Century 20 3rd Decade
20 th Century 1921-1930 AD


Jan 21  John D. Rockefeller pledges $1,000,000 as relief for Europe's destitute.

Feb 12  Lenin has given his consent to move against rule in Georgia by his old opponents within the socialist movement, the Social Democrats (Mensheviks). The Republic of Georgia is invaded by the Red Army.

Feb 20  Backed by the British, who are afraid of Bolshevik expansion, a soldier in Iran, Riza Khan Pahlevi, marches into Tehran with 2,500 soldiers and takes control of the government. Iran's corrupt and ineffectual Qajar dynasty is abolished. In 1926, Riza Khan Pahlevi is to be coronated King of Kings (Shahenshah).

Feb 21  Benito Mussolini joins his Fascist militia to Italy's regular army.

Feb 25  The Red Army enters the Georgian capital Tbilisi and installs a Moscow-directed government.

Mar 4  Warren G. Harding is inaugurated as the 29th President of the United States. Liberty and civilization were threatened he says, but "we find them both now secure." He looks forward to America's new era of Republican domination of the presidency and congress: "The forward course of the business cycle is unmistakable. ... I know that Congress and the Administration will favor every wise Government policy to aid the resumption and encourage continued progress."

Mar 7  Hardship and Bolshevik authoritarianism is accompanied by rebellion among the sailors at Russia's Kronstadt naval base. The sailors call for "real Soviet power." After several days of fighting the Red Army will crush the rebellion and chase surviving rebels across the border into Finland.

Mar 13  A counter-revolutionary Russian army captures Mongolia from China. Its leader, Baron Roman Nikolai Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg, age 35, declares himself Mongolia's ruler.

Mar 16  The Soviets have decided to pursue trade opportunities with the Western powers. A trade agreement is concluded with Britain.

Mar 18  The Bolsheviks want an end to the Polish-Soviet War. They sign the Treaty of Riga, a settlement favorable to the Poles that puts many Ukrainians and Byelorussians inside Poland. The treaty is to be undone following the Hitler-Stalin Pact.

Mar 18  The Mongolian military leader Damdiny Sükhbaatar, fighting on behalf of Mongolia's People's Part and heavily outnumbered, defeats a Chinese force inside Mongolia. Into the 21st century this day is to be a holiday in Mongolia..

Mar 21  For Lenin the Kronstadt rebellion is a sign of the need to ease up wartime government authoritarianism. He begins what is called the New Economic Policy. Lenin allows some free Markets to reappear and small-scale capitalist industries to function. The Soviet government stops forced confiscations of grain and allows peasants to sell their surplus grain on the opened market.

Mar 23  A plebiscite in Silesia votes for re-annexation to Germany.

Mar 31  Abkhazia (in the Caucasus region) becomes an autonomous republic within the Soviet Union.

Apr 1  Abdullah, a member of the Hashimite family, brother of Faisal, becomes Emir of Transjordan.

Apr 11  Iowa becomes the first state to impose a cigarette tax.

Apr 14  In Britain, labour unions for mining, railway and transportation workers call for a strike; the government threatens to call in the army.

May 1  In Palestine, fighting breaks out between rival Jewish socialist groups commemorating May Day (one of them belonging to a communist party). Arabs hear of the fighting and assume Arabs are being attacked. Within a week, in what will be known as the Jaffa Riots, 47 Jews and 48 Arabs will be killed. In the wake of the Jaffa Riot, Tel Aviv will become a separate city, the first all Jewish municipality.

May 2  Poles in Silesia (an industrial area surrounded by Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia) rise again against German rule. They want to be a part of the new Polish republic. Uncertainty has reigns among the Allies, France siding with the Poles and Britain and Italy siding with the German claim that they could not pay war reparations if they were to lose their Silesian industries. The crisis will last to July. Silesia will be divided between Germany and Poland. German-Polish hostility increases.

May 23  War crimes trials commissioned by the Allies of World War I against Germans begins In Leipzig. Nine German veterans are tried. Outside Germany the trials will be viewed as a travesty. In 1922 the trials will be quietly abandoned.

May 31  Tulsa has white migrants from the South. A prosperous black community exists in the Greenwood district in Tulsa. An incident escalates into an assault by whites into the Greenwood area. Businesses will be set afire. There will be 39 official deaths and more than 800 wounded.

Jun 30  The death penalty for all crimes in peacetime is abolished in Sweden.

Jul 1  The Communist Party of China is officially founded in Shanghai by a young librarian, Mao Zedung.

Jul 1  The Rif War (1920-26) is underway. In north-eastern Morocco, Abd el-Krim's fighters present the Spanish with what will be known as the disaster of Annua. Of some 20,000 Spanish troops an estimated 8,000 are killed or disappear.

July 11  The Irish War of Independence (since January 1919) comes to an end when a truce is signed between the British Government and Irish forces.

Jul 11  Mongolian nationalists have asked for Red Army support against anti-Communist (White) Russian troops. A combined Red Army Mongolian force has defeated Baron Ungern von Sternberg's forces. The Mongolian People's Party acquires political power. The country's Buddhist spiritual leader and monarch, Bogd Kahn, remains as a figurehead.

Faisal I, King of Iraq
Faisal I, King of Iraq, formerly King of Syria, for three months in 1920. (Played by Alec Guiness in Lawrence of Arabia.)
 He had wanted unity between Sunnit and Shiite in an Arab state that would include Syria, Iraq and the rest of the
 Fertile Crescent. But France and Britain had more control in what had been part of the Ottoman Empire.

Jul 13  Famine in raging in Russia's Volga-Urals region. Russia population this year will fall 3.8 percent. There will be reports of cannibalism. The writer Maxim Gorky publishes an appeal "to all honorable people" in the world for food and medicine.

Jul 28  Adolf Hitler becomes chairman of the National Socialist German Workers' Party.

Aug 9  Albanian forces occupy Yugoslav territory, starting a war to last into November.

Aug 21  After three weeks of difficult negotiations, the Soviet Union agrees to allow the American Relief Administration to function with some independence. Participants will include Herbert Hoover's American Relief Administration, the American Friends Service Committee and the International Save the Children Union. The first feeding center will open in October.

Aug 23  Faisal, a brother of Abdullah I of TransJordan and an ally with Britain against the Turks during World War I, is installed by the British as King of Iraq. He is crowned in Baghdad.

Aug 26  Matthias Erzberger, an influential centrist Catholic politician, who signed the armistice with the Allies, is hated by German rightists. He is shot while on vacation. His assassins return to Munich and are given false passports by the Bavarian Police.

Sep 2  At the Battle of Blair Mountain in West Virginia an army of 10 to 15 thousand miners and their families face a private army of some 2,000 men and 2,100 state and federal troops. The fledgling US Air Force drops a few bombs as a demonstration meant to overawe the labor organizers. The death toll from the battle will be estimated as fewer than 20 and more than 50.

Sep 3  In Horton Bay, Michigan, Ernest Hemingway (age 22) marries Hadley Richardson, a wealthy debutante 8 years his senior.

Sep 16  The Greek army, favored by Turkey's World War I enemies have been advancing, spreading their forces thin and extending their supply lines. Kemal Ataturk checks the Greek advance at the 23-day Battle of Sakarya, which began on August 24. The morale of the Turkish nation soars at Kemal's victory, adding to Kemal's strength.

Oct 1  An agreement concluded between the Soviet and the Norwegian governments that regulates their relations, signed on September 2, goes into effect. The Communist Party no longer faces an acute military threat to its existence. The civil war in effect is over. Russia is exhausted and its Great Famine continues, to last into the spring of 1922.

Nov 9  In Italy, a paramilitary group declares itself a political party: the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascist). The party's leader (El Duce) is Benito Mussolini.

Nov 18  The war between Albania and Yugoslvia that began on August 9 is resolved by a League of Nations conference that has defined the border between these two powers.

Dec 6  British and Irish representatives sign a treaty in London formally ending the Irish War of Independence. The treaty provides for the creation of the Irish Free State. According to the treaty, Ireland is to be a self-governing dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations (a new term to replace the British Empire). Six counties in north-east Ireland will have the option of withdrawing from the Irish Free State within one month of the Treaty coming into effect one year hence.

Dec 21  The US Supreme Court rules labor injunctions and picketing unconstitutional.

Dec 23  President Harding commutes the ten-year prison sentence of the socialist and former presidential candidate Eugene Debs, who has been in prison for the last four years for an anti-war speech he had made in 1918. Harding disturbs some anti-Communists by inviting Debs to the White House, where he shakes Debs' hand and says that he

Ernest Hemingway's 1923 passport
Ernest Hemingway's 1923 passport photo, the year he turns 24. He was sobered as an ambulance driver during World War I.
Hemingway and his wife have been in Paris since December last year, in a small apartment with no running water. By chance in February
he runs into the American poet Ezra Pound at a book store. Both believe in writing that is clear, precise and economical.
They become friends. Hemingway writes an article for the Toronto Daily Star, published on March 25, about the "scum of Greenwich Village,
 New York" who hang out in Paris and condemn the work of artists who have gained any degree of recognition.

Jan  The year begins with the British Empire at its greatest extent, covering one-fifth of the world's population.

Jan 7  The Anglo-Irish treaty, signed in December, is ratified by Ireland's parliament, 64 to 57 votes.

Jan 12  The British government releases the remaining Irish prisoners captured in the War of Independence.

Jan 26  Italian forces occupy Misrata in Libya, beginning a reconquest of Libya. With tanks and aerial bombardment, Italian forces will move deeper into Libya's interior, beginning an eight-year war.

Feb 6  The Washington Naval Treaty is signed by United States, Britain, Japan, France and Italy. Its purpose is to prevent a naval arms race. Japanese nationalist-imperialists are outraged. Japan's Chief of the Naval Board, Commander Kato Kanji, claims that a war between the US and Japan has begun. Among Japan's imperialists the view of Britain as a potential enemy is enhanced.

Feb 8  President of the United States Warren G. Harding introduces the first radio in the White House.

Feb 11  "April Showers" sung by Al Jolson leads in music popularity in the US.

Feb 28  Britain unilaterally declares Egypt a sovereign state. Egypt is no longer considered a British protectorate. Egypt's ruler, Anglo-friendly Sultan Faud, will declare himself "King" on March 15. The British are to continue controlling Egypt's foreign relations, communications and military matters and to continue control over the Sudan - considered a part of Egypt. British troops will continue to be stationed in Egypt.

Mar 3  Mussolini's fascists occupy Fiume (on the north eastern Adriatic coast and belonging to Hungary until the end of World War I). The occupation is an appeal to Italian patriotism and in the weeks ahead will be backed by regular Italian troops.

Mar 11  Mohandas Gandhi is arrested in Bombay for sedition because of two articles he has written in his paper "Young India" promoting boycotts and civil disobedience. He is to be given a six-year sentence on March 22.

Mar 14  In British ruled Kenya, Harry Thuku (1895-1970), an English speaking Kikuyu, former newspaper typesetter and telegrapher and pioneer of modern African nationalism, has been arrested and imprisoned. Two days later outside a police station, colonial police clash with as many as 8,000 of his followers. Twenty-one are reported killed. Thuku is exiled to today is Somalia.

Apr 3  Communist Party leadership chooses their comrade Joseph Stalin as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union's Communist Party, a position that Lenin wanted created, with the recommendation that it be filled by Stalin.

Apr 7  The United States Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall gives leases to drill at the Teapot Dome naval oil reserves in Wyoming to two of his friends, oilmen Harry F. Sinclair (Mammoth Oil Corporation) and Edward L. Doheny (Pan-American Petroleum and Transport Company), without open bidding.

Apr 16  The Treaty of Rapallo marks a rapprochement between the Germany's Weimar Republic and Bolshevik Russia. Each renounces all territorial and financial claims against the other. They agree to normalise their diplomatic relations and to co-operate in meeting the economic needs of both countries.

May  Hostility toward Jews has been on the rise in the United States. This month the President of Harvard University, A.L. Lowell, advocates restricting Jewish applicants to his university. If higher Jewish enrollment provokes greater prejudice against Jews, he asks, "How can we cause the Jews to feel and be regarded as an integral part of the student body?"

May 19  The 39-day conference at Geneva ends with the 34 participating countries failing to establish an agreement that would improve the economic catastrophe created by the Versailles Peace Treaty of 1919.

May 26  Lenin suffers his first stroke.

Jun 28  In Northern Ireland, members of the Irish Republican Army have been responsible for numerous murders, bombings, shootings and incendiary fires. They oppose the Anglo-Irish Treaty signed in December. They don't want a settlement that compromises the independence of a unified Ireland. Today Ireland's civil war begins in Ireland's capital, Dublin, when Ireland's government (which made the treaty with Britain) using artillery loaned by the British, begins to bombard the Irish Republican Army forces occupying government buildings. The fighting in Dublin will last until July 5. The civil war will extend well into 1923.
Jul  This month, 563 German marks will buy one US dollar, almost double the 263 needed eight months ago and dwarfing the 12 marks in April 1929. The inflation had begun as a way to pay for the nation's war effort. British and French economic "experts" are claiming that Germany is destroying its economy with the purpose of avoiding reparations. Others find fault with inadequate German government intervention or German bankers and foreign investors finding wealth enhancing opportunities. In August it will take 1000 marks for one US dollar.

Jul 20  What had been German rule in Togoland (in West Africa) is divided into League of Nations mandates of French Togoland and British Togoland.

Jul 15  In Japan a small Communist Party sf founded. It's an underground (secret) organization. But the government is aware of it and outlaws it under its Peace Preservation Law. It would be the only political party in Japan to opposed Japan's involvement in World War II.

Jul 31  In Italy, an attempt at a show of force by the Socialist Party and Railwaymen's Union produces their call for a general strike. The strike will give the fascist leader Benito Mussolini renewed opportunity to posture as Italy's savior.

Aug  This month, the presidents of Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador will meet on the USS. Tacoma in the Gulf of Fonseca (where these three countries meet). The United States has economic interests in the region, and the presidents will pledge to prevent their territories from being used to promote revolutions.

Aug  This month The Chamber of Commerce in Sharon Connecticut is distributing leaflets urging property owners not to sell to Jews.

Aug 7  At the Waterville landing station in southwestern Ireland, the Irish Republican Army cuts the Atlantic cable link between the United States and Europe. This will serve nobody's interests.

Aug 22  Michael Collins, the hero of Ireland's war of independence, is killed in an ambush by an IRA force.

Aug 26  The last battle of the Greco-Turkish war begins, the Battle of Dumlupinar, to end September 9. The Turks are to suffer 2,318 killed, the Greeks nearly an equal number.

Aug 27  A large-scale attack by Turkish forces opens in mountainous Afyon Province, in central Turkey, which has been occupied by French, Italian and Greek forces since the end of World War I.

Aug 28  Diplomatic pressure by the United States and Great Britain on Japan, plus increasing domestic Japanese opposition due to the economic and human costs, results in the administration of Prime Minister Kato Tomosaburo agreeing to withdraw its troops from Siberia. Japanese casualties from its Siberian Expedition included some 5,000 dead from combat or illness and expenses in excess of 900 million yen.

Sep 9  Turkish forces pursuing withdrawing Greek troops enter the city of Izmir (Smyrna) on the Aegean coast, effectively ending Turkey war with Greece which began in 1919.

Sep 11  Britain's Mandate of Palestine is approved by the Council of the League of Nations. The mandate makes legal Britain's administration of territory, including Jerusalem, that had been a part of the Ottoman Empire.

Sep 14  Greece's army has been pushed bact to Smyrna. The Great Fire of Smyrna rages. The Greeks are forced to evacuate that city on Greek ships under the supervision of Allied destroyers.

Sep 18  Hungary, what is left of it after the Treaty of Trianon, joins the League of Nations.

Rome with medals proudly displayed
Fascists marching to Rome with medals proudly displayed.

 Mussolini is second from the left, wearing a sash.

Marching toward Rome
Marching toward Rome to put Italy right. The Fascists have adopted the mass
movement tactics of the socialist left, where Benito (named after Mexico's Juarez)

Mussolini identified himself
Mussolini identified himself before the "glory" of World War I.

Oct  This month 3,000 German marks will equal one US dollar.

Oct 1  George Ivanovich Gurdjieff opens his Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man, at Fontainebleau in France. Gurdjieff is a mystic who endeavors to take humanity to a higher state of consciousness and achievement. He claims to have learned his wisdom while traveling and studying in Central Asia. Signs of success in harmony in societies in Central Asia did not exist. Nor would success in harmony be forthcoming in Europe. He will attract admirers, and his success will be in accumulating wealth.

Oct 18  The British Broadcasting Company is formed. It is owned by the British General Post Office and six telecommunications companies.

Oct 22  The fascist's seven-day march on Rome begins. It will be described as having fewer than 30,000 participants. It is led by bemedaled men expressing the machismo involvement in war.

Oct 28  Mussolini has the support of Italy's military, business class and rightists. Prime Minister Luigi Facta is prepared to stop the fascist insurrection and arrest its leaders. He has a state of emergency drawn up for this, but King Emmanual III (barely five feet tall) refuses to sign it. Instead he chooses Mussolini as Prime Minister. Mussolini will form a cabinet of fascists and rightwing nationalists.

Nov 1  In Turkey, the Ottoman Empire's Sultan Mehmed VI abdicates, clearing the way for the creation of Turkey as a republic. On the 17th he will leave for exile in Italy.

Nov 4  In the United States the Postmaster General orders all homes to have a mailbox. Those preferring not to take orders from the government are free not to have a mailbox, but they will have to relinquish delivery of mail.

Nov 19  His cousin Sultan Mehmed VI having abdicated, Abdul Mejid II, an avid collector of butterflies, carries on the tradition of rule be accident of birth. He becomes Islam's Commander of the Faithful on Earth (caliph).

Nov 24  Italy's parliament gives Mussolini dictatorial powers for one year.

Dec 6  The treaty creating the Irish Free State, signed in London on this day in 1921, becomes official.

Dec 7  Parliament for the six counties in north-east Ireland takes the option accorded them in the Treaty of London (signed on December 6, 1921) to remain associated with the United Kingdom, making them apart from the Irish Free State.

Dec 11 Independence for Poland, previously ruled by tsarist Russia, has been taking shape following World War I. Poles have been returning. Today one of them, Gabriel Narutowicz, a professor of hydroelectric engineering, who returned from Switzerland in 1920, takes the oath of office as Poland's first president.

Dec 16  In Poland, Eligiusz Niewiadomski, a fervent rightwing nationalist who had fought for Poland's independence, a modernist painter and art critic, assassinates President Gabriel Narutowicz with a handgun. Rightists were complaining that the president's election had come with the support of Reds (communists), Jews and Germans. The assassination accomplishes nothing for the rightists. The new president will be Stanislaw Wojciechowski, a scientist.

Dec 30  Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and the Transcaucasia come together to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It consists of peoples who had been within the tsarist empire. This includes the republics of Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine. The Bolsheviks (Communists) ruling what was now the USSR are ideologically anti-empire, and they consider the republics equal participants in the union.

Jan 2  In Florida a white woman fearful of being caught in an affair has falsely claimed that she was raped and beaten by a black man. The local Ku Klux Klan takes action and attacks the residential town of 120 black people: Rosewood. At least eight people in Rosewood are killed. The town is burned to the ground and abandoned.

Jan 4  In New York City a psychologist and pharmicist from France, Emile Coué, proclaims that positive thinking can cure diseases. He recommends chanting "every day, in every way, I'm getting better and better." He believes in the efficacy of medicines but also in will power. He will die in 1926. Whether he died chanting is unknown.

Jan 10  Poland and Lithuania have recently regained their independence and have conducted territorial war against each other. Both have claimed the region around the city of Vilnius, which has a mixed population. Polish occupational forces there have been deeply resented by Lithuanians. Unfruitful negotiations have taken place in the League of Nations, and today Poland annexes the area.

Jan 11  Germany has been defaulting on its reparation payments in coal to France. Britain favors limits on reparations from Germany for the sake of reconstruction and economic growth for everybody. France has been taking a hard line, and France's President Raymond Poincaré has decided to occupy Germany's Ruhr, the center of Germany's coal and steel production, to force coal deliveries to France. Germany responds with passive resistance, The orator Adolf Hitler will feed off outrage among the Germans. His political party, or movement, will be growing rapidly. A police report to be issued in the summer of will estimate that the party rose from 6,000 to 35,000 in Munich alone, and to approximately 50,000 in all of Bavaria.

Jan 24  The United States withdraws the last of its troops from Germany, from the Rhine, vacating the Ehrenbreitstein Fortress, which is promptly occupied by the French.

Feb 2  Britain's Air Commodore Charlton takes up the post of Chief Staff Officer at the headquarters of the RAF's Iraq Command. Within a year he will resign in opposition to the bombing of Iraqi villages.

Feb 16  Bessie Smith (1898-1937) makes her first recording, "Down Hearted Blues."

Mar 2  In Italy, Mussolini says that women have a right to vote, but he declares that the time is not right for it.

Mar 3  The US Senate rejects having the US as a member of the International Court of Justice.

Mar 5  Montana and Nevada pass the first old age pension grants in the US, grants of $25 per month, $333 in 2012 dollars..

Mar 9  Vladimir Lenin suffers his third stroke, which renders him bedridden and unable to speak. He will now be retired from his position as Chairman of the Soviet government.

Mar 31  In New York City, the first US dance marathon ends. Alma Cummings (age 32) sets a world record of 27 hours on her feet. Six younger male partners helped her.

Mar 31  In the Ruhr, French soldiers fire on workers at the Krupp factory. Thirteen die.

Apr 6  Louis Armstrong makes his first recording, "Chimes Blues," with King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band.

May 24  In Ireland, Irish Republican Army (IRA) fighters, who oppose the 1921 treaty with Britain, have been told by their leader, Frank Aiken, to "dump arms" and return home. They are told that "further sacrifice on your part would be in vain." The Irish Civil War ends.

May 15  Britain convinces the Abullah, second son of the Hashimite Emir of Mecca, not to attack the French. Abdullah agrees. Britain rewards him with rule in the area to be called the Transjordan. On this day, Britain recognizes Transjordan as a state.

May 27  in Bavaria, Heinz Alfred Kissinger is born.

Jun 9  Prime Minister Aleksandar Stamboliyskii has signed the Treaty of Niš with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes – to correct instabilities created by World War I. Today, Stamboliyski and his government are overthrown by right wing factions of the Military League, the National Alliance and the army, with Aleksandar Tsankov, a Professor of Political Economy, as leader. He becomes Prime Minister. In five days, Stamolisyski will be arrested, brutally tortured, his hand that signed the treaty cut off, and his head sent to Bulgaria's capital, Sophia, in a box of biscuits.

Jun 9  In the US, Brinks unveiled its first armored security vans.

Jul 20  Pancho Villa is assassinated at Hidalgo de Parral, Chihuahua, by a team of gunmen waiting for him while he is driving his Dodge roadster home from the bank.

Jul 24  The Treaty of Lausanne is signed. It officially ends the war between Turkey and Allies (Britain, France, et cetera). It defines the borders of the modern Turkish state except for its border with Iraq. Turkey gives up all claims to the empire beyond these borders, bringing an end to the Ottoman Empire after 624 years.

Jun 28  Pope Pius XI criticizes the French for their occupation of the Ruhr. He sees international relations as having grown worse.

Jul 31  Inflation in Germany has seen the number of marks needed to purchase a single American dollar reach 353,000 – more than 200 times the amount needed at the start of the year. With Germany's industries idle, scarcity has added to the increase in inflation, and Germany is printing money to pay its bills and to give to people out of work.

Aug 2  Warren Harding dies of a heart attack. Vice President Calvin Coolidge becomes President.

Aug 13  Gustav Stresemann is named Chancellor of Germany.

Aug 17  Britain has been uneasy about Japanese imperialism. Today the Anglo-Japanese Alliance is officially terminated, a step in the direction of war in 1941.
Aug 25  In Britain a ten-man committee headed by a conservative Member of Parliament, Sir Frederick Sykes Sykes, rejects advertising for the BBC, believing it would lower standards. The committee recommends a 10 shillings licence fee to fund broadcasts.

Aug 27  In Ireland a general election goes to the political party that has favored the 1921 treaty with Britain – the Cumann na nGaedheal. It has won 63 seats in parliament. The party opposed to the treaty, Sinn Féin, wins 44 seats. Political Power in the Irish Free State will remain with the Cumann na nGaedheal and its leader, WT Cosgrave.

Aug 27  An Italian general and three of his assistants are assassinated by unknown assailants in Kakavia, on the border between Albania and Greece. In two days Mussolini sends an ultimatum to Greece demanding reparations. None is received and on the 31st Italy bombs and occupies the Greek island of Corfu, killing at least fifteen civilians.

Sep 1  An earthquake – 7.9 on the Richter scale – hits Tokyo and surrounding areas. Rampaging flames follow that destroy 694,000 homes. Unfed homeless people roam the city. They include people of Korean descent. Pacts of Japanese attack and murder the Koreans – men, women and children – wherever they can find them. Some Chinese are also slaughtered. Police with a conservative and national security orientation take advantage of the quake and fires to strike against people with dangerous ideas. Police swoop down on hundreds of labor leaders and known socialists, communists and anarchists.

Sep 10  Ireland joins the League of Nations.

Sep 13  An aristocratic military officer, Miguel Primo de Rivera, has the support of Spain's king, Alfonso XIII, and the army. He takes power in a military coup, overthrowing the Liberal Party's somewhat progressive Prime Minister Manuel García-Prieto. Many in Spain who are not a part of the labor movement are tired of turmoil and economic problems and look for a strong leader to produce clarity and order. Primo de Rivera promises to eliminate corruption and to regenerate Spain and to serve only ninety days. He sets up a dictatorship, bans trade unions, censors the press and stays in power for years.    His government will also do a lot of investing in infrastructure. Barcelona will have its Metro in 1924. By 1930, Spain will have Europe's best network of automobile roads.

Sep 20  In Bulgaria, the Communist Party allied with the Agrarian Patry and others rise against the illegal rightists government led by Alexander Tsankov. Tsankov does not have popular support but he has the military. He crushes the uprising quickly with outrages against populations in regions that have revolted against him, with particularly large atrocities around the town of Ferdinand. Communists and Agrarians are massacred, including some not taking part in the uprising. Casualties among the civil population will amount to more than 25,000.

Sep 26  Germany's Chancellor Stresemann announces the end of passive resistance against the French occupation of the Ruhr. He argues that there was no other way to get hyperinflation under control. This provokes hostility toward him from the extreme right. The government In Bavaria declares a state of emergency and installs a dictatorship led by Ritter von Kahr. Von Kahr wants to imitate Mussolini's march on Rome. In collaboration with Hitler's followers he plans a march on Berlin to install a dictatorship at the national level.

Sep 27  Greece has appealed to the League of Nations regarding Italy's occupation of Corfu. Italy and Greece have agreed to be bound by the decision of the League's Conference of Ambassadors. The Conference orders Greece to apologise and pay reparations. Greece accepts, and today Italian forces leave Corfu.

Oct 23  Unrest rising from France's occupation of the Ruhr continues. The Communist Party in Hamburg (around14,000 members) doesn't have the votes to win power in Hamburg, but it moves to overthrow Hamburg's government. They attack twenty-four police stations in and near the city. In some areas street barricades are built. Most of the uprising is quelled within a few hours, but street fighting continues into the next day. The uprising adds to the antagonism between Germany's Communists and Social Democrats, who a decade later might have benefitted from unity against the political Right and Hitler. The uprising alarms Germany's middle class and helps give credence to claims from Hitler concerning a communist menace. Stalin has been urging restraint by Germany's Communists. His rival in Moscow, Trotsky, is eager for armed revolution.

Oct 25  A United States Senate Subcommittee reveals what will become known as the Teapot Dome scandal. It's about corruption regarding oil reserves. Albert B. Fall, former Secretary of the Interior in the Harding administration, will be found guilty of conspiracy and bribery and will serve one year in prison.

Oct 29  An African-American show called "Runin' Wild" introduces the Charleston, a dance seen by whites as cheerfully impudent.

Nov This month the Social Democratic Labour Party of Norway withdraws from the Comintern (Communist International). A minority of its membership forms the Communist Party of Norway and stays associated with the Comintern. The Social Democrats are on their way to becoming a dominant political party, describing its policies as in the interest of working people. The Communist Party will be described as playing "an important role in the resistance to German occupation during the Second World." Then it will decline.

Nov 8  In Munich, Adolf Hitler leads his followers in an unsuccessful attempt to take charge of the Bavarian dictatorship and planned coup for Berlin. The Munich coup will be known at the Beer Hall Putch. Hitler has as an ally the former general and war leader Erich Ludendorff.

Nov 9  Police and army forces crush the Hilter-Ludendorff coup attempt. Four policemen and fourteen of Hitler's supporters – mostly youths – have died. Hitler has promised to shoot himself if his coup failed, but he reconsiders. In two days Hitler will be arrested. Hitler will stand trial. Ludendorff, considered a millitary hero, will not.

Nov 15  Inflation in Germany peaks. One United States dollar is worth 4,200,000,000,000 marks.

Nov 23  Germany's Social Democrats are upset with Chancellor Gustav Stresemann. Stresemann's coalition government ends. After three months as chancellor, Stresemann resigns. Wilhelm Marx of the Centre Party becomes chancellor, with Stresemann hanging on as Foreign Minister.

Dec 21  Nepal's status changes from a British protectorate to an independent naton.

Dec 31  The Sahara desert is traversed by an automobile.

Dec 31  Norway's Labour Party, founded in 1887, has been a member of the Comintern (Communist International) since 1918. This year it leaves the Comintern and establishes its identity more clearly as Social Democratic. A minority of its members leave the party and form the Communist Party of Norway.

Dec 31  This year, North Dakota has outlawed dancing on Sundays.

Jan 21  Vladimir Lenin, age 53, has been mute and bedridden since March last year. Today he dies.

Jan 23  Russia changes Petrograd to Leningrad.

Jan 23  Lenin is moved from Petrograd to Moscow. Mourners gather at every station along the way. His body will be put on display at the House of Trade Unions, and in the coming days a million mourners from across the Soviet Union will wait in line for hours in the freezing cold.

Jan 25  The French government signs a treaty of mutual aid with Czechoslovakia regarding the possibility of an unprovoked attack by a third country, i.e. Germany.

Jan 27  Lenin's body is put in a wooden tomb by the Kremlin Wall in Moscow's Red Square. A granite Mausoleum will soon be built, in which Lenin's head and hands will be visible to visitors.

Jan 31  A constitution is ratified by the Congress of Soviets. It is a treaty that embodies separate nations – Belorussian, Ukrainian, Transcaucasian – into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Feb 1  The new British labour government, led by Ramsey McDonald, recognizes the Soviet Union.

Feb 2  The Turkish National Assembly formally abolishes the caliphate that for more than four centuries had been claimed by sultans of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire ends. The caliphate's authority and properties are transferred to Turkey's Grand National Assembly.

Feb  3  Woodrow Wilson dies peacefully after a long illness. A former opponent in politics, Republican President Calvin Coolidge, and Mrs Coolidge, express their condolences and will attend the funeral.

Feb 7  Prime Minister Mussolini's government recognizes the Soviet Union.

Feb 24  After servicing less than two years of a six year sentence for sedition, the British release Mohandas Gandhi from prison due to ill-health following surgery to treat his appendicitis. Gandhi wants to avoid political action and focus on writing about improvements for India.

Mar 8  At the coal mine near Castle Gate Utah, an employee investigating gas near the roof of the mine attempts to relight his lamp with a match which ignites the gas and coal dust, setting off an explosion powerful enough to launch a mining car, telephone poles, and other equipment nearly a mile from the entrance to the mine. The steel gates of the mine are ripped from their concrete foundations. Recovery of the bodies will take nine days. All 171 miners, ages 15 to 73, die. Most (126) are immigrants: 50 native-born Greeks, 25 Italians, 32 English or Scots, 12 Welsh, 4 Japanese, and 3 Austrian or Southern Slav.

Mar 9  Squabbling over the Adriatic port city of Fiume (today Rijeka and a part of Croatia) has had some resolution. A city of mostly Italians (24,000 in 1910) but also Hungarians, Croatians and others has been settled by diplomats and their Treaty of Rome, giving the city to Italy. Today, Italy annexes it.

Mar 15  A presidential election is won by Horacio Vásquez Lajara, an American ally. With his inauguration in July the United States will end its eight-year occupation of his country, the Dominican Republic.

Mar 25  Greece proclaims itself a republic. Greece's king has been George II, 33, the grandson of a Dane, George I (r. 1863-1913) and the son of Sophia of Prussia. Parliament asked His Majesty to leave Greece so the nation could decide what form of government it should adopt, and George II did so late last year, to his wife's home country, Romania, but he refused to abdicate. A referendum on April 13 will express the public's desire to have a republic rather than a monarchy.

Apr 1  Adolf Hitler is sentenced to 5 years in jail for his participation in an attempt with General Ludendorff to take power in Munich, late last year. Hitler had promised to shoot himself if his coup failed – mere bombast. Ludendorff, seen as a military hero, has not been charged or tried. Germany's judiciary is conservative and has great respect for its veteran generals. Hitler was a mere corporal.

Apr 27  A group of Alawites kill several nuns in Syria. French troops retaliate and kill Alawites.

April 28  The Benwood Mine Disaster in West Virginia kills 119 men. Another coal mine has exploded. The majority of the miners killed are recent immigrants from Poland, Italy, Greece, Croatia, Serbia, Hungary, Austria, Russia, the Ukraine and Lithuania.

May 31 Lenin's widow has mailed his testament to the Communist Party's Central Committee. Contrary to Lenin's wishes before his final stroke, a Party Congress ends without the document having been read to the delegates. The document is critical of Stalin and his allies Kamenev and Zinoviev. These three, the most influential members of the Party, are protecting their status in the Party by keeping the document secret. It will be published in 1925 in the United States by Max Eastman, an admirer of Stalin's rival, Leon Trotsky.

May 24  President Coolidge signs into law the Immigration Act of 1924. It includes the Asian Exclusion Act which bars immigration from Japan, China, the Philippines, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Singapore, Burma, Malaya, India and elsewhere in Asia. In Japan, anti-American rises. Some newspapers in Japan denounce the law as an "insult" or "a slap in the face." Japan lodges a formal protest through its embassy in Washington and declares May 26, the effective date of the legislation, a day of national humiliation.

Jun 2  Coolidge signs a bill making all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States citizens of the United States. Accompanying this act is the Revenue Act of 1924.

Jun 10  Mussolini's Fascists kidnap and kill Italian socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti. Prime Minister Mussolini is perplexed. He wants respectability.

Jun 12  Ho Chi Minh has left Paris and is in Moscow. He attends the Fifth Comintern Congress and urges Communists from West European countries to agitate more against the evils of colonialism.

Aug 16  A plan by an international commission chaired by a Chicago banker, Charles G. Dawes, has been accepted by the former allies of the last great war. The plan provides for France ending its occupation of Germany's Ruhr region and for a staggered payment plan for Germany making its reparation payments. Many French people believe their government is being too lenient with the Germans. Many Germans think their country paying reparations to France is nonsense.

Aug 28  In Georgia, one of the republics within the Soviet Union, an insurrection against Soviet rule has been organized across the country. In one area the rising starts today, a day early, and alarms Moscow. Stalin, a Georgian, immediately sends the Red Army against the insurgents. A book published in 1999, The Black Book of Communism, by Harvard University Press, will describe the Soviet regime as having killed 12,578 between August 29 and September 5 and as having deported about 20,000 people to Siberia and Central Asian deserts. The failed insurrection will leave pro-independence Georgians either exterminated or powerless. Georgia's Tiflis University will be purged of "unreliable" elements and placed under the complete control of the Communist Party, with substantial changes made to its curriculum.

Sep 9  In the Hawaiian Islands, Filipino agricultural workers are on strike demanding a wage of $2 per day and reduction of the workday to eight hours. Plantation owners have been employing strike breakers, and strike leaders have been arrested and people have been bribed to testify against them. Outraged strikers seize two strike breakers and prevent them from going to work. The police, armed with clubs and guns, arrive at union headquarters to "rescue" the strike breakers. Strikers are armed with homemade weapons and knives. The reported result is sixteen Filipinos and four policemen killed, to be known as the Hanapepe massacre. The police round up protesting workers and arrest 101 Filipinos. Seventy-six will be brought to trial and of these sixty will receive four-year jail sentences.

Oct 19  Hussein bin Aii, of the Hashimite family that claims direct descent from Muhammad the Prophet and a family that has ruled the Hejaz in unbroken succession since 1201 (to be played by Alec Guiness in the 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia), has declared himself Caliph. He has lost the Battle of Mecca against the Saudi warlord Ibn Saud. On this day, Ibn Saud declares himself protector of the holy places in Mecca.

Nov 4  President Coolidge, of the Republican Party, who had stepped into the presidency from the vice presidency, wins the presidency in his own right. The Democratic Party had split between a conservative, John Davies, and Robert LaFollete, who ran as a progressive. Coolidge wins in a landslide, running like Davis on a platform of limited government, reduced taxes and less regulation. The public has given Coolidge credit for a booming economy. Coolidge didn't leave the Whitehouse to campaign. Davis is described as having lost votes because of his denunciation of the Ku Klux Klan and his defense of black voting rights when he was Solicitor General in the Woodrow Wilson administration.

Nov 11 Ho Chi Minh arrives in Guangzhou, China. This is where Vietnamese running from the French go. Ho becomes an assistant to Michael Borodin, the Soviet Union's advisor to Sun Yat-sen. Ho begins organizing Vietnamese in exile and directing rebel activities in Vietnam.

Nov 27   New York City has its first Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade.

Dec 1  A coup attempt in Estonia staged by Communists, most of them from the Soviet Union, fails. Of the 279 actively participating in the coup, 125 are killed in action. Later, more than 500 people will be arrested. Government forces lose 26 killed.

Dec 15  In a letter to Prime Minister Baldwin, Winston Churchill considers the chance of a war against Japan. Churchill writes: "I do not believe there is the slightest chance of it in our lifetime." (Modern Times, by Paul Johnson, p.175.)

Dec 20  Hitler is released from prison after 8 1/2 months of comfort and book writing. His failed coup attempt in 1923 has turned out to be a success. He has made a name for himself. The book is Mein Kampf (My Struggle).

Dec 31  Earlier this year, Stalin wrote a book titled Foundations of Leninism, supporting Lenin's position that the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 needs revolutions in other countries. A second edition of the book is published that deviates from Lenin's position. Stalin goes along with a Party theoretician, Nikolai Bukharin, who is arguing that socialism could be built in a single country, even an underdeveloped one like Russia. Stalin would rather have better relations with capitalist powers rather than antagonize them with Soviet sponsored subversion. Stalin favors Communist Parties in capitalist countries joining forces with non-communist "bourgeois" parties. This puts him opposite Leon Trotsky, who will be the champion of "Permanent Revolution".

Jan 3  Benito Mussolini dissolves parliament and becomes a dictator.

Feb 19  President Coolidge (1923-29) proposes phasing out the inheritance tax.

Feb 27  In Munich, Adolf Hitler resurrects his political party.

Mar 2  Japan's House of Representatives recognizes male suffrage.

Mar 4  The inauguration of Calvin Coolidge's for his first full four-year term as president is broadcast live on twenty-one radio stations coast-to-coast. Many homes now have radio receivers. Dance bands broadcast from dance halls, radio stations and hotels.

Mar 12  Chinese revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen dies of cancer. Within the Guomintang, Within the Guomindang, rivalry between moderates and leftists will now intensify. Youthful Guomindang political organizers will begin extending Guomindang authority northward.

May 12  Germany's President Ebert, a Social Democrat, has died. Germans elect the conservative and mendacious 81 year-old wartime national hero General Paul von Hindenburg. He hates the Social Democrats and will do what he can to keep the government out of their hands despite their size in parliament. In eight years he will appoint Adolf Hitler as Germany's chancellor.

Mar 23  Tennessee's Governor Austin Peay signs a law that prohibits the teaching of evolution. He states that "the very integrity of the Bible in its statement of man's divine creation is denied by any theory that man descended or has ascended from any lower order of animals."

May 31  For sixteen weeks, Kurds in the Kurdistan region of Turkey have been in rebellion against Turkey's effort to repress Kurdish identity. The rebellion also opposes Turkey's secularism and is to be described as nationalist dressed in religious garb. It is the first large scale rebellion of the Kurdish national movement, and the rebellion's 15,000 fighters are crushed militarily. Sheikh Said and all the other rebel leaders will be hanged on June 29.

May 5  The American Civil Liberties Union wants to test Tennessee's new law against teaching evolution. A group of businessmen in the town Dayton, Tennessee, has been looking for publicity for their town, and they have talked a local teacher into using a textbook that has a chapter on evolution. The teacher, John T. Scopes, is arrested for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution.

May 30  In China, students and labor unionists associated within the Guomindang have been directing their energies against British and Japanese commercial interests in China and a boycott of British and Japanese goods. A strike for higher wages at a Japanese owned cotton mill in Shanghai results in the mill's management committing brutalities against strike supporters. British municipal police fire on and kill thirteen demonstrators. China's Communist Party, fervently anti-imperialist, expands from a few hundred members to more than 20,000.

Jul 18  Adolf Hitler's "Mein Kampf" (My Struggle) is published.
Jul 21  In Tennessee the so-called "Monkey Trial" ends. John T. Scopes is convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution. Scopes is fined $100.

Aug 8  As many as 40,000 members of the Ku Klux Klan parade in Washington DC. The Klan has an estimated 5 million, making it the largest fraternal organization in the United States. The Klan has claimed that the Bible, the United States flag and the Constitution are their keystone principles. They believe that to be one hundred percent American one must be white and Protestant.

Aug 25  Diplomacy has convinced the French to evacuate the Ruhr region of Germany.

Sep 3  Near Caldwell, Ohio, the navy-built 682-foot dirigible "Shenandoah" breaks apart in mid-air and crashes. Thirteen die.

Sep 4  Turkish women enter a beauty contest for the first time.

Oct 16  At Locarno, Switzerland, an eleven-day gathering of foreign ministers attempts to normalize relations between the two sides who fought in World War I.

Oct 16  The Texas School Board prohibits the teaching of evolution.

Oct 19  A greek soldier runs after his dog and crosses into Bulgaria. Border guards shoot the Greek soldier. Greece's dictator, Theodoros Pangalos, sends soldiers into Bulgaria. Bulgaria orders its troops to provide only token resistance, trusting the League of Nations to settle the dispute. The fighting will ends on the 29th. Bulgarians suffer less than a dozen casualties, the Greeks around four hundred.

Oct 27  In the United States, water skis are patented by Fred Waller.

Nov 16  In New York, the American Association for Advancement of Atheism is formed.

Nov 25  in Turkey, President Mustafa Kemal Ataturk outlaws religious dress, including the tasseled fez headwear for men and the wearing of veils by women. Atuturk has told conservatives that the Fez is of Venetian origins.

Dec 3  The League of Nations orders Greece to pay an indemnity for its October invasion of Bulgaria.

Dec 17  Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell has accused US Army and Navy leaders of an "almost treasonable administration of the national defense." He is court martialed for insubordination and reduced in rank to colonel.

Dec 18  At the 14th Communist Party Congress, Soviet leader Lev Kamenev, a former ally of Stalin against Trotsky, sides with Lenin's widow and calls for Stalin's removal as Party General Secretary. His old ally Grigori Zinoviev is with him, as is Grigori Sokolnikov, an alliance known as the New Opposition. Stalin appears to the Party rank and file as the reasonable leader and his opponents as quarrelsome. Stalin survives and his opponents are headed downward.

Dec 26  Six US warships are ordered from Manila to China to protect US interests there.

Dec 31 Immigration to the United States from Italy drops from 56,246 in 1924 to 6,203. Immigration from Britain has dropped from 59,490 in 1924 to 27,172.


Jan 4   In Bulgaria, people have tired of Prime Minister Tsankov's reign of terror. Bulgaria is crippled by debt. Tsankov steps down after having failed to secure a loan for the country. Andrey Lyapchev replaces him and will remove some of Tsankov's restrictions and allow trade unions to form. The Communist Party will remain banned. In 1932 Tsankov will imitate the Nazi Party with his own National Social Movement. At the close of World War II Tsankov he will flee to Argentina.

Jan 16  Britain is on the gold standard and its currency is over valued. Coal exports are down and mine owners want to cut the wages of coal miners. Labor unrest is on the rise. In London, a BBC radio play about a revolution by workers creates panic.

Jan 27  The US Senate agrees to have the United States join the World Court.

Jan 31  Britain and Belgium remove their troops from Cologne, the foremost city in Germany's Rhineland. The people of Cologne are joyous. Their occupation of a defeated Germany has accomplished nothing.

Feb 9  Teaching theory of evolution is forbidden in schools in Atlanta, Georgia.

Feb 11  The Mexican government nationalizes all property belonging to the Roman Catholic Church.

Feb 23  US President Calvin Coolidge opposes a large air force. He believes it would menace world peace.

Mar 2  The Conservative Party's Chancellor of the Exchequer, Winston Churchill, denies "that foundations of British commerce and industrial greatness have been sapped, that the stamina of our people has been impaired, that our men are mutinous and lazy, that our employers are indolent." He agrees that times are difficult but says they are slowly getting better. To think otherwise, he concludes, was "idiotic nonsense."

Apr 2  More riots begin in India. In Calcutta riots begin that are to last to May 9, with an eight day break between April 13 and 21. The number killed will be 110, and injured 975. From the year 1923 to August 22 of 1926, 76 riots will have been officially recorded across the sub-continent, 23 of them in 1926. In recent rioting the military will be put on the streets. Nationalist sentiments have been on the rise in India.

Apr 24  With their Treaty of Berlin, Germany and the Soviet Union pledge neutrality in the event in of an attack on the other by a third party for the next five years.

May 1  Satchel Paige begins as a pitcher in the Negro Southern League.

May 3  US Marines return to Nicaragua, after having been away for nine months. There the Liberals, supported by Mexico's leftist government, are threatening US supported Conservative rule of Adolfo Díaz.

May 4  A general strike begins in Britain in support of coal miners. Britain's conservative government, led by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin declares martial law. The strike is to last nine days. A member of Baldwin's cabinet, Winston Churchill, is to argue that "either the country will break the General Strike, or the General Strike will break the country." He claims that Benito Mussolini has shown "a way to combat subversive forces."

May 5  Sinclair Lewis refuses his Pulitzer Prize for "Arrowsmith." He complains that "The seekers for prizes tend to labor not for inherent excellence but for alien rewards; they tend to write this, or timorously to avoid writing that, in order to tickle the prejudices of a haphazard committee."
May 9  The French are still waging the war against Syrians that began in July 1925. The French have upset the Syrians by an attempt to control at the local level more than had their Turkish overlords prior to World War One. The French navy bombards Damascus in response to rioting there by its Druze population. In ten days the French air force will bomb in Damascus.

May 13  In South Africa, Prime Minister Herzog has introduced a Mines and Works Amendment Act, which excludes blacks and people of Indian heritage from all skilled and some semi-skilled mining jobs. After months of debate the act finally passes, by a majority of 16 votes.

May 14   Józef Pilsudski has returned to power with a coup d'etat. He is to refuse the presidency but remain the power "behind the throne." The coup wins the support of the Polish Socialist Party, which calls for a general strike, and it is supported by the Railwaymen's Union, which prevents pro-government military reinforcements from reaching Warsaw. Pilsudski wants to stabilize Poland politically by reducing the influence of political parties, whom he blames for corruption and inefficiency, and he wants to strengthen the army. He will quickly distance himself from his leftist supporters.

May 26 In Morocco, French and Spanish forces have been using artillery barrages, aerial bombardment and the use of chemical bombs against a rebellion by Rifian tribes and their recently establish Rif Republic. The popular leader of the rebellion, Abd el-Krim, surrenders. The French want Krim to be forgotten rather than honored as a martyr. They will exile him and his family to an estate on a French Island in the Indian Ocean, Réunion, and give them an annual stipend. Spain wants revenge against Krim and will view France's treatment of him as a disgrace.

May 28  A miliary coup d'etat in Portugal installs what coup leaders call a National Dictatorship. Portugal's First Republic, which began in 1910, becomes history.

Jul 18  According to a coming Cairo newspaper article, a ten day battle in Damascus beings today, involving 18,000 French troops, without a decisive victory for the French. Also the French will be described as razing several villages and bombarding the Kurdish quarter of Pamaseus.

Aug 23 The sudden death of popular Hollywood actor and sex symbol Rudolph Valentino at the age of only 31 years creates mass grief and hysteria.

Aug 24  A bloodless coup d'etat in Greece ousts a dictator, Theodoros Pangalos, from power. Parliamentary elections will be held on November 7th. A coalition government will be formed consisting of the Liberal Union, the Democratic Union, the People's Party and the Freethinkers' Party.

Sep 1 From an area that Arabs consider part of the Arab Kingdom of Syria, France creates the Republic of Lebanon with a parliamentary system of government. Lebanon is largely Christian (Maronites with some Greek Orthodox enclaves) and a sizeable Muslim population, including Druze.

Sep 8   Germany joins the League of Nations.

Sep 14  Reconciliation with Germany appears to have been established. France has promised to remove its troops from the Rhineland and the last of its troops will leave in 1930. Today, participants in the Locarno Treaties of 1925 ratify the seven treaties and the treaties become effective. Germany, France, Belgium, Britain and Italy have agreed to respect each other's borders and to cooperate against any aggressor so far as military capabilities allow. The Soviet Union is feeling ignored and isolated.

Sep 23  In the US, Gene Tunney defeats Jack Dempsey and becomes heavyweight champion of the world.

Sep 25  The League of Nations Slavery Convention abolishes all types of slavery.

Oct 1 In California five gasoline distribution companies announce they will lower the price of their gasoline to 18 cents a gallon to compete with the Richfield Oil Company having cut its price to 19 cents – $2.34 and $2.47 is 2012 dollars.

Nov 21 In Lithuania, nationalistic students organize an illegal march to protest the liberal government's soft policy regarding Communists.

Dec 17  In Lithuania a military coup d'etat takes place under the pretext that a Communist plot to take over Lithuania was imminent. The coup brings the president in 1919-20, Antanas Smetona, back to power. He is a member of the right-wing Lithuanian Nationalist Union Party, another political party that believes in the nation having a strong leader. His party had managed to win only 3 of 85 seats in parliament in Lithuania's May elections. He will take office the 19th. Members of his party have sympathies and contacts with Mussolini's fascist regime in Italy, but the party will distance itself from Europe's fascists (Italian and German) as early as 1932. The deposed president, Kazys Grinius, will migrate to the United States in 1947.

Dec 25  Japan's Emperor Taisho dies of a heart attack. Tomorrow he will be succeeded by his son, Hirohito, 25. Emperor Hirohito favors peace and cooperation with foreign powers. The political party in power, the Democratic (Minseito) Party, will express agreement.


Jan 7  In Mexico the Cristero War begins. Catholics who call themselves Cristeros take up arms against anti-clerical provisions of Mexico's 1917 Constitution. Trains will be blown up. Public schools will be attacked and burned and teachers killed. The government will retaliate.

Jan 7  The first transatlantic telephone call is made, from New York City to London, via radio waves.

Jan 19  Advancing Guomindang forces under the influence of Leftists have taken over the British concession in the cities of Hankow and Kiukiang. Britain sends troops to Shanghai to prevent the same from happening there and to save lives and property. In February the British will conclude an agreement with the Guomindang.

Jan 30  In Schattendorf Austria, 100 miles south of Vienna, right-wing veterans shoot and kill two Social Democrats, one an eight-year old boy, on their way to the train station after a demonstration. Outrage erupts among the Social Democrats.

Feb 19  A general strike in Shanghai protests the presence of British troops.

Mar 5  Some 1,000 US Marines arrive in Shanghai to "protect American property."

Mar 7  The US Supreme Court rules as unconstitutional a Texas law that bans Negroes from voting.

Mar 9  Italy's fascist government decides to revoke self-government in Libya.

Mar 10  In Bavaria, the ban against National Socialists (Nazis) is lifted. Adolf Hitler is now allowed to speak in public. In his first speech, Hitler attacks agreements that Germany made at Locarno.

Mar 12  Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's army pushes into the Chinese section of Shanghai. They won't molest foreigners or their property and in a couple of days the foreigners will relax.

Mar 19  Bloody street fighting between Nazis and Communists takes place in Berlin.

Apr 12  The Guomindang's movement northward from Canton has been accompanied by a wave of strikes that bring production in China to a standstill, and peasant unrest has been encouraged, raising fears among landowners across China. Warlords have been going over to the side of the Guomindang's leader, Chiang Kai-shek. Wealthy Chinese businessmen offer moderates within the Guomindang their support if they rid the Guomindang of its leftists. Chiang Kai-shek has developed a dislike for Communists. His forces take control of Shanghai and turn against the Guomindang's Communists and against labor unions. In Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek rounds up Communists and other Leftists. Hundreds of union supporters are murdered.

Apr 14  In Gothenburg Sweden, the first Volvo car rolls off the production line.

Apr 19  In China, Communists declare war on Chiang Kai-shek.

Apr 21  Japan's prosperity has been in decline. Factories have been closing and unemployment rising. Falling silk and rice prices have hurt Japanese farmers, and starvation became a real threat to millions of people in Japan's rural areas. A banking crisis has hit Japan – the Showa Financial Crisis. A run on banks has caused thirty-seven smaller banks to fold. A new prime minister, Tanaka Giichi, declares a three-week bank holiday. Large financial branches of the five great zaibatsu houses will survive and dominate Japanese finances until the end of World War II.

Apr 27  Actress Mae West is released after ten days in jail. She and the entire cast and producers of her Broadway play "Sex" had been imprisoned after 375 performances of their comedy-drama.

May 1  Hitler holds his first Nazi meeting in Berlin. The Jazz Age has spread to Germany. Hitler is a provincial who dislikes Berlin and the new hedonism.

May 8  French pilots Charles Nungesser and Francois Coli take off from Paris in their airplane named the White Bird in an attempt to cross the Atlantic. The Pilots and plane will vanish.

May 20  The Treaty of Jeddah is signed between King Ibn Saud and Britain. It recognizes the sovereignty of Saud in the territories known as Hejaz and Nejd.

May 16  The US Supreme Court rules that illegal income can be taxed. With this the US government will prosecute the Chicago area gangster Al Capone for tax evasion. Capone controls gambling, prostitution, distilleries and has a large share in a cleaning and dyeing plant chain. His income is estimated at $105 million per year.

May 18  In Bath Township, Michigan, on May 18, Andrew Kehoe, age 55, kills his wife, blows up an elementary school, killing 38, two teachers and four other adults, and then kills himself. Kehoe is described as a sore loser following an election for township clerk. He is described as having been intelligent, easily angered and impatient with people who disagreed with him, and fastidious about keeping himself clean and maintaining a neat appearance.

May 21  Joy erupts in response to the first non-stop solo transatlantic flight – from the US to France – by Charles Lindbergh.

May 22   A conference between the Liberals and Conservatives, brokered by the US, has produced a settlement. Within a week the Liberals will turn in 11,600 rifles, 303 machine guns and more that 5 million rounds of ammunition. But not everyone on the Liberal side goes along with the settlement and the occupation of their country by the US Marines.

May 24  The Mississippi has been flooding. It kills some 500 people and displaces thousands.

May 27  An earthquake in China's Qinghai (Xining) Province kills a reported 200,000 people.

Jun 1  André Gide has ended his travels through central Africa, including French Equatorial Africa. He publishes his journal, Travels in the Congo. It creates indignation in France regarding the mistreatment of blacks forced to work on the construction of 300 miles of railroad from Brazzaville to Pointe Noire – a project that over a ten-year period killed nearly ten thousand.

Jul 15  In Vienna, two are acquitted of killing two Social Democrats on January 30. Demonstrators chase away a small group of policemen. Police on horseback with their sabres drawn charge the demonstrators. The angry crowd storms the Palace of Justice and set fire to files, with flames leaping from building windows. Eighty-nine people are killed, five of them policemen. Six hundred are seriously wounded. It is a prelude to a civil war in 1934.

Jul 16  Augusto Sandino begins a war against the US occupation of Nicaragua. It starts with something like 500 of his men attacking a unit of 41 US Marines and a Nicaraguan garrison at Ocotal – a battle lasting no more than 24 hours. The Marines respond with airpower: seven planes. Sandino is said to have lost from 40 to 80 men.  But they live-on and fight for another five years.

Sep 14  On a summer day In Nice, France, Angela Isadora Duncan, age 50, American dance pioneer and bisexual leftist, says goodbye to friends and gets into the passenger seat of a sports car. As the car is driven off by a her handsome young companion, her long scarf gets caught in the car's rear wheel spokes and axle. She is partially decapitated and instantly killed.

Oct 6  The era of talking pictures begins with the opening of "The Jazz Singer," starring Al Jolson singing and dancing in black-face. The movie features both silent and sound-synchronized scenes.

Nov 12  The battle for toleration of continued disagreement and more Party democracy has been defeated. The "Left Opposition" within the party, including Leon Trotsky, has lost. Trotsky and Grigory Zinoviev are expelled from the Communist Party.

Nov 21  Unarmed coal miners on strike at the Columbine Mine in northern Colorado are fired up upon with machine guns. Six miners are killed.

Dec 19  A Communist Party Congress in December closes. Party delegates have condemned all deviation from what the Party in general has chosen as its positions and policies – a belief in closing ranks and in group-think. Party members who have supported the Opposition have been expelled from the Party. They are now to be seen as traitors and as threats to the development of proper ideas. Expelled Party members are to be fired from their regular jobs and their families are to be hounded. Trotsky will soon be sent into exile. Joseph Stalin has emerged as the Party's undisputed leader.

Dec 30  The Japanese are building what will be their great rail system. Today in Tokyo they open a commuter metro line, the Ginza Line.

Jan 7  During the first week of the year, President Coolidge says he is not worried about a recent rise in the use of borrowed money (broker's loans) in buying stocks. Coolidge has been pursuing a hands off policy regarding regulation of the financial industry.

Feb 20  In Japan, the first General Election following the passage of universal male suffrage produces no clear winner and nervousness among conservatives. No party will be able to organize a majority – a hung parliament.

Mar 12  Malta, which has been a part of the British Empire and an important stop for British ships between Gibraltar and Suez, becomes a British dominion (autonomous under British sovereignty) .

Mar 15  Despite repression since its founding in 1922, Japan's now underground Communist Party has been growing. The Party was visible in its support of the legal socialist and labor-oriented political parties. Alarmed by gains these parties made in the recent elections, the government begins a propaganda campaign that associates the pro-labor left in general with the Communist Party. The government begins a new repression that will include arrests, show trials and political prisoners.

Mar 22  Peasants in the Soviet Union are protesting food shortage.

Apr 12 An attempt in Milan, Italy, to blow up Prime Minister Mussolini kills 17 bystanders.

Apr 13 Speaking to members of the Central Committee, Stalin says, "Agriculture is developing slowly, comrades." He complains that the Soviet Union's roughly 25 million individually owned farms are a most primitive and undeveloped form of economy. "We must do our utmost to develop large farms," he says, "and to convert them into grain factories for the country to be organized on a modern scientific basis." He speaks of opponents "internal and external" of Party policy." He adds, "Our task is to exercise the maximum vigilance and to be on the alert." His speech ends with stormy and prolonged applause.

May 19  An article in the Jesuit newspaper Catholic Civilization (La Civiltà Cattolica) which publishes an article only after approval from the Secretariat of the Holy See, writes that the Church will continue to protect "even its most relentless enemies and persecutors, who are the Jews," and that it will also labor to procure for them "the greatest possible good, individual conversion and eternal salvation." The article goes on to describe a decisive role of Jews in the triumph of Bolshevism in Russia and Jewish control over international banking, finance, and politics.

May 23  Another politically ineffective bomb attack against occurs against Italian fascism, this one at the Italian consulate in Buenos Aires. It kills 22 and injures 43.

May 31  The first flight across the Pacific, from California to Australia, begins. It's a three-stop, 7,000-mile flight in a Fokker F.VIIb/3m, led by two Australians and joined by two Americans. It becomes a difficult flight and takes ten days.
Jun 2  In China the Nationalist army's Northern Expedition ends with its arrival in Beijing (Peking). The warlord of northern China, Zhang Zuolin, hands Beijing over to the leader of the Nationalist army, Chiang Kai-shek. The Japanese see the Nationalist advance as a threat to their interests in China. Zhang Zoulin will be killed by a Japanese warplane bomb on June 4 as he is fleeing Beijing and moving north to his territory in Manchuria.

Jul 2  In Britain, the voting age for women is lowered from 30 to 21, effective from today, giving them equal suffrage with men.

Jul 6  In the Soviet Union the Shakhty trial ends. It has been underway since May 18. It's about sabotage in the mining industry. There are 53 defendants, primarily engineers and technicians. They had been charged as taking part in a "wrecking campaign" that is linked to the governments and intelligence services of capitalist countries. Four defendants are ordered to be shot; 40 persons are sentenced to imprisonment for one to ten years. Four others receive suspended sentences, and four are acquitted.

Jul 12  An Italian North Pole expedition has been stranded. A Swedish airplane has rescued some of the expedition. Today a Soviet icebreaker saves the rest.

Jul 17  In Mexico, Alvaro Obregon, president from December 1920 to November 1924, is about to be president again. A Catholic partisan in the Cristero War (1926-29), Juan Excapulario, assassinates him.

Jul 25  The Calvin Coolidge administration recognizes Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government as the legitimate government of China. It signs a tariff treaty with the Chinese and it recalls troops from China.

Jul 28  The Summer Olympic Games open in Amsterdam. Track and field events are open for women for the first time despite objections from Pope Pius IX. Germany is allowed to participate for the first time since World War One. During the games, several women will collapse at the end of the 800-meter run. For some the earnestness of the women runners will result in a view by paternalist men that female delicacy needs protection. Women will be banned from running in Olympic races of a distance greater than 200 meters. The ban will last 32 years.

Aug 2  Italy has given Ethiopia's regent, the future Emperor Haile Selassie, a luxurious Isotta-Fraschini limousine and other gifts. Today Ethiopia signs a treaty with Italy. Mussolini sees the treaty as an opening for Italy penetrating Ethiopia economically.

Aug 16  In Washington DC, Carl Panzram is arrested for burglary. He is to confess to killing 22 people and to having sodomized over 1,000 males. He is to be hanged in 1930. He would spit in his executioner's face and declare, "I wish the entire human race had one neck, and I had my hands around it." When asked by the executioner if he had any last words, Panzram would say, "Yes, hurry it up, you Hoosier bastard! I could hang a dozen men while you're screwing around." Eventually a book would emerge: Killer: A Journal of Murder.

Aug 22  At its national convention the Democratic Party dares to nominate a Catholic, the governor of the great state of New York, Alfred E. Smith, for President of the United States.

Aug 27  France wants assurances of US help should another war erupt in Europe. The US Secretary of State, Frank B. Kellogg, wants to avoid US involvement in another European War. He does this by turning an agreement with France into a grandiose renunciation of war. His Kellogg-Briand Pact is signed by sixty-three nations, including Italy, Germany and Japan.

Oct 7  In Ethiopia, Haile Selassie is crowned king (not yet emperor).

Oct 10  Chiang Kai-shek has acquired dictatorial powers and takes office as Chairman of the National Government of China.

Oct 12  At Children's Hospital in Boston an iron lung respirator is used for the first time.

Oct 15  Following its first commercial flight across the Atlantic, the German dirigible Graf Zeppelin lands in Lakehurst, New Jersey.

Oct 22  Republican presidential nominee Herbert Hoover speaks of "our insistence upon equality of opportunity" in a speech at New York's Madison Square Garden. He complains of "our opponents" thrusting government into "certain national problems – that is prohibition, farm relief, and electrical power." He adds: "We are nearer today to the ideal of the abolition of poverty and fear from the lives of men and women than ever before in any land."

Nov 3  Turkey switches from Arabic to the Roman alphabet.

Nov 6  Herbert Hoover wins the presidency with 58.2 percent of the popular vote. Alfred E. Smith gets 40.8 percent, mainly in the deep South, which is still anti-Republican. The Socialist Party candidate, Norman Thomas, wins 0.7 percent of the popular vote, and the Communist Party candidate wins 0.1 percent.

Nov 18  Walt Disney's "Steamboat Willie," starring Mickey Mouse, premiers in New York City. It is the first successful sound-synchronized animated cartoon.

Nov 26   Telegrams are pouring in from numerous parts of the Soviet Union with the news of arson and murders by enemies of collectivization. There are reports that Soviet farms, village libraries and Soviet bureaus have been burned down. Murderous attacks are described as having been perpetrated against Communist village school teachers and social workers, women as well as men. These acts are attributed to relatively wealthy peasants called Kulaks. The Soviet newspaper Izvestia declares that "A destructive blow at the Kulaks must be delivered immediately!"

Dec 21  The US Congress approves the construction of Boulder Dam, to be renamed later as Hoover Dam.

Dec 23  The National Broadcasting Co. sets up a permanent, coast-to-coast network.

Dec 28  Louis Armstrong makes a 78-rpm recording of "West End Blues,." The "West End" refers to the westernmost point of Lake Pontchartrain in Orleans Parish, Louisiana.

Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI

 Prime Minister Mussolini
Prime Minister Mussolini, a proud and self-described
 advocate of fascist totalitarianism

Hemingway living in Florida
Hemingway, living in Florida, writes the novel A Farewell to Arms, published in Scribner's Magazine
. It's about man-woman romance and mainly about World War I, which he experienced
at the age of nineteen. It had taken the rah-rah out of him. One of the book's lines:
"I had seen nothing sacred, and the things that were glorious had no glory."

Jan 6  King Alexander proclaims a dictatorship and changes the name of his kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to Yugoslavia.

Jan 17  Edwin Hubble communicates his discovery that galaxies are moving away from each other.

Feb 9  In Moscow, the Soviet Union, Poland, Estonia, Romania and Latvia sign the Litvinov Protocol renouncing war among these signatories.

Feb 11  The Holy See, represented by Pope Pius XI's secretary of state, signs an agreement with the Kingdom of Italy, their first agreement since the birth of Italy in 1861. It is the Lateran Accords, a treaty of reconciliation that is part of Prime Minister Mussolini's drive for a totalitarian Italy under his dictatorship. Mussolini signs for the government and for King Victor Emmanuel III (son of Victor Emmanuel II, who had deprived the Holy See of its vast territories on the Italian Peninsula). With the accords the monarchy hangs on to its rule in the city of Rome; the Holy See is recognized as an independent state on the Vatican's 109 acres; Roman Catholicism is to be Italy's only religion (no separation of church and state); the Italian state recognizes Catholic feast days as public holidays; the Italian state begins to recognize church marriages; the church is allowed to extend religious education in secondary schools; Italy is obliged to prosecute those who offend the honor and dignity of the pope.

Feb 11 Pope Pius XI has been eager that Italy be run according to Church principals. He sees himself and his position as superior to that of Mussolini, but he recognizes Mussolini's role in the Lateran Accords and he describes Mussolini as a man sent by Providence - a comment to be repeated often in the coming years during Mussolini's dictatorship.

Feb 14  Gangster competition in Chicago results in seven people gunned down in what will be known as the Saint Valentine's Massacre.

Mar 4  Herbert Hoover, a Republican, is inaugurated President of the United States. Hoover expresses concern about economic instability abroad and about weakness in banking.

Mar 7  The Scottish chemist Alexander Fleming identifies the mould juice he is working with as penicillin.

Mar 17  Mussolini's fascism is associated with hostility to the liberalism that had been involved in the unification of Italy and hostility to the Church (including dissolution of the papal states in the 1860s). With gratitude regarding the Lateran Accords of February 11 and fascism's hostility to communism, the Vatican supports Mussolini's plebicite: people voting yes or no to a Grand Council of fascists nominating a single list of candidates for parliament. (Italy had been made a single-party state in 1928.) The newspaper of the Holy See, L'Ossevatore romano calls for all Catholics to vote yes.

Mar 18  Mussolini's plebecite wins 98.3 percent of the vote. Pius XI responds to critics who complain of his coming to terms with the Mussolini regime. He says, "It was like saying that you should stop breathing because you are in a room where the air is polluted." (The Pope and Mussolini, by David Kertzer, p119-20.)

Mar 19  Mussolini has been angered by hearing that some are whispering that he has been the pope's patsy, and he is upset over his plebiscite victory described as having ushered in a "Christian restoration of society." (Kertzer, p120.)

Apr 3  Persia (to be recognized internationally as Iran in 1935) joins in signing the Litvinov Protocol.

May 7  Drug dealing gangsters battle in Sidney, Australia, in "The Battle of Blood Alley," a thirty-minute brawl with razors - handguns having been outlawed.

May 16  In Hollywood, the County of Los Angeles, the first Academy Awards are presented. The winning picture is Wings, a silent film that turns World War One into a soap opera with a tiny bit of nudity and big name stars: Clara Bow, Charles "Buddy" Rogers, and Richard Arlen. Clara Bow had complained that she was just whipped cream on top of the pie - poor thing.

Jun 1  In Buenos Aires, thirty-eight delegates gather for the First Conference of the Communist Parties of Latin America. Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela are represented. Repression prevents Chile's Communist Party from participating.

Jun 7  The Lateran Accords are ratified by Mussolini's parliament.

Jul  In 1929 (date unknown) the first known HIV virus jumps from an animal to a human. (Said by epidemiologist Larry Brilliant on the PBS program Now, May 8, 2009)

Jul 27  The Geneva Convention creates a standard for the treatment of prisoners of war, to become effective in 1931.

Aug 16-30  Jews are accused of having seized Muslim holy places in Jerusalem. In Jerusalem enraged mobs attack Jews and loot their homes. The attacks spread to other cities. With massacres on the 23rd and 24th, a Jewish settlement in Hebron comes to an end. By the end of the month 133 Jews have been killed by Arabs and 110 Arabs have been killed by the British police. The uprising helps convince Jews of the need for a separate state.

Sep 3  In the United States hyper-optimists about gaining wealth and the US economy push the Dow Jones Industrial average to a new high, 381.17.

Oct 18  Women are proclaimed as legal "persons" by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Britain. In Canada, women can be appointed to the Senate, an achievement by five Canadian women called the Famous Five.

Oct 29 In the United States, investing in stocks has been encouraged by a rising stock market, which has created a lot of dreams of wealth and more investing. Investing has become a craze, too much of it on borrowed money. The reality of limitations has been ignored. A few investors have begun to withdraw from the market. Today the bubble bursts. Many want to sell and can do so only at a terribly reduced price. 

Nov 15  Pius XI exclaims: "Rome is mine." An Italian ambassador: "Rome is the capital of Italy, home of His Majesty the king and the government." Pius: "Rome is my diocese." Ambassadory: "Certainly in matters of religion." Pius: "Yes. "All the rest is just a matter of keeping the streets clean." (Kertzer, p127.)

Dec  In Kenya, missionaries have been critical of the Kikuyu custom of female circumcision. The Kikuyu claim that it is an essential part of their culture, and they have accused missionaries of undermining their rights. Many Kikuyu have been breaking away from the Christian churches and mission schools. In the place of mission schools the Kikuyu are developing their own schools.

Dec 28  In Western Samoa, New Zealand colonial police kill 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event followed by Samoans creating a non-violent independence movement.

Dec 29  The All India Congress demands Indian independence from British rule.


Jan 16  Frank Whittle of Britain becomes the first to register a patent on a gas turbine for jet propulsion.

Jan 26  Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru organize a Declaration of Independence, or Purna Swaraj, by the people of India. Across India are great gatherings of people solemnly taking the pledge of independence by their presence – unrecognized by Britain.

Jan 28  The Great Depression is hurting Spain. Its dictator, Miguel Primo de Rivera, in power since 1923, has lost support of the king and military. He voluntarily steps down. Military men will succeed him. His son, José Antonio Primo de Rivera (1903-36), will play a role in the development of fascism in Spain.

Jan 31  The 3M company markets Scotch Tape.

Feb 20  In the Soviet Union, 50 percent of peasant farms have been collectivized. The goal has been to move farming from small holdings to large-scale mechanized farms, increase agriculture production and to feed an enlarged work force in the cities – part of the Five Year Plan begun in 1928. Peasants resisting collectivization have been labeled kulaks, forced from their homes, with little time to prepare for the unknown, put into thousands of freezing freight cars, bound for resettlement under police control. The number of labor camps continue to rise.

Mar 6  In Massachusetts an inventor, Clarence Birdseye, markets the first frozen foods.

Feb 10  Vietnamese soldiers in the French colonial army, in collaboration with members of the Vietnamese Nationalist Party, mutiny – the Yen Bai mutiny.

Mar 20  Women in Turkey are given the right to vote in municipal elections.

Mar 28  In Turkey, following a Postal Service Law, authorities request that foreigners change what had been called Constantinople to Istanbul.

Mar 31  The Motion Pictures Production Code is instituted in the United States. They will impose strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in motion pictures.

Apr 4  France begins building the Maginot Line, intended as a barrier against German aggression.

Apr 6  A Gandhi led 24-day 200-mile march to sea has ended. Gandhi purposely breaks a British law that prohibits people in India from making salt. In one month Gandhi will be arrested and thrown into prison, already filled with prisoners.

Apr 18  In India's Bengal province, the Chittagong Rebellion begins with the Chittagong armoury raid. Some sixty-five insurgents are seeking weapons for a violent overthrow of British rule. The insurgents also cut telephone and telegraph lines, disrupt the movement of trains and capture the European club headquarters. The plan is to assassinate the club's members, but the members are away for Good Friday. Their uprising is over in a few days. Several thousand soldiers surround them in the Jalalabad hills, to which they had run. Eighty soldiers and twelve insurgents are killed.

Apr 30  Seeking national security, the Soviet Union addresses Britain and France with a proposal for a military alliance.

May 15  Ellen Church becomes the first airline stewardess, on a flight from Oakland, California, to Chicago, Illinois, aboard a Boeing tri-motor.

May 16  General Rafael Leónidas Trujillo is elected president of the Dominican Republic. He was the only candidate allowed to actually campaign, and army harassment forced the other candidates to withdraw. He is to take office on August 16.

May 17  In a speech to his fascist blackshirts, Mussolini says "Words are beautiful things, but rifles, machine guns, ships and airplanes are more beautiful still." (Human Smoke, p. 19)
May 21  In India thousands have been arrested, including Gandhi, and jails are packed. More than 2,500 Indians have "raided" the Dharasana salt works, a salt production facility controlled by the British. Column after column of Indians advance toward the facility's gates and are beaten by the Indian police under British direction. Not one of the advancing Indians raises a hand to defend himself as the clubs rain down. Skulls are fractured. Many lose consciousness, and several die.

Jun  Beginning in May, strikes erupt on French-owned plantations and peasant unrest continues through June, with peasants demonstrating against taxes.

Jun 17  With the failure of the mutiny, Nguyen Thai Hoc, leader of Nationalist Party, and others are executed. His nationalist movement is destroyed, providing opportunity for a movement directed by Ho Chi Minh.

Jun 17  US President Herbert Hoover signs the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act into law.

Jun 21  One-year conscription begins in France.

Jun 30  France's government withdraws remaining French troops from Germany's Rhineland.

Jul 7  In the United States, the building of Boulder Dam (now known as Hoover Dam) is started.

Aug 12  Turkish troops move into Persia to fight Kurdish insurgents.

Aug 27  The Great Depression has increased unrest in Peru, a military junta takes power, led by Genera Luis M. Sanchez Cerro. The junta overthrows another military man and dictator, Augusto Bernadino Leguia.

Sep 6  In Argentina, General José Félix Uriburu carries out a successful military coup, overthrowing a democratically elected president, Hipólito Yrigoyen.

Sep 9  In Vietnam, French planes bomb a column of thousands of peasants headed toward the provincial capital. Security forces will round up all those suspected of being communists or of being involved in rebellion. The French will stage executions and conduct punitive raids on rebellious villages.

Sep 14  German manufacturing has fallen 17 percent since 1927 and its unemployment has skyrocketed to 3,000,000. The National Socialist (Nazi) Party win 107 seats in Germany's parliament (18.3% of all the votes), making them Germany's second largest party after the Social Democrats (with 24.5% of all votes).

Oct 27  Ratifications exchanged in London on the first London Naval Treaty signed in April modifying the Washington Naval Treaty of 1925. Its arms limitation provisions go into effect immediately, hence putting more limits on the expensive naval arms race between its five signatories: the United Kingdom, the United States, the Japanese Empire, France, and Italy.

Nov 2  Haile Selassie is crowned emperor of Ethiopia. In Jamaica a new religion arises. These are the Rastafarians. They have roots in a black-empowerment back-to-Africa movement. They proclaim Selassie as God incarnate and the Messiah who will deliver believers to the Promised Land, identified by as Ethiopia. They trace their religion bake to Abraham.

Nov 3  Brazil is hurting from the Great Depression. The military installs Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, a wealthy politician, as president.

Nov 4   Against President Hebert Hoover's urging, manufacturers have been responding to an economic down turn by laying people off, which has decreased private spending and has sent the economy into further decline. Bank failures have increased and people have rushed to withdraw their money. The party in power, the Republicans, are swept from Congress.

Dec 2  President Herbert Hoover goes before the US Congress to ask for a $150 million public works program to help create jobs and to stimulate the American economy.

Dec 5  The movie All Quiet On the Western Front has won praise from Los Angeles to Paris. It opens in Berlin and a group of Nazi Brownshirts led by Joseph Goebbels create a disturbance that shuts down the theater showing the film. Disturbances at the theater will continue for days.

Dec 31  The Papal encyclical Casti Connubii issued by Pope Pius XI stresses the sanctity of marriage and strengthens the Church's centuries-old ban of "artificial" birth control, including condoms, diaphragms and cervical caps.

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