela agrees to pay a reduced amount of its debt. The naval blockade will end in six days.

Feb 23  The Cuban-American Treaty is signed. It provides for Guantánamo Bay to be leased to the United States "in perpetuity."

Mar 23  In Oxnard, California, a strike by the Japanese-Mexican Labor Association ends after growers shoot into a crowd of strikers. One worker is killed and four injured. The growers will concede to most JMLA demands.

May 13  Samuel Gompers, founder of the American Federation of Labor, states that his union "will under no circumstance accept membership of any Chinese or Japanese." Denied membership in the American Federation of Labor, the Japanese-Mexican Labor Association will not survive. By 1910 it will have disappeared.

Jun 11  Serbia's King Alexander Obrenovic and his wife, Queen Draga, are assassinated by army officers led by Dragutin Dimitrijevic. An issue in the assassinations appears to be who would be the king's successor. Dimitrijevic will be described as in the pay of Russians (Fall of the Eagles, by C. L. Sulzberger, p.202). Dimitrijevic will be a player in future Serb crises. Obrenovic is succeeded by his younger brother, Peter I, Serbia's first strictly constitutional monarch.

Jul 7  Britain expands its rule in Africa by taking over the Fulani Empire, a Muslim theocracy in the Western Sudan.

Jul 26  A couple of young men arrive in New York city after a sixty-three day drive from San Francisco. They drove a two-cylinder, 20 horsepower Winton. They popped many tires on what can hardly be called roads. Wheel bearings gave out and a couple of times they had to wait for parts to repair engine breakdowns. The trip is to be the subject of an October 2013 film by Ken Burns.

Aug 4  Pope Pius X becomes the 257th pope, succeeding Leo XIII.

Aug 18  England's conservatives, opposed to autonomy for the Irish, pass a land reform law for Ireland, hoping this will delay or prevent the Irish acquiring anything like independence.

Sep 29  The Kingdom of Prussia (two-thirds of the Empire of Germany), becomes the first state to require drivers licenses for operators of motor vehicles.

Oct 3  Russia has failed to withdraw its forces from Manchuria as they had promised. For a couple of months Russia and Japan have been haggling over who is to have dominant influence where in the Manchuria-Korean area between their two countries. The haggling is to continue.

Nov 17  Russia's Social Democrats are having their Second Congress. (The First Party Congress was in 1898, consisting of nine delegates, all of whom were arrested.) The Second Congress meets in Brussels, but police harrassment sends them to liberal Britain's city of London. There are fifty-six delegates. They split into two factions: the Bolsheviks (majority) and Mensheviks (minority). The Bolsheviks believe that power must be taken from the ruling class in one sweep. The Mensheviks hope for progress toward socialism without a sudden and sweeping change as to which class holds power. The Bolsheviks are a majority when a crucial vote is taken after some Mensheviks walk out.

Nov 18  The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty is signed by the United States and Panama, giving the US exclusive rights over the Panama Canal Zone.

Nov 23  Bill Haywood's Western Federation of Miners has called for a sympathy strike among the underground miners to support an eight-hour day. The governor, James Hamilton Peabody, has described an insurrection as taking place and has sent out a militia to protect replacement workers. Soldiers have been rounding up union members and their sympathizers, including the entire staff of a pro-union newspaper, and jailing them without charges.

Dec 9  Imprisoned since April 1902, in August this year Stalin was transferred to Siberia. On this day he arrives at his assigned area in south-central Siberia: Novaya Uda. The Russian Empire will provide him with a little cash to survive - cheaper perhaps than having to house him in an actual prison.

Dec 17  At Kitty Hawk in North Carolina the Wright brothers make their first engine powered air flight.


Jan 5  Japan and Russia are still squabbling over control of Korea and Manchuria. Imperialism is accepted policy among the great nations and neither considers leaving the Koreans and the Manchurians (or Chinese) control over their own territory. Russia sends a rifle regiment from Vladivostok to Korea to support its interests there. The Japanese are upset.

Jan 10  Russia's Tsar Nicholas is not eager for war. Russia offers Japan recognition of its preponderance of power in Korea and proposes the neutralization of Korea's coastal waters, but Russia refuses Japan an equal footing with Europeans in Manchuria. Stockmarkets are responding to the news of the conflict. Russia has been recalling its gold reserves from abroad.

Jan 17  Stalin walks away from his exile in Siberia and is on his way to Tiflis (Tblisi) in his native Georgia. He returns to political organizing. Before the year is over he will be siding with the Bolsheviks and will be noticed by Lenin, who is living in exile in Switzerland.

Feb 1  Japan's military leader informs Emperor Meiji (age 51) of a coming preemptive strike against the Russians.

Feb 5  Japan breaks diplomatic relations with Russia. Russian troops are occupying strategic locations on the Manchurian side of the Yalu River.

Feb 8  Japan launches torpedoes against Russian ships at Port Arthur (now Lushan, China). The warring continues into the next day as Japan lands troops at Inchon in Korea. From Inchon they will start marching north toward Manchuria. Russian troops in Korea will be in retreat.

Feb 8  The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, Maryland, destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. They are still using horse-drawn water pumpers. Out of town help suffers as their hose couplings don't fit Baltimore's hydrants.

Tibet warrior-in an exhibition parade in 1938
Tibetan warrior
Tibet warrior (in an exhibition parade in 1938)

Feb 10  Roger Casement's account of Belgian atrocities in the Congo, commissioned by the British government, is published. A Belgian company was extracting rubber and ivory. Gang bosses were using whips to motivate workers. Villages were required to produce a quota of rubber. Men assigned to control local villages established themselves as despots, using women as they pleased, taking what food supplies they wished, and killing or maiming those who resisted.

Mar 26  In Hyde Park, London, 80,000 demonstrators protest the government importing Chinese laborers to South Africa.

Apr 8  Britain and France end almost a thousand years of intermittent conflict with the signing of a treaty, The Entente Cordiale. France recognizes British control over Egypt; Britain recognizes France's position regarding Morocco. France gives up its exclusive fishery rights on the shores of Newfoundland and in return receives an indemnity and territory in Gambia (Senegal) and Nigeria.

May 1  The first major land battle between the Japanese and Russians, the Battle of Yalu River, takes place. Some Russians surrender and others escape northward. The Russians thought they could easily defeat an East Asian army.

May 5  Russia was known to have interests in the direction of Tibet, and with Russia distracted by the Japanese, a British expeditionary force has moved in. It attacks and defeats a Tibetan force at Changlo.

Jun 28  A passenger liner of Copenhagen, the SS Norge, collides with Hasselwood Rock close to Rockall (between Iceland and Ireland), killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants.

Jul 1  The third modern Olympic Games opens in St. Louis, Missouri, the first Olympic Games held outside Europe. The war between Russia and Japan prevents some of the world's athletes from attending.

Jul 21  The Russians complete the Trans-Siberian Railway, from Moscow to the Far East, the longest rail line in the world. It will not be opened until January. It's a single track, which will cause delays in transporting troops and supplies eastward against the Japanese.
Aug 3  The British Expedition Force takes Tibet's major city: Lhasa.

Aug 11  Germans in their colony of South-West Africa are combating another rebellion. They are machine-gunning the Herero people, poisoning wells and driving them into the Omaheke desert to die.

Sep 7  The Dalai Lama signs the Anglo-Tibetan Treaty. Tibet is obliged to open its border with British India, to allow British and Indian traders to travel freely, not to impose customs duties and not to enter into relations with any foreign power without British approval.

Oct 21-22  Russian warships on their way to the Far East to do war against the Japanese fire on British fishing boats they mistake for Japanese torpedo boats, and they fire on each other - to be known as the Dogger Bank incident. Emotions rise in Britain, with some anger toward Germany because of Germany's support for Russia. Britain's new Admiral of the Fleet, John Fisher, blames Germany for inciting Russia against Britain.

Oct 27  The New York City subway opens.

Nov 8  Republican incumbent Theodore Roosevelt is elected president, defeating the Democratic Party's Alton B. Parker.

Nov 24  The first successful caterpillar track is produced.

Dec 6  Theodore Roosevelt announces his "corollary" to the Monroe Doctrine. It states that rather than have European powers act on legitimate claims against Latin American countries directly, the United States will intervene for them.

Dec 9  during the last few days, the Japanese have destroyed Russia's warships stationed in the Far East. Russia's warships sailing from the Baltic Sea are still on their way to the Pacific and rounding Africa's Cape of Good Hope, burning coal supplied by Germany.

Dec 15  German naval and military attachés in London are convinced Britain is going to attack Germany's navy. The German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, believes the attachés because of his British family's violations of etiquette. He believes that King Edward VII (who dislikes the Kaiser) wants war. Germany's navy, always mobilized, is waiting for orders to sail. The public is unaware of the war scare.

Dec 24  The Kaiser learns that the British admiralty has not been planning to attack the German fleet. The secret war scare is over


Jan 2  After a five-month siege, the Russians surrender at Port Arthur. The Japanese take control also of the adjoining Liaodong Peninsula.

Jan 22  For Russia war is the creator of misery and the mother of revolution.  Russian sailors have rebelled and their rebellion has spread to major cities. At the tsar's Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg a huge demonstration is fired upon. Between 200 and 1,000 are killed, the event to be known as Bloody Sunday.

Feb 19  In Manchuria, Russian troops fleeing the Port Arthur area are confronted by Japanese troops at Mukden (Shenyang). The Russians number 330,000 with 800 artillery pieces.

Mar 5  Russian troops begin to retreat from Mukden.

Mar 10  The Japanese capture Mukden. The Russians are on their way out of Manchuria.

Mar 31  Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II visits the Moroccan port of Tangiers, hoping to gain equality with France in Morocco, where Germany has mining interests. French hostility toward Germany increases.

May 28  The Baltic Fleet - 28 ships - has finally arrived near Japan. It meets 89 Japanese ships and is destroyed in a two-day battle in waters between Japan and Korea: the Battle of Tsushima. The Japanese loose only three torpedo boats. The Japanese are exultant in victory over the Russians. They see themselves as superior to others in Asia, deserving empire and having an invincible navy.

May 6  The San Francisco School Board announces a policy of removing Japanese students to the city's one school for Asians so that "our children should not be placed in any position where their youthful impressions may be affected by association with pupils of the Mongolian race."

June 17  In Russia, strikes, peasant uprisings in many provinces, revolutionary movements among national minorities and rebellions in the armed forces are developing. A rebellion has occurred aboard the battleship Potemkin, which has pulled into port at Odessa. The ship's captain, the doctor and several other officers have been killed and other officers shut away in one of the cabins. A red flag has been hoisted and a People's Committee put in charge of the ship. Troops arrive and fire on the crowd supporting the sailors. Casualties will be described as 2,000 dead and 3,000 seriously wounded. The next day the Potemkin sets out to sea, the mutineers hoping to provoke mutinies elsewhere.

Jun 25  The Potemkin mutineers surrender their ship to Romanian authorities. They will return the Potemkin to the Russian navy.
Jul 7  Norway's parliament proclaims the end of the country's union with Sweden.

Jul 22  With the Taft-Katsura Agreement, the US and Japan settle their positions regarding Korea and the Philippines.

Sep 1  The province of Alberta is created out of Canada's Northwest Territories.

Sep 5  In response to a secret request by the Japanese, President Theodore Roosevelt resides over the treaty formally ending the war between Russia and Japan. Russia cedes the island of Sakhalin and port and railway rights in Manchuria to Japan while Manchuria is to remain nominally a part of China. The differences between Russia and Japan had been resolved by violence, but for his efforts a sentimental Nobel committee in 1906 will award Roosevelt the Nobel Peace Prize.

Sep 27  Albert Einstein, a clerk in a patent office in Bern, Switzerland, submits his paper to a physics journal, asking,"Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?" In this paper he develops an argument for what will be his famous equation E = mc2.

Oct 5  The Wright Brothers' third airplane (Wright Flyer III) stays in the air for 39 minutes with Wilbur piloting.

Oct 21   On this day, 100 years after the Battle of Trafalgar, a few wealthy Brits are wondering where their great empire will be in 2005. With the empire spread across the globe some worry that there will be more fighting, as there was recently with the Boer War. There will be talk of a "weary titan worn down by the cosequences of success."

Oct 30  Russia's Tsar Nicholas II relents and agrees to a political constitution that gives some power to a legislature (the Duma) and promises a free press.

Oct 26  Sweden's Social Democrats have favored freedom for their Norwegian "brothers" from forced unity with Sweden. Sweden's conservative enthusiasts for national grandeur have wanted to discourage independence by sending a force against the Norwegians. The Social Democrats prevail. There will be no war. Sweden formally recognizes the dissolution of its union with Norway.

Nov 9  In Canada, the Province of Alberta holds its first election for seats in its new legislative body. The contest is bitter. The Liberal Party wins 22 seats, the Conservative Party 3 seats.

Nov 17  Japanese troops have surrounded the palace of the Korean Emperor Gojong, but he refuses to sign a treaty that would turn sovereignty over to the Japanese. Under coercion by the Japanese, Gojong's cabinet signs what is to be known as the Japan-Korea Protectorate Treaty. Japan takes power over Korea's foreign affairs and military matters. Japan also takes power over Korea's police, postal, telegraph and telephone services. 

Nov 18  Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway.

Nov 28  In Dublin, Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Féin as a political party whose goal is independence for all of Ireland.

Dec 7  Moscow's Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries combine in a general strike and an attempt to take power.

Dec 9  An attempt by Moscow's governor to arrest the ringleaders is followed by a city-wide uprising. Barricades go up. A few have guns. Bolsheviks take the lead.

Dec 11  In Kiev an uprising in support of the Moscow uprising establishes a workers' republic, the Shuliavka Republic, which lasts four days, crushed by the Russian Army and local authorities.

Dec 18 The Imperial Russian Army, viewed as a failure due to its defeats by the Japanese, proves itself a success against Bolshevik forces. Army soldiers are told "To act without mercy; there will be no arrests." The Bolsheviks call an end to the strike and a return to work. The rising ends with 35 soldiers killed and 1,059 rebels killed including 137 women and 86 children.

Dec 30   Frank Steunenberg, governor of Idaho from 1897 to 1901 is assassinated by a bomb. The assassin is Albert Horsley, a miner with a criminal past and a gambling problem working as a paid informer for the Cripple Creek Mine Owners Association. He is to be arrested and imprisoned in January.


Jan 12  A political revolution is underway in Iran. A coalition of merchants, religious leaders and intellectuals are pushing for Iran to enter the modern era and establish a constitution and national assembly.

Jan 26  In the US, Doubleday publishes a novel The Jungle by a socialist journalist, Upton Sinclair. The book focuses on a diligent immigrant worker hoping to achieve the "American Dream" for himself and his family. The book exposes con artist business practices and corruptions in the meat packing industry. Lobbyists for the meat packing industry will attempt to water down meaningful legislation, but President Theodore Roosevelt will advocate and Congress will pass legislation involving meaningful government inspections and regulations. Sinclair will be frustrated over his socialist message being mitigated.

Feb 1  A former miner, Albert Horsely, alias Harry Orchard, has been arrested in connection with the murder of Idaho's former goveror. In jail for a month, he is interogated by an anti-union Pinkerton detective, James McParland. (Pinkerton is a private agency.) Horsely is threatened with hanging. Apparantly to save his life he confesses to the murder and implicates leaders of the United Mine Workers, including prominent socialist labor leader William Haywood. McParland perjures himself to a judge and gains extradition papers, and in one week he has Hayward and two other union leaders, Charles Moyer and George Pettibone snatched from their homes in Denver and transported by train as prisoners to Idaho. They are to stand trial in 1907.

Feb 10  The British launch a new class of battleship, the dreadnought, which makes other battleships obsolete in the reach of their big guns. 

Mar 10  A coal mine explosion at Courrières in France kills 1,060.

Apr 7  The Algeciras Conference in Spain concludes with an agreement that affirms the independence of Morocco and guarantees the freedom of nations such as Germany to trade there. The purpose of the conference was to placate Germany's objections to France establishing a protectorate over Morocco.

Apr 9  The Pentecostal movement begins in Los Angeles. It's called the Azusa Street Revival and is led by William J. Seymour, an African American preacher. It is characterized by ecstatic spiritual experiences, a belief in miracles, speaking in tongues, and inter-racial mingling. Some theologians in the US will describe it as outrageous.

Apr 18  An earthquake strikes San Francisco at 5:12 in the morning (estimated magnitude 7.8). Fire breaks out. Eighty percent of the city is destroyed and around 3,000 people killed.

Apr 23   Russia's Tsar Nicholas II has pledged to provide broad participation in a legislative body, the Duma, and to give this Duma oversight powers. It's a surrender to the world trend toward constitutionalism. But having pacified the revolution of 1905 with promises, he has not given up on retaining the autocratic power that he believed was his as a gift from God.    Today the tsar gives a constitution to the Russian people. He retains his absolute power. The Constitution gives Nicolas the power to appoint and dismiss ministers, to issue decrees, to veto legislation, to dismiss the Duma at any time and the Constitution can't be changed without his approval.

Jun    30  In the US the Pure Food and Drug Act becomes effective. It is designed to protect the public and is the creation of President

Aug 5  In Iran the monarch Muzaffar al-Din Shah's struggle to maintain the old order comes to an end. He agrees to a constitutional monarchy.

Aug 22  The first phonograph (record player) is manufactured.

Aug 23  Cuba's president since 1902, Tomás Estrada Palma, requests United States intervention to contain a rebellion against his rule.

Sep 11  In South Africa a lawyer, Mohandas Gandhi, begins nonviolent resistance to the mistreatment of his fellow Indians.

Sep 29  Cuba's President Palma has resigned believing the US does not intend to save his regime. President Theodore Roosevelt names William Howard Taft has the provisional governor of Cuba. US Marines arrive to prevent fighting between Cubans and to protect US economic interests. Cuba's Liberals are pleased by Palma's resignation and lay down their arms. A provisional occupation government by the US begins.

Oct 1  The Grand Duchy of Finland becomes the first nation to grant women universal suffrage and to include the right of women to stand as candidates.

Nov 22  Russia's Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin seeks to dampen class unrest and to gain support for the tsar from Russia's majority: its peasants. He begins a farming system that emphasizes more individual freedom and private ownership, and he initiates a program to assist peasants in settling lands in Siberia.

Dec 11  Under public pressure, the San Francisco Board of Education issues an order that bans Asian children, including Japanese, from white primary schools. All Japanese and Korean students are ordered to join the Chinese at the segregated Oriental School established in 1884. President Roosevelt sends a representative to San Francisco in an effort to persuade the school board to change its decision. He thinks the school segregation order a "wicked absurdity."


Jan 21  Korea's king, or emperor, Gojong (also Gwangmu), has made statements hostile to the Japanese to international newsmen, such as, "The United States does not realize what Japan's policy in the Far East is and what it portends for the American people. The Japanese adopted a policy that in the end will give her complete control over commerce and industry in the Far East." The Japanese force his abdication and will keep him confined to his palace until his death in 1919.

Feb 24  In an agreement with the US, Japan promises to restrict the emigration of Japanese laborers to the United States but allows the emigration of wives, children and parents of Japanese already in the United States. Some in the US are describing the few Japanese among them as agents of Japan's emperor.

Mar 5  In Russia, the new Duma in opened in St. Petersburg, and Russian troops disperse 40,000 demonstrators

Mar 16  In Finland, elections to a new parliament are the first in the world with universal suffrage and women candidates. Nineteen women are elected.

Mar 22  Taxis with meters begin operating in London.

Mar 29  In Romania, class unrest in the countryside has turned violent and has spread. A few city dwellers own much of the country's agricultural land. issues have been the leasing of lands to peasants, desire for land and fear of unemployment and hunger. Authorities blame the revolt on Jews. Foreign revolutionaries are also blamed. The uprising is to be called the Great Romanian Peasant Revolt of 1907. Romania's army is mobilized, and in the coming days it will sabre and shoot peasants. Historians will put the number of deaths between 3,000 and 18,000, with the most common figure at 11,000.

Haywood, Pettibone and Moyer
Pettibone, Haywood  and Moyer
Defendants left to right, Pettibone, Moyer, Haywood 

Jun 3  In Russia, Prime Minister Stolypin has accused Social Democrats of preparing an armed uprising. He demands the exclusion of 55 of their representatives from the tsar's legislative body, the Duma. The Duma refuses. Stolypin and the tsar dissolve the Duma.

Date Unknown   This year the American chemist Bertram Boltwood discovers the rate at which the radioactive element s uranium and thorium break down. He finds lead to be the final product of radioactive decay, and he uses the proportion of lead in uranium ores in rocks as a measure of time. This allows geologists to date the earth's age at 2.2 billion years. Eventually the age will be extended to 4.4 billion.

Jul 29  Since May 9 the labor leader Bill Haywood has been on trial for the murder of Steunenberg. The witness for the prosecution is a confessed participant in murder, Albert Horsley, who has describes Hayward as having ordered the murder. Haywood is represented by the famous lawyer Clarence Darrow . His cross examination of Horsely leaves the jury with the impression that Horsley's testimony is worthless. Haywood appears to have been framed and is found not guilty. Of the other two union leaders charged with Steunenberg's murder, George Pettibone will be acquitted in January and charges against Charles Moyer will be dropped.

Aug 1  Japan's order that the Korean army disband creates a rebellion within the Korean army, and disorder spreads through the country, countered with violence by the Japanese.

Aug 31  With Russia's defeat by Japan, the British see Russia as less of a threat to their interests. Britain signs a treaty with Russia. Russia agrees that Britain should have controlling influence in Afghanistan and Tibet, and the two powers end their rivalry in Iran by dividing that land into two zones of influence.

Sep 8  Catholic "modernists" have been trying to institute what they consider intellectual reforms. Thirty-eight of their 65 proposals are biblical criticisms, Pope Pius X labels these proposals as heretical. In an encyclical the pope describes "modernism" as an alliance between faith and false philosophy.

Sep 26  New Zealand rises above colony status and joins Britain's Commonwealth, as does Newfoundland.

Oct 15-16  In the US, financial manipulations create what will be called a Bankers' Panic. The New York Stock Exchange falls to almost 50 percent of its peak in 1906. There will be numerous runs on banks and trust companies.

Oct 17  Marconi initiates commercial transatlantic radio communications between Clifden Ireland and Glace Bay, Nova Scotia.

Nov 1  In Russia, Tsar Nicholas has given greater electoral value to the votes of nobility and landowners. These conservatives will dominate a new "Third Duma." Meanwhile, the tsar's police are cracking down on leftists. Jews are being attacked in Odessa.

Nov 16  In the US, Oklahoma becomes the 46th state.

Dec 6  A coal mine explosion kills 362 workers in Monongah, West Virginia.

Dec 19  A coal mine explosion kills 239 in Jacobs Creek, Pennsylvania.

Dec 21  In Chile, soldiers shoot at striking mine workers, killing more than 2000.

Dec 21  Klara Hitler dies of cancer after expressing concern about the well being of her 18-year-old son Adolf. Adolf is grief stricken.

Dec 31  By now, eight percent of US households are wired for electricity.


Mar 4  The New York Board of Education bans whipping in public school.

Mar 8  Britain's House of Commons turns down a women's suffrage bill.

Mar 19  In Idaho, Albert Horsley is convicted of murder and sentenced to death for the murder of former governor Steunenberg in 1905. Horsley will become a Seventh-Day Adventist and his death sentence will be commuted to life in prison.

Jul 6  The Ottoman Empire has not been keeping up with Western Europe in education, technology and military might. Young Turks influenced by study abroad have formed an umbrella group called the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). With a significant portion of the army they overthrow the power of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, but they leave the sultan on his throne.

Aug 8  In the US, the Hoover Company acquires manufacturing rights to the upright portable vacuum cleaner just invented by James M. Spangler.
civilization in Bosnia_Herzegovina
A Turkish depiction of the Habsburg

annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
titled "Advance of civilization in Bosnia
and Herzegovina."

Sep 27  Henry Ford produces his first Model T automobile.

Oct 5  In a bloodless coup, soldiers in Bulgaria declare Bulgaria's independence from the Ottoman Empire. They turn power over to Prince Ferdinand, who becomes Tsar Ferdinand.

Oct 7  Responding to what appears to be a weakened Ottoman Empire, Russia's Prime Minister Stolypin has made a secret agreement with Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary concerning Bosnia and Herzegovina - until now ruled by Austria-Hungary but nominally a part of the Ottoman Empire. Franz Joseph announces his intention of giving these territories autonomy and constitutional rule, and he announces their annexation.

Oct 7  Serbs have been looking forward to independence from foreign rule for all Serbs and a united Serbia. Serbia threatens Austria-Hungary with war. A secret organization in Serbia and students in Bosnia begin organizing resistance to Austrian rule, by violence if necessary.

Oct 7  Crete revolts against Ottoman rule and aligns with Greece.

Oct 8  Ordinary Russians side with their fellow Orthodox Christian Serbian brothers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, against their Austro-Hungarian Roman Catholic rulers. Russian pan-Slavists are especially annoyed. Russian cooperation with Austria-Hungary is ending. A Russian diplomat Izvolsky tells a Serbian minister, Vesnitch, "Hitherto we have always supported Serbia and we shall support her in the future, always and with all possible means."

Oct 28  Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II is supporting his ally Austria-Hungary but not in military action. He thinks of the Serbs as Asiatics and as part of the Asiatic threat to Western civilization. He is another ruler who owes his power to accident of birth. In an interview published in the London Daily Telegraph he says, "You English are mad, mad, mad as March hares." He states that "it is one of my dearest wishes to live on the best of terms with England." Britain's Foreign Secretary Edward Gray, meanwhile, is unhappy about the annexation, believing it has created too much volatility.

Nov 3  In the US another presidential election campaign ends. Technology is beginning to diminish the belief of many that presidential candidates are not supposed to appear as salesmen greedy for power. William Taft is elected president, defeating the Democrat, William Jennings Bryan.

Nov 7  Butch Cassidy (42) and the Sundance Kid (41?) die in a shoot out in Bolivia. It will be speculated that one of the two shot his fatally wounded partner to put him out of his misery and then killed himself.

Dec 2  Pu-yi, age 2, ascends the Manchu throne in China. Real power remains with the Empress Dowager Cixi. Pu-yi is to be China's last emperor.

Dec 26  Jack Johnson becomes the first black heavyweight boxing champion, defeating Tommy Burns in Sydney, Australia.


Jan 5  President Rafael Reyes of Colombia has signed a treaty that recognizes loss of the former province of Panama and that recognizes Panama's independence. He presents the treaty to his country's Congress but there the matter is dropped because it lacks support.

Mar 3  The US Food and Drug Administration approves the use of sodium benzoate as a preservative in foods despite a recommendation that its use be banned.

Mar 4  In his Inaugural Address President Taft promises to maintain Theodore Roosevelt's reforms. "They were," he says, "directed to the suppression of the lawlessness and abuses of power of the great combinations of capital invested in railroads and in industrial enterprises carrying on interstate commerce."

Mar 9  France's Chamber of Deputies votes 386 to 129 to enact an income tax.

Mar 10  Britain and the Kingdom of Siam (Thailand) sign a treaty that cedes the states of Kelantan, Trengganu, Perlis and Kedah, on the Malay Peninsula, to the British Empire.

Mar 24  President Taft and his Attorney General approval the language of a proposed bill to create a federal income tax.

Mar 25  Austria-Hungary has amassed troops for an invasion of Serbia. Russia has a defense treaty with Serbia. Germany wants Russia to convince Serbia to withdraw its objections to Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Russia's Tsar Nicholas doesn't want war and complies.

Mar 31  Serbia sends a message to Vienna (capital of Austria-Hungary) agreeing to the acceptance by Europe's imperial powers to the annexation and to live with the Austro-Hungarian Empire on "good neighborly terms." There will be no invasion. Franz Joseph's Imperialism has triumphed.

Apr 1  In the United States a law banning the importation of opium goes into effect.

Apr 4  In New York, William Hobby is arrested for exceeding a speed limit of 12 miles per hour and trying to elude a patrolman, who was on a bicycle.

Apr 14  In Adana province in southern Turkey, organized violence begins that into May will kill between 15,000 and 30,000 Armenians. The Armenians are Christians and more business and Western oriented and generally more wealthy than the local Muslim population. Their tractors and other mechanized equipment are destroyed along with their homes and lives.

Apr 14  British Petroleum, also to be known as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC), is founded following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran.
Apr 21  Former president Roosevelt arrives in British East Africa (Kenya) for a jolly good time shooting animals.

Apr 27  In Turkey, a fatwa describes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Abdul Hamid II as having "squandered the wealth of the country," having burned books of the Sharia and having "spilled blood and committed massacres." The Sultan is deposed by a unanimous vote in Parliament. He is succeeded by his brother, Mehmed V.

Apr 29  Acting on what it sees as its interests, to stop a constitutionalist rebellion against Iran's monarch, Russia sends troops to occupy the city of Tabriz in the far north of Iran.

Jun 13  In Colombia, financial problems and public outrage over his recognition of Panama's independence are followed by President Reyes' resignation and going into exile.

Jun 24  Germany's parliament, the Reichstag, votes 195 to187 against an inheritance tax. The tax was proposed in response to deficits caused by the expansion of Germany's navy.

Jul 5  In England, after being jailed for disturbing Parliament, suffragette Marion Wallace Dunlop has been on hunger strike that has lasted 91 hours and has attracted enough publicity that the government agrees to meet with suffrage movement leaders, after being requested to do so by King Edward VII. She is to be released from prison on July 8.

Jul 16  Iran's constitutionalists force their monarch, Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar, from his throne. He flees to Russia and is succeeded by his son, age eleven.

Jul 31  In Iran, Sheikh Fazlollah Noori is hanged for treason after resisting the country's Constitutional Revolution. He is to be proclaimed a national hero decades later by the Ayatollah Khomeini.

Aug 2  Workers in Barcelona and other cities in Catalonia have rebelled against Spain's call up of reservists to serve in Morocco, where Spain's colonial ambitions are being challenged by an indigenous revolt - the Second Rif War. A week of protests in Catalonia has included halting troop trains, overturning trams, street fighting and attacks on the Catholic Church. The rebellion is crushed. Police and army casualties are 8 dead and 124 wounded. Others killed are to be reported between 104 and 150. Five of the more than 1,700 individuals indicted in military courts for "armed rebellion" are to be sentenced to death and executed and 59 are to receive sentences of life imprisonment.

Aug 21  At Indianapolis Motor Speedway a tire on a race car explodes and the car plows into spectators, killing three. The winning speeds at the speedway are averaging a little under 60 miles per hour.

Sep 4  Japan and China sign a treaty that gives Japan the right to build railways in Manchuria. China in exchange gains recognition from Japan as the ruler of an area at the far north of Korea, territory called Gando by the Koreans.

Sep 16  Adolf Hitler, age 20, has been in Vienna for little more than a year. His savings are exhausted and he has no income. For several months he will be homeless, an experience that will make him more intense than people who have always known comfort and security.

Sep 23  A British weekly, Truth, exposes the Anglo-Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company's mistreatment of indigenous people. The company will be accused of wide spread debt bondage, slavery, torture, mutilation and other crimes. Parliament will move to tighten anti-slavery laws. The company will be forced into closure by a judge in 1913.

Oct 26  In Harbin, China, a Korean, An Jung-geun, assassinates a former prime minister of Japan, Ito Hirobumi, to protest Japan's annexation of Korea.

Nov 2  On Stevens Street in Spokane, Washington, members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) have begun a challenge to a city ordinance that prohibits speaking on the city's streets. On the first day 103 IWW members are arrested. By the end of November more than 500 people will have been locked up and the ordinance repealed. The Spokane free-speech protest will inspire similar fights for freedom of speech in other cities.

Nov 5  In Los Angeles, Federal Judge Frank Hutton rules that Arabs and other Middle Easterners are of the White race. This overturns a ruling by immigration authorities that Arabs were Asiatics to be barred under a law against the naturalization of Mongolians.

Nov 13  In Illinois, the Cherry coal mine disaster kills 247 miners and 12 rescuers.

Nov 18  The "Robin Hood of Taiwan," Liao Tianding, is killed by Japanese soldiers occupying Taiwan. Liao is considered a martyr for Taiwanese independence.

Dec 1  The US is in conflict with the Zelaya administration in Nicaragua. It considers President Zelaya to be a military dictator and has begun to support Zelaya's Liberal (but conservative) Party opponents. Executions by the Zelaya regime are followed by a diplomatic break and the landing US Marines to create a neutral zone to protect foreign lives and property. The zone will also be a base of operations for Nicaraguans hostile to the Zelaya regime.

Dec 17  President Zelaya turns power over to José Madriz and flees to Spain.

Dec 11  In Turkey, 26 are found guilty of the massacre of Armenians in Adana on April 14, and they are publicly executed.


Jan 6  In the French colony of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) people of the Abé ethnicity rebel. They attack railway stations and cut the railway line at twenty-five points. Troops will suppress the rebellion.

Jan 7  President Taft fires a Roosevelt appointee, Gifford Pinchot, head of the forest service. He had criticized Taft's Secretary of the Interior, Richard Ballinger, concerning hostility to conservation. A split within the Republican Party will be credited as causing the party's defeat in 1912.

Jan 10  Rioting erupts between Sunnis and Shi'ite students in Bukhara, in the Russian tsar's empire (today Uzbekistan). Russian troops move in to maintain order.

Feb 5  Eleven men, all but one of them Hungarian, are killed at the Jefferson Clearfield Coal Company mine at Ernest, Pennsylvania. Another 110 were able to escape.

Feb 15  Female garment workers have been roughed up on a picket line outside the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York. The strike ends without workers able to win their demand to stop management's practice of locking the workers inside during business hours.

Feb 28  The last legal bare-knuckle boxing bout in the United States occurs at Passaic, New Jersey. Leo Baker and Dave Smith fight 32 rounds with the match ending in a draw.

Mar 3 The Sultan of Morocco, Abdelhafid, permits the French to occupy Casablanca and Oujda in return for training his military and refinancing loans.

Mar 10  In China slavery has been legal for something like 3000 years, but, in keeping with a changing world, slavery is now declared illegal.

Mar 23  After eight months of fighting, Spain has crushed a rebellion in the area of northern Morocco that it considers its possession. An estimated 8,000 Berbers and 2,000 Spanish soldiers have been killed.

Apr 30  New taxes levied by Ottoman authorities on Albanians have led to another uprising against Ottoman rule. Albanian leaders demand self-government for Albania, rejected by Turkey's government. In June, Turkey's army will crush the rebellion. Populations in various regions will be disarmed and Albanian schools and publications will be shut down.

Apr 30  The Transandine Railway is under construction. It will link Chile and Argentina. The first train has passed through the 31⁄2 km tunnel straddling the border.

May 6  In England, King Edward VII dies at age 69 six days after catching a cold. The raging cold germs produced bronchitis and then pneumonia.

May 12  In England, an explosion at the Wellington Coal Mine near Manchester kills 137.

May 31  The British create Union of South Africa, the unification of four previously separate British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal Colony, Transvaal Colony and Orange River Colony. The Union of South Africa is created as a dominion of the British Empire.

Jun 12  In New York, anarchists create the Francisco Ferrer cultural center and school, a community that plans to act on issues only after discussions that result in consensus. Anyone will be free to leave or join, with no questions asked. In keeping with their anarchist philosophy, there is no declaration of principles. The association is to last into the early 1950s.

Jul 4  Russia and Japan agree on "spheres of influence" in Manchuria, where both nations are building railroads.

Jul 4  African-American boxer Jack Johnson defeats American boxer James J. Jeffries in a heavyweight boxing match, sparking race riots across the United States.

Jul 11 In the US, enforcement of the Pure Food and Drug Act continues. US marshals seize 4.5 million ice cream cones from a warehouse because of contamination with boric acid.

Aug 20  In Nicaragua, President José Madriz resigns under pressure from the United States, which is still supporting its ally, the rebel conservative Liberal Party. Madriz is going into exile. The US will call for a constituent assembly in Nicaragua to write a constitution, and the vacant presidency will be filled by a series of politicians friendly to the US occupation.

Aug 22  With no objection from Russia, the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty is signed. Korea's prime minister signs on behalf of Korea's monarch. The annexation will take effect in seven days, the 29th. Korea will become a Japanese colony with the name of Chosen. Japanese will run the entire government in Korea. Japan's government will declare the absorption of members of Korea's royal Yi family into Japan's royal peerage.

Aug 25  Kaiser Wilhelm II, a devout Lutheran, in a speech in Königsberg affirms his belief in the divine right of kings. He says that his grandfather received the Prussian crown "by God's grace alone and not by parliaments, assemblages of the people, or resolutions of the people."

Sep 1  The Vatican introduces a compulsory oath against modernism, to be taken by all priests upon ordination. The requirement will be mandatory until 1967.

Sep 2  The strike of 70,000 of New York's garment workers ends after nine weeks. Garment manufacturers will now be required to have a union shop and to guarantee a 50-hour work week - 9 hours per day for five days and a 5-hour day on the 6th day.

Sep 7  At The Hague in the Netherlands, the International Court of Justice resolves a 25-year fisheries conflict that had the United States against Britain, Canada and Newfoundland.

Oct 1  The Los Angeles Times is anti-union. Its building is bombed at one in the morning. Twenty-one employees are killed.

Oct 3  In Portugal a group of republicans led by Machado Santos begins a revolt that will be supported by several army units of the Lisbon garrison. The rebellion will be joined by a large segment of the population and by the sailors of the cruisers São Raphael and Adamastor. King Manuel II flees to England.

Oct 5  Portugal is declared a republic.

Oct 12  In New York, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research opens its first hospital, with 75 beds.

Oct 18  Islanders on Ponape revolt after a German overseer strikes a road worker with a whip. They kill the German governor, Gustav Boeder, and other colonial officials.

Oct 29  This year In Palestine, ten young Jewish men and two young Jewish women established the first kibbutz, at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee near the Arab village of Umm Juni.

Nov 1  Tsar Nicholas II agrees to extending the area in which Jews may reside.

Nov 4  Tsar Nicholas arrives in at the royal palace in Potsdam, just outside Berlin, as the guest of his cousin "Willy"- Kaiser Wilhelm II. They agree where to divide their spheres of influence in Iran.

Nov 5  In London, the paintings of Paul Cézanne, Henri Matisse, Paul Gaugin and Vincent van Gogh, on display at the Grafton Gallery, elicit a comparison of Post-Impressionism with anarchism.

Nov 7  In Ohio, the first air flight for the purpose of delivering commercial freight takes place, between Dayton and Columbus.

Nov 20  Francisco Madero proclaims Mexico's presidential elections null and void and calls for an armed revolution against President Porfirio Díaz.

Nov 26  A fire at a building in Newark, New Jersey, housing several factories, kills 24 women and girls employed by the Wolf Muslin Undergarment Company.

Dec 12 In silent films, actors have teen using language to be described as vile and profane. In Cleveland, Ohio, a deaf education teacher files a complaint with the film censorship bureau.

Dec 13  Levi R. Lupton, an internationally renowned Pentecostal leader who was celebrated by his followers as the "20th Century Apostle of the Gift of Tongues," admits to adultery in a letter to his "sisters" and "brothers" within the movement. He had let his emotions run and described himself as having "been sorely tempted and fallen." His wife, he claims, has forgiven him.

Dec 21  In England, near Bolton, an explosion kills 360 coal miners: the Pretoria Pit Disaster.

Dec 25  A form of pneumonic plague has been spreading in Manchuria since November. It will continue into March and will have killed more than 40,000.

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