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Century 20 6 th. Decade
Century  20 1951-1960

1951

 
Jan 3  Asian and Arab nations are trying for a peaceful settlement in Korea.

Jan 10   A committee of 100 Republicans say that the United Nations has failed and urges the US to quit the organization.

Jan 17  Working their way southward, Chinese and North Korean forces recapture Seoul.

Jan-Feb  At a dinner party in New York City, Margaret Sanger, age 72, meets biologist Gregory Pincus. He tells her that it might be possible to create the birth control pill she has been dreaming about. To do it, he says, he would need significant funding.

Feb 1  The UN General Assembly declares China the aggressor in the Korean War since the end of December 1950. .

Feb 26  The US Constitution is amended to limit presidents to two terms.

Mar 7  General Matthew Ridgway has been army commander in Korea since late December when, in Tokyo, Douglas MacArthur, over-all commander of the UN forces, told him, "The Eighth Army is yours, Matt. Do what you think best." Ridgway has planned a new offensive, and MacArthur flies to Korea for some showmanship. He upstages Ridgway at a news conference, announcing falsely that he, MacArthur, had "just ordered a resumpton of the offensive."

Mar 14   United Nations forces recapture Seoul.

Mar 14  In the United States, a Gallup Poll shows Truman's public approval rating at 26 percent. United States deaths in Korea are around 50,000. Many in the US think the President has been too weak vis-à-vis the Communists, but also, according to a Gallop Poll the previous month, 49 percent of those polled thought the war was a mistake. Truman has defied those calling for more money to be spent on the military. He has endeavored instead to maintain the nation's strength through a balanced budget.

Mar 15   Ridgway's forces have turned the war around and have been advancing against Chinese and North Koreans, and today Ridgway and his troops retake what is left of the city of Soeul. Morale in Washington DC is said to be reviving.

Mar 30  India considers Kashmir as its territory but holds only half of it. Pakistan and China hold other parts. Pakistan claims the part that India holds, Jammu-Kashmir, because a majority of the people there are Muslim. The UN Security Council passes Resolution 91 which calls for a free and impartial plebiscite in Jammu-Kashmir and demilitarization of the State prior to the plebiscite.

Apr 1   In Greece, women are given the right to vote.

Apr 5   Ethel and Julius Rosenberg receive the death penalty for having conspired to commit espionage.

Apr 9   General MacArthur has defied President Truman. Truman wants a ceasefire in Korea with Korea divided as before at the 38th parallel. MacArthur has written a letter to the Republican House Minority Leader, Joseph Martin, criticizing Truman. Men around President Truman agree that MacArthur is a problem, and the armed services Joint Chiefs of Staff decide unanimously that MacArthur should be relieved of his command.

Apr 11   President Truman fires General MacArthur.

Apr 12   In Europe, MacArthur's dismissal is considered good news. In the US, Republicans meet and call for Truman's impeachment. The Chicago Tribune agrees. Senator Nixon demands that MacArthur be reinstated. In New York, two thousand longshoremen protest MacArthur's firing.

Apr 20   President Truman appears at a big-league game to open the baseball season and is loudly booed.

May 14  The government of South Africa removes the right of people of mixed race ("colored") to vote.

Jun 13   The Communists propose negotiations for Korea. UN troops have driven north of the 38th parallel and are ordered to hold their positions. Fighting is now to become skirmishes over outposts and hills been lines, shellings, aircraft bombing by US forces and small unit actions and a lot of talk by the world's political figures.
 
Jun 18   The French have defeated a major Viet Minh campaign, the Viet Minh having lost 10,000 killed and wounded, and they withdraw from the Red River Delta.

Jun 25   Truman says he does not want a wider war and says that he is ready to see the war end with a division of the two sides at the 38th parallel.

Jul 5   William Shockley extends on the transistor invented in 1947 by inventing the junction transistor, bringing Silicon to what will become known as Silicon Valley.

Jul 10  In Korea, armistice negotiations begin while violence at the front continues. Facing each other on a line that runs east and west across Korea are 459,000 Communist troops, more than half of whom are Chinese forces. On the UN side are approximately 554,000. South Korea has 273,000 in the field, the US 253,000, and the rest are from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Ethiopia, France, Britain, Greece, India, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, and the Union of South Africa.

Jul 16  Riad Bey al-Solh, the Prime Minister of Lebanon, has been assassinated in Amman, where rumors were circulating that Lebanon and Jordan were discussing a joint separate peace with Israel.

Jul 19  Pakistan has not agreed on conditions for a plebiscite in Jammu-Kashmir.  Prime Minister Nehru tells Pakistan to stop its war talk, that India is not concentrating troops on Pakistan's border and wants peace.

Jul 20  Abdullah, the Hashimite King of Jordan, a moderate toward Israel, is in Jerusalem to give a eulogy at the funeral of Riad Bey al-Solh. He is shot while attending Friday prayers at the Dome of the Rock in the company of his grandson, Prince Hussein.

Jul 24   India makes Sheik Mohammad Abullah, leader of the area's largest political party, the prime minister of Jammu-Kashmir and agrees to Jammu-Kashmir autonomy within India.

Aug 1   China is burdened economically by its participation in the Korean War and by China's recent civil war, but a majority of Chinese are proud to see their country "standing up" to the "imperialist" powers. Meanwhile, since October 1950, the Communist government has executed around 28,000 "counter-revolutionaries."

Sep 9  India has been hoping to ward off Chinese control over Tibet. So too has the United States, which has been sending arms there through Calcutta. On this day, Chinese troops march into and take control of Tibet's capital city, Lhasa.

Sep 5  In Korea, the UN command have decided to chastise the Communist side for its failures at the negotiating table and it launches a limited offensive, with the objective of taking higher ground in mountainous territory. In fighting for what is called "Bloody Ridge," an estimated 15,000 North Koreans and 2,700 UN soldiers have been killed, wounded or captured.

Sep 13  The North Koreans have moved from Bloody Ridge to what will become known as Heartbreak Ridge. US commanders decide to take Heartbreak Ridge also. Soon to be labeled by the Americans as a fiasco.

Sep 19  Yours truly begins a three-year enlistment in the Marine Corps.

Sep 20   At the close of their conference in Ottawa, all twelve members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization accept Greece and Turkey as fellow members - a move that does not please the Soviet Union, while in the US some ask where the Soviet Union is going to strike next, in Asia or Europe.

Sep 26-28   Ash from a forest fire in Canada turns the sun blue for Europeans.

Oct 25  In Korea, truce talks reconvene. The fighting for Heartbreak Ridge is at an end. United Nations forces have suffered over 40,000 casualties. The Communist forces have suffered more, some of it from air power, which has blasted and burned their high ground bare. A lot of high ground in Korea is without vegetation.

Oct 26    In Britain, conservatives do well in elections and Winston Churchill is re-elected Britain's prime minister.

Nov 10   In the United States people can now dial directly for coast-to-coast telephone calls.

Nov 11   Hard times in Argentina have created a tense presidential campaign in Argentina. One candidate has been arrested and another shot. Eva Perón has claimed that anyone not voting for Peron is a traitor. Her husband, Juan Perón, is re-elected.

Dec 24   Another colony ends. Libya becomes a constitutional monarchy, the constitution proclaiming "by the will of God" a democratic and sovereign state that guarantees national unity, domestic tranquility, secures the establishment of justice, guarantees the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity, and that promotes economic and social progress and the general welfare, "trusting in God, Master of the Universe."

Dec 31   Japan's Gross National Product is half that of West Germany's and a third that of Britain, but production in Japan has surpassed its prewar level.

1952
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Feb 6  Princess Elizabeth of York, 25, becomes Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon.

Feb 26  Elizabeth's Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, announces possession of an atomic bomb.

Mar 10  In Cuba a bright former army sergeant of mixed race who has risen from poverty, Fulgencia Batista, takes power in a coup d'état. It is his second time in power, his first from 1940 to '44. Strategists in the US. are pleased. They see Batista as an anti-Communist and a reliable friend.

Mar 10  Stalin offers a united Germany in exchange for superpower disengagement and German neutrality. The United States and its allies are not interested.

Mar 21  Kwame Nkrumah, 42, is elected the prime minister of the Gold Coast.

Apr 7  Television is becoming a large part of the lives of Americans. On CBS, the "I Love Lucy" show (which began in October) wipes out its competition on NBC. "I Love Lucy" is viewed in 10.6 million households, the greatest number to date for a television show.

Apr 28  The Allied occupation of Japan formally ends with a peace treaty signed in San Francisco.

May 4  While running for President of the United States, Senator Robert Taft suggests that the United States consider breaking diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.

May 6  King Farouk of Egypt declares that he is a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.

May 7  Concerning a settlement of the Korean War, President Truman declares his opposition to an agreement that includes prisoners of war being forced to return to North Korea or China against their will.

May 21  The celebrated Hollywood actor John Garfield, 39, is dead. He had been called before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, had refused to name names and had been blacklisted by the Studios. He was suffering from heart problems and stress.

Jun 1  The Catholic Church condemns the writings of a Nobel Prize winner for literature, the late André Gide.
 
Jun 11  The United States Congress has passed the McCarran-Walter Immigration and Naturalization Act. It ends the ban on Asian immigration but increases the power of the government to deport non-citizens suspected of Communist  sympathies.

Jun 30  Marshall Plan aid comes to an end.

Jul 9  The Republicans are convening in Chicago. Senator Joe McCarthy tells a cheering audience that he will not soften his blows on Communist issues because "a rough fight is the only fight Communists can understand."

Jul 11  In Chicago, Eisenhower (who detests Senator McCarthy) wins the Republican nomination for president.

Jul 23  General Mark Clark has been in command of the UN forces in Korea since April. He launches massive air strikes against North Korea's hydroelectric power grid.

Jul 23  France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands form the European Coal and Steel community, an organization that will develop into the European Union.

Jul 23  In Egypt, military men claim to dislike King Farouk's corruption and Egypt's failures against Israel. They drive King Farouk into exile in Europe, where he has much money in banks with which to continue living in style.

Jul 25  Puerto Rico becomes a self-governing commonwealth of the United States.

Jul 26  Eva Peron of Argentina dies of cancer. She was 33.

Aug 11  Jordan's king, Talal bin Abdullah, is mentally ill. The army forces him to resign in favor of his 16-year-old son, Hussein.

Aug 12-25  In Korea the Chinese attack the 1st Marine division in a battle for a ridge called Bunker Hill.

Aug 29  The US bombs Pyongyang in a 1,403-sortie assault from aircraft carriers - the largest single-day air assault of the war. The bombings disturb Europeans, including Winston Churchill.

Aug 30  Finland pays the last of its reparations to the Soviet Union.

Sep 2  At the University of Minnesota the first open-heart surgery is performed.

Sep 18  The Soviet Union vetoes Japan's application for UN membership.

Oct 14  In Korea, the truce talks have halted again. The UN commander, General Mark Clark, has initiated "Operation Showdown."

Oct 16  In Iran the British face nationalization of oil they have controlled. Aware that the British are plotting to have him overthrown, Premier Mossadegh severs diplomatic relations.  The British have requested that the US join the plot against Mossadegh, viewed as a dangerous radical, but President Truman does not want the US to become involved.

Oct 20  In Kenya, the Kikuyu are unhappy about having been driven off much of their land, about their unemployment and lives of poverty in the city of Nairobi and other towns. They have rebelled - the Mau Mau Rebellion - and the British declare martial law.

Oct 25  In Korea, General Mark Clark's "Operation Showdown" ends. The area fought over is still held by Communist forces. The US 7th Infantry has lost  365 killed, 1,174 wounded and 1 captured. Basically the front line in Korea remains unchanged.

Oct 25  In the United Nations, China's admission is refused for the third successive year.

Nov 1  The United States tests a hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands.

Nov 4  Dwight Eisenhower defeats the Democrat Party's candidate, Adlai Stevenson. The threat from the Far Left, including the Communist Party, appears not as formidable as some have been suggesting as the Progressive Party candidate, Vincent Hallinan, wins only 140,746 votes - 0.2 percent of the vote. He has denounced the continuation of the Korean War as a long-range imperialist plot by Big Business.

Nov 17  China wants negotiations for Korea moved forward. In the United Nations, India submits a cease-fire proposal which includes a return of willing prisoners and the establishment of a four-member Neutral Nations Reparations Commission.

Nov 18  The British arrest Jomo Kenyatta, alleging that he is connected to the Mau Mau uprising.

Nov 21  In Czechoslovakia the Communist regime sentences eleven former Communist officials to death: the Slansky show trial. All eleven are Jews.

Dec 1  A front page story in the New York Daily News announces the transsexual operation in Denmark on a former US soldier who now goes by the name of Christine Jorgensen. Many in the US are shocked and dismayed.

Dec 1  In Venezuela the left-of-center Nationalist Democratic Union for a Republic leads in returns from elections for a national congress - to return the country to constitutional government.

Dec 2  The military junta in power in Venezuela cancels the elections and declares their leader, Colonel Perez Jimenez, Provisional President. Jimenez will rule as dictator until 1958.

Dec 23  In London, two weeks after five days "killer fog" at least 4,000 deaths have occurred. Thousands more who appear to have recovered will die from reoccurring complications.

Date unknown   While US Marines are returning with a wounded fellow Marine on a stretcher, a middle-aged porter in the Korean Service Corps slips in the mud, letting the stretcher fall to the ground. An angry Marine is enraged because the kid on the stretcher is his buddy, and he dislikes Asians in general. He shoots the Korean.

No date  A common but not universal opinion among US ground troops in Korea facing Chinese forces is that the Chinese have little respect or passion for life - much less at any rate than do Americans. This would diminish decades later with the rise of television coverage of events in China.


1953
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Jan 10  "The Crucible," Arthur Miller's play about the "red scare," opens on Broadway. It draws from Ibsen's play "An Enemy of the People" and its subject is the Salem witch hunts. The FBI has a file on Miller that describes him as "under Communist Party discipline."

Jan 12   Estonians establish a government in exile in Norway.

Jan 13  In the Communist Party newspaper, Pravda, prominent doctors are accused of having taken part in a conspiracy to poison Soviet leaders. The doctors are accused of being paid by US and British intelligence and of serving the interests of an international Jewish bourgeois-nationalist organization.

Jan 20  Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes President of the United States.

Jan 23  Israelis are alarmed by a series of border incidents and by Egypt's premier, Mohammed Naguib, saying he intends to "liberate Palestine."

Jan 26  Walter Ulbricht announces that agriculture in East Germany will be collectivized.

Feb 1  High tide and a severe windstorm create a North Sea tidal surge 3.6 meters high (11.8 feet). In Britain 307 are killed. The Dutch lose 1,835 people and an estimated 10,000 animals. There was no warning.

Feb 9  Most of the accused doctors in the Soviet Union are Jews. Stalin has turned against Jewish nationalism. Scores of Soviet Jews have been dismissed from their jobs. A bomb explodes at the Soviet mission in Israel.

Feb 11  The Soviet Union breaks diplomatic relations with Israel.

Mar 1  Amid mysterious departures from normal routine, Stalin suffers a stroke that paralyzes the right side of his body. According to the memoirs of Foreign Minister Molotov, to be published in 1993, the chief of the Soviet Union's police, Lavrenty Beria, bragged to him that he poisoned Stalin.

Mar 5  Stalin dies. It is the day that Jews were scheduled to be deported from Moscow, a move opposed by Beria.

Mar 6  Soviet radio interrupts broadcasting with the message that Stalin has died. People are stunned by the loss of a father figure. Malenkov succeeds Stalin as the Soviet Union's Premier and as First Secretary of its Communist Party. Malenkov appeals for "monolithic unity" and "vigilance."  Stalin's body lies in state in the Hall of Columns, a few streets from Red Square. It will be said that a crowd of mourners gets out of control and people are crushed to death.

Mar 9  In Paris, flags have been flying at half-staff. In Italy, Communist workers take a 20-minute work stoppage to honor Stalin, and, in the streets of Rome, Communists and neo-Fascists fight.

Mar 11  In the United States, a B-47 bomber accidentally drops an atom bomb on Mars Bluff, South Carolina. The bomb was not prepared for detonation.

Mar 26  Mau Mau rebels have killed as many as 150 of their fellow Kikuyu Kenyans - to be known as the Lari Massare.

Mar 28  The Soviet government's Council of Ministers approves a resolution sent to them by Beria for a broad amnesty and release of about 1 million of the 2.1 million in Stalin's prisons.

Mar 31  Beria, still head of Soviet police, frees all of the doctors arrested in connection with the so-called doctor's plot and arrests officials involved in creating what he describes as having been a fabrication.

Mar 31  Gregori Malenkov has called for peaceful coexistence between the superpowers and for peace in Korea. Zhou Enlai joins him, proposing that the prisoner of war issue be turned over to a neutral state.

Apr 2   President Eisenhower says he takes Communist peace bids seriously.

Apr 12  Alexander Wiley, Republican of Wisconsin, and Hubert H. Humphrey, Democrat of Minnesota, members of Senate Foreign Relations Committee, warn against recent "peace gestures" by the Soviet Union.

Apr 13  The Netherlands Ministry of Traffic and Waterways announces that 330,000 out of an original 360,000 flooded acres are dry again. The Dutch are planning projects involving years of work to prevent another flood.

Apr 22  The Viet Minh and Laotian rebels (led by Prince Souphanouvong) have moved into Laos with a Viet Minh force from Vietnam. The French are striking against the rebels with bombing runs by aircraft but without success.

May 12  In the US Senate, Barry Goldwater makes his maiden speech. He dislikes price controls used by the Eisenhower administration, saying that price controls have always failed, that ancient, medieval and modern price-control systems create "scarcity instead of production and ill will instead of cooperation." A Republican colleague, Capehart of Indiana, argues that specific price controls can for a while be useful, and he cites the results of controls since 1950.

May 13-16  In Korea, the US Air Force destroys dams north of Pyongyang. Rice crops are washed away.

May 19-20  In Korea, B-29s attack a large supply complex at Unsan-dong.

May 21-22  B-29s score seven direct hits on the Kuwonga dam but fail to burst it because the North Koreans have lowered the water level by twelve feet.

May 25  At the Nevada Test Site, the United States conducts its first and only nuclear artillery test.

May 28- 29  B-29s returned to the Kuwonga Dam, scoring five direct hits with 2,000-pound bombs. The North Koreans have drained the dam of its water, exhausting the supply of water for irrigation.

May 28  In Korea, Communists forces launch raids against UN forces.
 
Jun 5  Greenland is no longer a colony. Denmark's new constitution declares that Greenland is an integral part of the Kingdom of Denmark.

Jun 8  An agreement to the Korean War's POW problem is reached. Those prisoners who refuse to return to their Communist countries are allowed to live under a neutral supervising commission for three months. If they still refuse repatriation they will be released.

Jun 13  In Hungary, Prime Minister Matyas Rákosi, a hardline Stalinist, is replaced by Imre Nagy, a more liberal Communist.

June 13-18  B-29s and Marine F4U Corsair fighter-bombers strike irrigation dams at Toksan and Kusong in North Korea.

Jun 16  The Soviet Union and Yugoslavia renew diplomatic relations.

Jun 17  Beria's plans to liberalize East Germany backfire. In East Germany strikes and demonstrations erupt.

June 19  In the US Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed. They have been accused of conspiring to commit espionage and passing nuclear weapons secrets to Russian agents.

June 26  In the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev and other top ranking party members move against Beria's power. Khrushchev accuses Beria of being in the pay of British intelligence. Malenkov has little power and abandons Beria. The army asserts its authority over Beria's police and Beria is killed.

July 4  Strikes and riots erupt in coal mining regions in Poland.

July 10  In the speech by a Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Nikolay Shatalin, charges of sexual assault and deviance are made against the late Lavrenty Beria. Pravda announces that Beria has been deposed as a head of the Soviet police, the NKVD.

July 21  The Soviet Union and Israel resume normal diplomatic relations.

Jul 26  Fidel Castro, 26, and his brother, Raul, 22, with more than 100 others attack the second largest military garrison in Cuba. Sixty-one of the rebels die and the others are captured.

Jul 27  The United Nations, China and North Korea sign an armistice agreement. South Korea refuses to sign it. South Korea's President Syngman Rhee opposes a settlement that leaves Korea divided. North Korea and South Korea remain technically at war into the twenty-first century.

Aug 8  Premier Malenkov's announces that the Soviet Union has mastered production of a hydrogen bomb. The news is received in the United States and Britain with some skepticism.

Aug 12  The Soviet Union successfully tests a hydrogen bomb fusion device, using what is called the Sloika design, created largely by a patriotic nuclear scientist, Andrei Sakharov, who in decades to come is to be the Soviet Union's leading dissident.

Aug 19  A force that has the support of CIA and British intelligence operatives pushes through Teheran with tanks and soldiers, against newspapers aligned with the popular prime minister, Mossadegh, and other targets, including Mossadegh's residence. At a radio station, General Fazlollah Zahedi announces that he, with the blessing of Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, is prime minister and that his force controls the city. About 200 people are killed.

Aug 20  French government exiles the sultan of Morocco to Corsica.

Sep 2  A letter from Eisenhower promises aid to the government of Iran.

Sep 7  In the Soviet Union, a Communist Party Central Committee Plenum elects Nikita Khrushchev First Secretary.

Sep 9  Mossadegh is in prison charged with rebellion against the throne, a crime punishable by death. He begins a  hunger strike and demands the right to consult a lawyer on the preparation of his will.

Sept 19  Yours truly discovers that after days of complete quiet in a cabin in the woods away from the hum of the city, a remarkable calm enters the body that is not at all chemically, spiritually or philosophically induced.

Sep 22  In Iran, the newspaper Kayhan reports that 100 have been arrested on charges of being Communist Party members and partisans of Mossadegh.

Sep 25  The first German prisoners of war return from Soviet Union to West Germany.

Oct 22  France grants independence to Laos in all but foreign affairs, recognizing the rule of King Sisavang Vong, a lifelong supporter of French rule. The "Red Prince" Souphanouvong, in alliance with Vietnam's Communist government, rules in northern Laos.

Nov 9  With the French fighting in Vietnam, Cambodia is able to move from independence within the French Union, granted in 1949, to full independence.

Nov 11  In the US, scientists indentify and photograph the polio virus for the first time.

Nov 29  French paratroopers take Dien Bien Phu, a point in Vietnam that blocks a main invasion route to Laos.

Dec 23  The Soviet Union announces that Lavrenty Beria has been executed.

Dec 30  In the United States the first color television sets go on sale, for around $1,175.


1954
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Jan 5  China is one year into its five-year industrialization plan and its economy is growing about 15 percent per year. And China has begun a planned 14-year move from family-owned farms to collectivization.

Jan 7  In his state of the Union message, Eisenhower speaks of the Free World gathering strength. He also recommends legislation that takes away the citizenship of anyone  "conspiring to advocate the overthrow of this government by force or violence."

Jan 14  The Democratic National Committee proclaims that President Eisenhower has not been "soft" on the investigation of Communists in government, despite the "insinuations" of Senator Joseph McCarthy and others.

Jan 17  President Tito complains to a meeting of his Central Committee that articles written by comrade Milovan Djilas amount to a call for elimination of party discipline. He describes Djilas as creating "enormous harm not only to Yugoslavia's Communist Party but also to the unity of the country."

Jan 20  The CIA builds a tunnel from west Berlin into East Berlin to tap Soviet and East German communications.

Jan 21  The first atomic submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched.

Feb 23  In the US the inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine begins.

Feb 23  In Egypt, Gamal Abdul Nasser becomes prime minister.

Mar 1  Another nuclear bomb is tested across Bikini atoll (in the Marshall Islands). This one is a hydrogen bomb, believed to be 1,000 times as powerful as the one dropped on Hiroshima. Japanese tuna fishermen are accidentally exposed to the bomb's radiation.

Mar 1  Puerto Rican nationalists open fire from the gallery of the US House of Representatives, wounding five congressmen.

Mar 6  Edward R. Morrow of CBS television broadcasts his "Report on Senator McCarthy."

Mar 10  President Eisenhower describes Senator McCarthy as a peril to the Republican Party.

Mar 17  The American Cancer Society voices its "suspicion" that cigarette smoking might contribute to lung cancer.

Mar 22  In the US the first shopping mall opens, in Southfield, Michigan.

Mar 30  Canada's first subway line opens, in Toronto.

Apr 15  Margaret Sanger, birth control advocate, testifies before the Japanese Diet.

Apr 29  India recognizes Chinese rule in Tibet and signs an agreement with China regarding trade with Tibet.

Apr 23  An Afro-American, Hank Aaron, hits a home run, the first of his record 755 home runs.

May 7  After 55 days of fighting at Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamese overrun French forces.

May 15  China and India agree to respect each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, to not aggress upon one another and not to interfere in each other's internal affairs.

May 17  In a case concerning elementary education, the US Supreme Court unanimously rules that segregation in public education denies equal protection under the law. Eisenhower does not like the decision but feels that it is his duty to accept it. He believes that southern whites are good people who just don't want their daughters sitting next to black children, and he believes that one can't change hearts.

May 19  US Postmaster General Summerfield approves a CIA mail-opening project.

May 29  Pope Pius XII issues a holy declaration that canonizes Pope Pius X.


 
Jun 2  Senator McCarthy claims that Communists are working in the CIA and in atomic weapons plants.

Jun 14  President Eisenhower signs a law that adds the words "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance.

Jun 17  The American College of Chest Physicians refuses to declare cigarette smoking as a possible cause of lung cancer.

Jun 18   In France, Pierre Mendes-France forms a government and promises to end the war in Vietnam. Some Roman Catholics prefer continued colonialism to abandoning Vietnamese Catholics to Communism. Emotions by those opposed to pulling out of Vietnam run high. Slurs are made against the Jewish origins of Mendes-France.

Jun 27  The Eisenhower administration sees President Arbenz of Guatemala as too leftist. A force financed by the US and trained in Nicaragua overthrows Arbenz. Howard Hunt, a CIA agent involved in the overthrow, prevents Arbenz from being murdered. Arbenz and his wife go into exile in Mexico. 

Jul 3  In Britain, food rationing, in place since World War II, ends.

Jul 7   Elvis Presley debuts on radio in Memphis Tennessee, singing "That's All Right (Mama)."

Jul 12  President Eisenhower proposes an interstate highway program to counteract inefficiency in the transportation of goods and "appalling inadequacies to meet the demands of catastrophe or defense, should an atomic war come."

Jul 15  Boeing's first passenger jet makes its maiden flight.

Jul 13-21  In Geneva a settlement is signed that divides Vietnam temporarily. For two years the French are to be allowed to maintain administration in the southern half of Vietnam. Then elections are to be held to reunite Vietnam. The Vietnamese are talked into signing by China's delegate, Chou Enlai. France, the Soviet Union, China, Vietnam and Britain sign the agreement. The US does not, but it pledges to "respect" the agreements.

Jul 31  In California, the Stanford Research Institute has declared Southern California's abundant sunshine is largely responsible for the smog in Los Angeles.

Aug 9  Turkey, Greece and Yugoslavia sign a 20-year treaty of military and political cooperation.

Aug 21  Prime Minister Nasser describes both the Muslim Brotherhood and Communists as a "corrupting force."

Aug 24  In the United States the Communist Control Act goes into effect, providing severe penalties for Communists who fail to register or become involved in Party activities.

Aug 27  The government of Pierre Mendes-France wins support in the National Assembly for making peace with those in Morocco and Tunisia advocating independence.

Sep 3  The United States has allowed Chiang Kai-shek to move 58,000 soldiers to Quemoy and 15,000 to Matsu. These are islands off the coast of mainland China, within artillery range of the mainland and jumping off points for infiltration by Chiang's agents. China begins shelling Chiang's forces.

Sep 6  A US plane is shot down over Siberia.

Sep 8  The Eisenhower administration creates the South East Asia Treaty Organization, a political-military alliance to "contain communism." Members: the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, Britain, the US and France.

Sep 23  East German police arrest 400 citizens as US spies.

Oct 4  Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio separate after 9 months of marriage.

Oct 6-15  For nine straight days the Los Angeles metropolitan area has been blanketed with chocking, eye-stinging smog, angering residents. Yours truly, Frank Smitha, less than one month out of the Marine Corps, tells himself he should move out of the area.

Oct 19  Britain signs a pact with Egypt, Britain agreeing to withdraw its force from the Suez Canal Zone within 20 months and Egypt agreeing to maintain freedom of canal navigation.

Oct 22  West Germany joins the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Oct 26  A member of Muslim Brotherhood shoots at but misses Prime Minister Nasser.

Oct 29  Nasser bans the Muslim Brotherhood.

Nov 1  In Algeria, between midnight and two in the morning, a rebel organization reveals itself by making simultaneous attacks against military and police targets at various points across the country. The war for Algerian independence has begun.

Nov 8  President Eisenhower has recently given the Legion of Merit to the Venezuelan dictator, Perez Jimenez, for "special meritorious conduct in the fulfillment of his high functions and anti-Communistic attitudes."

Nov 13  Pierre Mendes-France tells France's National Assembly that Algeria has been French for so long (124 years) that "secession is unthinkable."

Nov 14  Egypt's president, General Naguib is accused of being a tool of the Communists and of the Muslim Brotherhood. He is driven from the presidency by his fellow army officers. Nasser becomes "President."

Nov 20  The US begins sending aid directly to the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem in the southern half of Vietnam, by-passing the French. 

Nov 22  The Humane Society forms, to prevent cruelty to animals.

Nov 26  More smog causes Los Angeles County officials to ask that people stop trash burning for at least twenty-four hours.

Dec 2  The US Senate votes 67-22 to censure their colleague, Joe McCarthy, for "conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute."

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Jan 7  Marian Anderson sings at the  Metropolitan Opera in New York City, the first black to do so.

Jan 22  The US announces its plan to develop Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles armed with nuclear weapons.

Jan 25  Scientists at Columbia University develop an atomic clock accurate to within one second in 300 years.

Jan 28  Congress authorizes President Eisenhower to use force to protect Taiwan from China.

Feb 8  In the Soviet Union, Premier Malenkov is still associated with Beria. He is forced to resign and is replaced by Marshal Bulganin, the former defense minister. Malenkov remains in the politburo, now called the presidium.

Feb 8  The last Vietminh troops are scheduled to leave South Vietnam, in accordance with the Geneva Accords of 1954. They are leaving areas they have controlled for the last eight years.

Feb 12  President Eisenhower sends the first US military advisors to South Vietnam, to train an army under Ngo Dinh Diem.

Feb 13  Israelis discover more Dead Sea scroll fragments.

Feb 25  An Israeli cyclist is ambushed by "Arab infiltrators."

Feb 28  An Israeli army unit is attacked and pursues the attackers into Egypt-controlled Gaza.

Feb 1-28  Sometime during this month or the following month, a few sailors create a disturbance at a small Polynesian nightclub in Honolulu. The bouncer throws the leader out and the others follow. The bouncer is a full Polynesian and former Marine whom I knew since 1951. On the sidewalk outside the club the sailors hurl insults at Hawaii, not yet a state and not deserving to be a state according to the sailors. With my friend and me on the sidewalk are a couple of local Asian males. The leader asks me (a white guy) what I am doing among them, a common racial attitude for 1955 - the point of this entry. The leader attacks my friend violently. Within one minute the sailors are fleeing down the street racism on the run. (I met a lot of great individual US sailors aboard ships, and every Marine I knew had the greatest respect for US Navy Corpsmen (medical guys serving with the Marines).

Mar 1  The Israeli retaliation in Gaza is reported as having killed 37 Egyptians and wounded 29 others.  Palestinians stone the United Nations Gaza office.

Mar 3  Egypt warns Israel that it will meet force with force. In the UN, Israel complains of "continuous violations" by Egypt.

Mar 4  The UN Security Council urges Egypt and Israel to desist from violence and provocations.

Mar 15  Secretary of State Dulles indicates that Israel's invasion of the Gaza strip would delay new United States guarantees of Israel's integrity.

Mar 25  The Israeli Army reports that in an Israeli village, ten miles from the Egyptian/Gaza armistice line, armed Egyptians threw bombs at wedding revelers, killing a young woman and wounding eighteen others.

Apr 6  Winston Churchill, 80, steps down and Anthony Eden becomes Britain's Prime Minister.

Apr 12  The Salk Polio vaccine is declared safe and effective, and vaccine shots for polio begin to be given to children.

Apr 18  In Hungary the Communist premier Imre Nagy, an former Stalinist executioner, has been advocating a "new course" and is ousted from power by comrades who dislike his moderation.

Apr 18  Albert Einstein dies, at the age of seventy-six, in Princeton, New Jersey.

Apr 18-24 The Bandung Conference takes place in Indonesia. It promotes neutralism, hostility toward colonialism and imperialism. It is attended by representatives from 29 African and Asian nations. Nasser of Egypt, Tito of Yugoslavia, Nehru of India and Chou Enlai of China are among those attending.

May 5  West Germany becomes the Federal Republic of Germany, a sovereign state.

May 9  West Germany joins NATO.

May 14  In Warsaw, the "Warsaw Pact" is formed, a response to what is claimed to be a threat from NATO and the re-militarization of Germany. Member states are the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania.

May 15  In Vienna, the Soviet Union and other major victors of World War II sign the Austrian State Treaty. Austria becomes sovereign and democratic and is to be unaligned.

May 20  In accord with Juan Perón's attitude toward the Catholic Church, Argentina's parliament accepts the separation of church and state.

May 31  The US Supreme Court orders that states must end racial segregation "with all deliberate speed."
 
Jun 1-30  Universal studios is filming "The Conqueror" in Snow Canyon State Park in Utah, an area unknowlingly contaminated by the testing of eleven nuclear bombs in nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada in 1953. Of the 220 persons working on the film on location, 46 will be have died from cancer and 91 others will have contracted cancer by the 1980s. "Experts" calculate that only 30 persons should have gotten cancer from a group that size. Among the 46 who will die by the early 80s: the stars, John Wayne, Susan Hayward and Agnes Moorehead, and the director, Dick Powell.

Jun 9  Secretary of State Dulles, at Iowa State College, says "neutrality has increasingly become an obsolete and, except under very exceptional circumstances, it is an immoral and shortsighted conception."

Jun 16  The Perón regime has legalized divorce, prostitution and accorded full civil rights to those born out of wedlock. Police have suppressed anti-government religious processions. The government has deported two high-ranking bishops. The Vatican retaliates against the latter by excommunicating Perón, and, on this day, members of the navy and airforce revolt against the Perón regime, but the coup fails.

Jun 27  Automobile seat belt legislation is enacted in Illinois.

Jun 30   A United Nations report describes the United States as facing increased competition in Latin American markets from the Soviet Union and nations of the Soviet bloc.

Jul 17  Disneyland opens in what was recently a small town and an old German settlement, Anaheim, California.

Jul 18  At Geneva Switzerland, a "summit" meeting between the leaders of the Soviet Union, Britain, France and the United States begins - the first such meeting since Potsdam. Prime Minister Eden of Britain had a lot to do with creating the meeting.

Jul 23  The summit meeting has been carefully planned and staged, with leaders flanked by their advisors, reading prepared statements - not the kind of spontaneous personal exchanges favored by Winston Churchill. The summit has produced little more than propaganda opportunities for both sides and ends without accomplishment.

Aug 8  Fidel Castro, after serving two years in prison, has received amnesty from Batista. Castro is in Mexico and there with other Cuban exiles he forms his "July 26th Movement."

Aug 31  Algerian revolutionaries (the FLN) have moved from attacking government and military targets to attacking civilians - 123 including old women and children. France's governor in Algeria, Jacques Soustelle, a reformer, is shocked and supports sterner measures against the rebels. The government claims it has killed 1,273 guerrillas in retaliation. According to the FLN, French forces, police and colonist (colon) gangs have killed 12,000 Muslims.

Aug 25  In accordance with its international commitments, the last of Soviet forces leaves Austria.

Aug 28  Emmett Till, a black teenager from Chicago visiting in Mississippi, is lynched.

Sep 6-7  Greeks riot in Istanbul. Retaliation includes attacks upon Greek churches, shops, cemeteries and some killing. The Greek community in Istanbul is destroyed.

Sep 7  Peru gives its women the right to vote.

Sept 19  Argentina's military leaders are unhappy about Perón's sixteen year-old live-in companion and unhappy about Perón creating a workers' militia. They want no competing military force. They overthrow Perón and confiscate the body of Eva Perón to prevent it from being used to rally the masses. Perón flees to the Embassy of Paraguay and then into exile and eventually to Spain.

Sep 20  Rocky Marciano knocks out Archie Moore in the 9th round in New York City.

Sep 27  Egypt buys arms from Czechoslovakia, agreeing to receive financing from the Soviet Union for building the Aswan dam across the Nile.

Oct 15  China's Communist Party decides to speed moving from private ownership of farmlands to "agricultural producers' cooperatives."

Oct 17  The Vatican commends the Archbishop of New Orleans for his measures against racial discrimination practiced by some Roman Catholics in Louisiana.

Oct 19  Mao Zedong is reported to have said that he would be willing to visit the United States but that he does not expect to be invited.

Oct 26  Ignoring the Geneva agreement of 1954, Ngo Dinh Diem proclaims Vietnam a republic with himself as president.

Oct 29  The Fifth international Conference on Planned Parenthood has been meeting in Tokyo. The Communist government in China has send a representative. The conference asks the United Nations to address the problems of overpopulation.

Nov 7  Racial segregation in public parks, playgrounds and golf courses is outlawed by the US Supreme Court.

Nov 19  William F. Buckley Jr. publishes his first issue of the National Review, a conservative political journal. Buckley is unhappy with middle-of-the road Republicanism, represented by the Eisenhower administration. Buckley's first issue proclaims the "middle-of-the-road politically, intellectually, and morally repugnant."

Nov 25  The United States Interstate Commerce Commission decrees that racial segregation on trains and buses that cross state lines will end by Jan. 10. This includes public waiting rooms in railway and bus terminals.

Dec 1  In Montgomery, Alabama, a tired seamstress, Rosa Parks, refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man. She is arrested by police.

Dec 5  Black ministers in Montgomery form the Montgomery Improvement Association. They choose as their leading spokesperson the young Martin Luther King Jr., and they start a boycott of Montgomery buses.

Dec 31 Communist (Hukbalahap) guerrillas north of Manila have been diminishing through the year. They now number around 1,000. The government's success against the Communists is attributed to its moderation and reforms in the area where the guerillas have operated, rather than to bloody repression.


1956
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Jan 1  For Sudan, a transition period toward independence ends. With the consent of Britain and Egypt, Sudan becomes sovereign.

Jan 9  Former Communist, Louis Budenz, a leading source for the FBI on Communism, describes co-existence as a Russian trick. He urges the US to break relations with the Soviet Union.

Jan 15  In China all individually owned enterprises are transferred to joint state-private ownership.

Jan 16  Premier Nikolai Bulganin of the Soviet Union offers technical assistance, trading arrangements and expanded diplomatic and cultural relations with Latin American nations.

Jan 16  President Nasser of Egypt vows to reconquer Palestine.

Jan 20  At a Party Congress in China, Zhou En-lai delivers a report on the "Question of Intellectuals." Open criticism and freedom of thought is supported for the sake of advancing the Revolution.

Jan 25  The First Secretary of the Soviet Union's Communist Party, Nikita Khrushchev, says he believes that Eisenhower is sincere in his efforts to abolish war.

Jan 25-26  Mao Zedung has announced that socialism on a national scale could be completed in about three years. A comprehensive twelve-year development plan for collectivizing agriculture is announced.

Jan 26  Porkkala Peninsula, about 30 kilometers southwest of Helsinki, leased to the Soviet Union as part of its armistice with Finland, is returned to Finland ahead of schedule. The Finns find the Russians were sloppy and abusive in their care of the area.

Feb 17  The US announces suspension of all arms shipments to Israel and Arab nations.

Feb 23  In a six-hour speech to a closed session of the Communist Party's 20th Congress, Nikita Khrushchev denounces the "crimes" of Stalin against the Party and denounces the "cult of personality" that developed with Stalin's leadership.

Mar 2  France recognizes the independence of Morocco.

Mar 15  Marx's gravesite monument, established by British Communists, is unveiled in London.

Mar 20  After four years of guerrilla warfare, Tunisia acquires independence from France. By agreement, some French troops will remain.

Mar 22  In Alabama, a court of law rules Marin Luther King Jr. guilty. His crime was organizing a bus boycott. King vows to use "passive resitance and the weapon of love" in the fight for human rights.

Mar 28  British Communist Party members question their leadership's past subservience to Stalin.

Mar 29  In the United States, the Communist Party's newspaper, the Daily Worker, has been seized for non-payment of taxes. From the paper's office, US Treasury agents remove wastebaskets full of invoices, receipts, financial ledgers and subscribers' lists.

Mar 30  In China, Communist Party leaders worry over what to say about Stalin, whom Mao described as the "teacher and friend of mankind" and "the greatest genius of the present age."

Apr 5  The French decide to send 100,000 more troops to Algeria.

Apr 7  Spain officially relinquishes the "protectorate" in what had been "their part" of Morocco.

Apr 19  Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier III of Monaco.

Apr 22  Morocco becomes a member of the United Nations.

May 2  In the United States the Methodist Church opens full ordained clergy status to women and calls for an end to segregation within the denomination.

May 16  Egypt's Nasser withdraws recognition from the government of Chiang Kai-shek on Taiwan and extends it to the Communist government on the mainland.

May 21  The US drops a hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll - a test.

May 7  In the US, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) issues a press release stating that the Air Force and U-2 aircraft are helping it conduct weather research.

May 20  Egypt's Nasser says that Egypt "is free to buy arms from any place we like and in any quantity we like." He is referring to an arms deal he has signed with communist Czechoslovakia.

May 22  The NACA issues a press release with a false explanation about a U-2 aircraft operating overseas.

Jun 10  Peronist revolts in various parts of Argentina are crushed. Twenty-six revolt leaders are quickly executed.

 
Suez Canal
The Suez Canal

Jun 13  Britain's 74-year occupation of the Suez Canal ends.

Jun 14  President Eisenhower authorizes the phrase "under God" to be added to the Pledge of Allegiance.

Jun 14  British forces leave the Suez Canal area.

Jun 17 Golda Meir becomes Israel's foreign minister.

Jun 29  Marilyn Monroe marries playwright Arthur Miller.

Jun 28-30  Factory Workers protest in Poznan. A crowd of 100,000 gather and are fired upon.  The government crushes the protest with 400 tanks and about 10,000 soldiers. Official figures list 74 killed.

Jul 5  France raises its tobacco tax 20 percent to support its war in Algeria.

Jul 18  In the wake of Khrushchev's anti-Stalin speech, the Soviet Union forces the Stalinist Matyas Rákosi to resign from his remaining position of power - as head of Hungary's Communist Party.  He is replaced by an old friend, Enro Gero.

Jul 19  Annoyance with Nasser leads to a US withdrawal of loan offers to Egypt for the construction of the Aswan High Dam. Britain is obliged to follow suit.
 
Jul 26  Responding to the withdrawal of loans, and to raise money for building the Aswan High Dam, Nasser announces that Egypt is taking control of the Suez Canal. The British and French are upset, the French are also upset because of Nasser's support for Algeria's independence movement.    

Jul 30  President Eisenhower signs legislation that authorizes "In God We Trust" as the national motto.

Jul 31  Francis Gary Powers, flying a U-2 aircraft, has penetrated Soviet air space. Photography fourteen miles above a parking lot can now capture the lines marking the parking areas of individual cars.

Aug 1  US Secretary of State Dulles speaks in favor of an international operation of the Suez Canal and of world opinion isolating Egypt's Nasser.

Aug 31  Israel has retaliated again against an assault within its borders. Egypt files a complaint with the United Nations truce supervision office in Jerusalem, accusing Israelis of killing 13 of its soldiers in raids into Gaza.

Sep 2  France's foreign minister, Christian Pineau, calls Nasser a dangerous dictator and says that France will use force against Egypt if necessary in the Suez dispute. The US president, Eisenhower, warns the British against the use of force regarding Suez. He states his fear of adverse reaction by  people in the Middle East and North Africa, "and to some extent all of Africa."

Sep 5  Israel complains to the United Nations about Egypt denying passage of its ships. 

Sep 9  France's premier, Guy Mollet, repeats a threat to use force if necessary to impose international control over the Suez Canal. Veteran canal pilots are quitting and being replaced by Soviet pilots.

Sep 12-17  President Sukarno is in Moscow and announces a $100 million loan from the Soviet Union for Indonesia.

Oct 8  In the United Nations, Israel accuses Egypt of having barred use of the Suez Canal by 103 vessels from at least fourteen countries, including Israel.

Oct 13  A Soviet Union veto on the UN Security Council prevents compromise resolution of the Suez conflict.

Oct 16  In Budapest, university students form an independent organization. They favor a return to power by Imry Nagy, a Communist, because he represents independence from Moscow. They want Soviet troops out of Hungary, free multi-party elections, and disbanding of the secret police: the AVO.

Oct 23  In Budapest, students rally to celebrate the Communist regime in Poland releasing the Communist politician Wladyslaw Gomulka from prison. Hungarian soldiers on duty join the students, and the crowd moves to the parliament building, picking up people along the way and numbering about 100,000. Security police (the AVO) fire on the crowd. The Hungarian Revolution begins. 

Oct 24  Soviet tanks and troops invade Hungary.

Oct. 25  Israel warns the UN Security Council today that it will not "sit back and suffer the consequences of a unilateral Arab belligerency."

Oct 29  Israel invades the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula.

Oct 30  In Hungary, Soviet troops have been inactive. Revolt has spread through the country. Imry Nagy is the new Prime Minister and has formed a government. He announces the end of one-party politics. Cardinal Mindszenty has been released from prison. Soviet troops leave Budapest for outlying areas.

Oct 31 Britain and France begin bombing Egypt. An Egyptian warship surrenders to the Israeli navy after having shelled the port of Haifa.

Nov 1  The Nagy regime withdraws from the Warsaw Pact.

Nov 2  Israel's ambassador to Britain states that Israel will not withdraw from Egypt until it is guaranteed freedom from further attacks by Egypt.

Nov 2  In the United States a presidential election campaign is winding down. Vice President Nixon hails the Eisenhower administration's break with Anglo-French policies as a "declaration of independence that has had an electrifying effect throughout the world."

Nov 4  More Soviet troops invade Hungary. Thousands are wounded. People start fleeing from Hungary into Austria and Yugoslavia. Radio broadcasts from Hungary call for help. The Russians take Nagy and his cabinet prisoner and arrest numerous others.

Nov 4  Israeli troops reach the Suez Canal.

Nov 5  British and French paratroops land in the Suez Canal Zone. Israeli troops capture Sharm-el-Sheikh and reopen the Gulf of Aqaba.

Nov 5  The Soviet Union announces that it is prepared to use force to "crush the aggressors and restore peace" to the Middle East.

Nov 7  The UN General Assembly calls on Britain, France and Israel to withdraw immediately from Arab lands.

Nov 7  Eisenhower is elected for a second four-year term.

Nov 9  Israel agrees to leave Egypt when UN forces arrive to positions in the Sinai.

Nov 11  Raids against Israel are made from Syria, Jordan and Lebanon.

Nov 12  Egypt agrees with the UN Secretary General, Dag Hammarskjold, concerning the stationing of an international police force on Egyptian territory.

Nov 25  Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and 80 other armed men, depart from Tuxpan Mexico abroad the "Granma" heading for Cuba. Fifty others are left behind because there was no space for them on the boat.

Nov 18  British Colonial Secretary Lennox-Boyd announces in the House of Commons that the military operations against the Mau Mau terrorists in Kenya are over.

Nov 23 A proclamation is read aloud in mosques throughout Egypt declaring that "all Jews are enemies of the state." Jews are being expelled from Egypt and their property confiscated.

Dec 2  The "Granma" runs aground in a swamp at the foot of the Sierra Maestras in eastern Cuba. An airplane has spotted the rebels and Batista's army is waiting. Only a few of the rebels make it into the Sierra Maestras - among them are Fidel Castro, his brother Raul and Che Guevara.

Dec 3  Britain and France begin to withdraw their troops from Egypt.

Dec 5  In South Africa, Nelson Mandela and 150 others arrested and charged with treason.

Dec 5  Rose Heilbron becomes Britain's first female judge.

Dec 12  Japan becomes a member of the United Nations.

Dec 18  Explaining the US government's position regarding the Hungarian uprising, Secretary of State Dulles says that "...we have no desire to surround the Soviet Union with a band of hostile states." He speaks in favor of "an evolution - a peaceful evolution - of the satellite states toward genuine independence."

Dec 22  Britain and France complete their withdrawal from Egypt.

1957
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Jan 1  Bolivia has been suffering from inflation. The US is concerned about radicalism in Latin America.  US financial aid to Bolivia is greater than any other country relative to the size of that country's population. The US
 is subsidizing 30 percent of the Bolivian government's central budget.

Jan 5  In the wake of the Suez crisis, President Eisenhower asks Congress to create economic aid and military assistance to prevent Soviet expansion into the Middle East - the Eisenhower Doctrine.

Jan 9  Stress during the Suez crisis breaks Anthony Eden's health. He resigns as Prime Minister and is replaced by Harold Macmillan.

Jan 10  Responding to what is considered the decline of France and Britain in world affairs, Eisenhower proclaims his administration's commitment to the defense of the entire free world.

Jan 10  In Montgomery Alabama, six African-American churches and the home of two ministers are bombed.

Jan 14  Humphrey Bogart, actor and heavy smoker, dies at the age of 57 from cancer of the esophagus.

Jan 16  French colons in Algeria want a more energetic commander in the fight against the Algerian independence movement. They attempt to assassinate General Salan, using a bazooka, killing instead a colonel.

Jan 19 The United Nations is urging Israel to withdraw its troops from Egypt's Sinai territory.

Jan 22  Premier David Ben-Gurion of Israel withdraws his nation's troops from Egypt's Sinai territory.

Feb 7  In the US, King Saud and Eisenhower agree to a five-year renewal of the US lease of the airbase at Dhahran in Saudi Arabia. King Saud supports the Eisenhower Doctrine.

Feb 11  US Communists are chided by a leader of the French Communist Party, Jacques Duclos, for "dangerous" tendencies. Duclos has urged solidarity with Soviet foreign policy. The US Communist Party asserts its independence from the Soviet Communist Party. 

Feb 14  In New Orleans, the Southern Leadership Conference is created, with Martin Luther King Jr. elected as president.

Mar 6  Ghana becomes the first African country to gain independence from Britain. The Duchess of Kent opens an Independence Monument where, in 1948, members of the Ghanaian ex-servicemen's union were shot while marching to present a petition to the British Governor.

Mar 20 The French newspaper L'Express reveals that the French army has tortured Algerian prisoners.

Mar 21  Vice President Nixon returns from a 22-day tour of Africa. He reports that Africa is an area of conflict "between the forces of freedom and international Communism."

Mar 25  Economic cooperation, in the form of the European Commission for Steel and Coal, develops into the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community - steps away from the narrow nationalism that had divided Europe and toward the creation of the European Union.

Mar 31 Israel has given the Gaza Strip back to Egypt.

Apr 9  Egypt opens the Suez Canal for all shipping.

Apr 12  A copy of Allen Ginsberg's poem Howl, printed in England, is seized by US customs on the grounds that it is obscene.

May 2  Senator Joe McCarthy dies of acute hepatitis.

May 13  Chuck Berry is playing music that white teenagers enjoy and he has risen to the top of the Rhythm & Blues chart.

May 29  Algerian rebels kill 336 they deem as collaborators.

Jun 1  The French believe that Algerian rebels are entering Algeria across the border with Tunisia. Premier Bourguiba of Tunisia states that French troops should not cross into his country without permission from his
government.

Jun 2  Interviewed on "Face the Nation," Nikita Khrushchev says: "I can prophecy that your grandchildren in America will live under socialism. And please do not be afraid of that. Your grandchildren will ... not understand how their grandparents did not understand the progressive nature of a Socialist society."

Jun 17  The US Supreme Court rules the Smith Act unconstitutional. US Communists are being freed from accusations of crime.

Jun 18  In the Soviet Union's Presidium (formerly the Politburo) Malenkov, Molotov & Kaganovich organize a vote to dismiss Nikita Khrushchev.

Jun 27 Hurricane Audrey demolishes Cameron, Louisiana, and kills 400 people.

Jul 2  Investments by the French in oil in Algeria's Sahara region are based on a calculation that Algeria will not win independence.

Jul 3 Khrushchev wins against Molotov, Malenkov, Kaganovich and Voroshilov. They are denounced as "Anti-Party."  Molotov is banished as ambassador to Mongolia. Malenkov becomes the manager of a hydroelectric plant in Kazakhstan. Kaganovich is made director of a small potassium plant in the Urals. Voroshilov switches to supporting Khrushchev. It's a change from what happened to such losers in the Stalin era.

Jul 17  Eisenhower declares that he cannot imagine any set of circumstances that would induce him to send federal troops to the South.

Jul 22  French Polynesia becomes an overseas territory of France. The islanders become French citizens.

Jul 25  Habib Bourguiba is elected President of Tunisia. He  abolishes the constitutional monarchy, a 250-year dynasty, turning Tunisia into a republic.

Aug 1  In his first interview as president, Bourguiba announces that his government will be Western in sympathy and policy. Bourguiba is going to oppose Islamic fundamentalism, and he will promote secularism and women's rights. He intentds to prohibit polygamy, legalize divorce and to raise the age at which girls can marry to seventeen.

Aug 24  William F. Buckley's magazine, National Review , editorializes: "The central question that emerges … is whether the White community in the South is entitled to take such measures as are necessary to prevail, politically and culturally, in areas in which it does not prevail numerically? The sobering answer is Yes - the White community is so entitled because, for the time being, it is the advanced race." The editorial adds that "The South confronts one grave moral challenge. It must not exploit the fact of Negro backwardness to preserve the Negro as a servile class."

Sep 4  Governor Orville Faubus of Arkansas calls out the National Guard to prevent black students from enrolling at Little Rock's Central High School.

Sep 18  Secretary of State Dulles predicts that in a few years the Western powers may be able to defend themselves with tactical nuclear weapons in the event of a non-nuclear attack by the Soviet Union.

Sep 20  A federal court orders Governor Faubus to remove the National Guard.

Sep 23  Nine black students enter Little Rock High School under police protection but are removed in fear of mob violence.

Sep 24  President Eisenhower federalizes the Arkansas Nation Guard and sends 1,000 from 101 Airborne Division to Little Rock "to prevent anarchy."  Senator Barry Goldwater, establishing himself as a leader among
conservatives, opposes Eisenhower's move - although he is not a segregationist.

Oct 4  The Soviet Union launches the world's first orbiting satellite, Sputnik.

Oct 10  Ayn Rand's heaviest book of fiction, Atlas Shrugged, her philosophical magnus opus, is published.

Oct 15  Since the month of March, the French in the city of Algiers have been conducting a counter-insurgency campaign, led by General Jacques Massu. They have weakened the independence organization in Algiers, the FLN, and re-established French authority. They have used torture, but intelligence gathered from the torture has contributed little to their success. Their success has been the result of accurate intelligence obtained through informants and the application of overwhelming military force. Torture has been turning more people against the French and in favor of the temporarily weakened FLN.

Oct 31  Malaya becomes independent within the Commonwealth. A war being won there against Communist guerrillas continues.

Oct 31  In the southern half of Vietnam, where Ngo Dien Diem is defending his rule, peasants are being put into communities surrounded by barbed wire. Communists and other supporters of Ho Chi Minh in the South are under attack. Ho Chi Minh's supporters have been annoyed at the slowness of the North to act. The North starts organizing new fighting units in the South - the Vietcong.

Nov 3 The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2, which has a dog named Laika aboard.

Nov 7  The Gaither Report, authored by Paul Nitze and others, is given to President Eisenhower. The report calls for having Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombers in the air at all times, putting long range missiles in underground silos and developing a massive shelter program to protect civilians in case of a nuclear war. 

Nov 25  Eisenhower has a stroke. From now on his speech will by slightly impaired.

Nov 30  In Indonesia a group of Muslims hurl grenades at President Sukarno while he is leaving a school. Ten are killed and 48 children injured.

Dec 6  The United States tries to launch its first satellite. It blows up on the launch pad.

Dec 10  In Stockholm, Albert Camus <http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/phil2-camus.htm> wins the Noble Prize for literature.

1958
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Jan 1  In Caracas, Venezuela, a revolt against the Jimenez dictatorship is crushed.

Jan 3  Military officers and others suspected of having been "enemies of peace" during the recent revolt in Venezuela have been imprisoned.

Jan 9  Five Roman Catholic priests are among those held by the police. Relations between the Church and the Jimenez regime are strained.

Jan 13  A petition to take action immediately against nuclear testing, signed by 9,235 scientists in 43 countries, is accepted by the UN Secretary General, Dag Hammarskjold.

Jan 15  For three days students have been demonstrating against the Jimenez regime and the national security police have fired into a demonstration wounding two teen-age boys.

Jan 21  A scheduled general strike paralyzes Venezuela.

Jan 23  Military men take power in cooperation with civilians and a promise of return to democracy. Perez Jimenez and friends flee in an airplane to Miami, Florida.

Jan 24  Scientists have put two atoms together to form one heavier atom - the first man made nuclear fusion.

Feb 1  Syria and Egypt combine into the United Arab Republic. The Saud family fears Nasser, who had taken part in deposing a king and was friendly with the Soviet Union.

Feb 11  In the United States, Ruth Carol Taylor is the first black hired as a flight attendant.

Feb 14  King Hussein in Jordan is afraid of Nasser and the United Arab Republic. Jordan joins in federation with King Hussein's cousin in Iraq, King Faisal II.

Feb 20  A rocket explodes on a launching pad at Cape Canaveral.

Feb 20  Ramfis Trujillo, adopted son of the Dominican dictator, is a student attending the US Army war college at Ft. Levenworth Texas. He is in California with yacht, crew and on-board soldiers, partying and spending thousands of dollars on Hollywood's Kim Novak and Zsa Zsa Gabor. Congressmen are upset and complain about US aid money to the Dominican Republic being squandered. There is talk of a Congressional investigation.

March  This month at the observatory atop Hawaii's Mauna Loa, the scientist Charles David Keeling starts regular measurements of levels of carbon dioxide CO2 in the atmosphere. The measurements will extend to different points around the globe and will be continual in the 21st century.

Mar 24  King Saud has been spending too much money. Inflation is rampant. His brother Faisal acquires executive powers in foreign and internal affairs.

Mar 26  The US Army launches Explorer III.

Mar 27  Nikita Khrushchev becomes leader of the Soviet government (premier) in addition to First Secretary of the Soviet Union's Communist Party.

Mar 31  The Soviet Union declares a halt on all atomic tests and asks other nations to do the same.

May 8  In France the use of torture in Algeria and military conscription have made the war in Algeria unpopular. For three weeks France's parliament has been unable to form a government. President René Coty appeals to a centrist, Pierre Pfimlin, to form a government, and Pfimlin announces his intention of negotiate an end to the war in Algeria.

May 8  Vice President Nixon, with his wife Pat, are on an eight-nation tour in Latin America. In Lima, Peru, he is shoved, booed and spat upon by anti-American protesters. In the New York Times the hostility is described as "Communist inspired."

May 13  In Caracas, Nixon's limousine is battered by rocks. Nixon is learning the extent to which dictators and US friendship with them are unpopular in Latin America.

May 13  In Algiers, European settlers riot against the possibility of a negotiated settlement. They seize government buildings and form an ad hoc government they call the Committee of Public Safety. They are supported by the French general in command in Algiers, Jacques Massu.

May 14  President Dwight Eisenhower has ordered forces to US Caribbean bases.

May 15  The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 3, the first space laboratory.

May 18  In eastern Indonesia, Sukarno is fighting rebellious military officers backed by Secretary of State Dulles and his brother Allen, head of the CIA. An aircraft crewed by Americans and piloted by Alan Pope, from a US airbase in the Philippines, is shot down near Ambon.

May 19  France's parliament has passed a bill granting emergency powers to the Interior Ministry. General Massu is threatening to assault Paris with his parachutist troops. He has proclaimed support for the nationalist hero in retirement, Charles de Gaulle. De Gaulle announces that he is ready to "take on the powers of the Republic" but that he is not about to start a new career as a dictator.

May 23  Mao Zedong announces his second five-year plan, called the "Great Leap Forward," a plan for developing agriculture and industry.

May 24  In Cuba, the dictator Batista sends a force of 10,000 against Fidel Castro's rebellion - without helicopter gunships. Helicopter gunships are not yet being produced. 

May 24  General Massu extends his rebellion. His paratroopers seize Corsica. De Gaulle refuses to condemn the invasion.

May 25  In southeastern Tunisia, French airplanes bomb and strafe Tunisians fighting incursions by French troops. Meanwhile, France's government imposes press censorship in response to Massu's rebellion in Corsica.

May 26  President Bourguiba of Tunisia says he has requested direct US and British intervention regarding Tunisia. Morocco insists that French troops withdraw from the eastern part of the country bordering Algeria.

May 29  In France there is widespread support for de Gaulle rescuing France from political chaos. President Coty calls on de Gaulle to accept the position of premier (prime minister).
 
Jun 1  De Gaulle becomes premier and, in keeping with his demands, parliament gives him emergency powers for six months, during which a new constitution is to be created.

Jun 6  De Gaulle goes to Algiers. He says that Algeria will always be French.

Jul 10  An earthquake in Alaska triggers the largest tsunami on record. The wave washes 500 meters up a mountain.

Jun 5  Greek Cypriots, led by Archbishop Makarios, have been urging independence from Britain. Turkish Cypriots are demanding Cyprus be partitioned between the Greek and Turkish populations. Makarios meets with Nasser, who supports him.

Jun 16  In Hungary, Imre Nagy is hanged.

Jun 18  In Japan, tradition is broken by Prince Akito choosing his own bride.

Jul 6  In Lebanon, gerrymandering, alleged electoral fraud and the dismissal of pro-Arab ministers have angered Muslims. They rebel against the government of President Camille Chamoun - a Marionite Christian. Muslims have been urging union with Nasser's United Arab Republic.

Jul 14  In Iraq, a military coup by General Abdel Karim al-Kassem (Qassim) is followed by Iraq's royal family being ordered into their courtyard and to face the wall. Soldiers then slaughter them with rifle fire.

Jul 15  US and British officials contend that the United Arab Republic is intervening in Lebanon. President Eisenhower orders 5,000 US Marines to Lebanon at the request of Lebanon's president, Chamoun.

July 16  The United Arab Republic describes the US landing as "another Suez" and claims that it will cause the US to lose friends in "all of the Middle East."

Jul 20  King Hussein of Jordan breaks diplomatic relations with the United Arab Republic. The Federation of Iraq and Jordan is in effect ended.

Jul 24  Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments develops an idea for an integrated circuit on a piece of silicon.

Jul 27  Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act.

Jul 31  Lebanon's parliament elects General Fuad Chehab (Shihab) to succeed President Chamoun. Although a Christian, Chehab is popular with many Muslims, and there is hope for reconciliation between Christians and Muslims.

Aug 1  In wake of the now failed rebellion that the Dulles brothers were backing in Indonesia, the US gives $20 million in assistance to Indonesia's military establishment, seeing it as the only anti-Communist force in that country.

Aug 3  An atomic powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, crosses the North Pole underwater.

Aug 7  Nasser meets King Saud to end their six-month feud.

Aug 23  Quemoi and Ma-tsu (Mazu) islands, next to China's mainland, are being used by Chiang Kai-shek as a jumping off point for harassing mainland China. The area is claimed by Beijing. Chiang's presence there is protected by the United States. Chiang's airplanes have been clashing with Beijing's Mig aircraft. Mainland artillery bombards Chiang's forces on Quemoi and Matsu.

Aug 25  The shelling of Quemoi and Ma-tsu continues. China's newspapers accuse US airplanes and warships of "provocations" along their country's coastline. Chinese leaders resent the failure of the Soviet Union to support China during this crisis.

Aug 30  At carnival in West London, police try to arrest a black pickpocket. Black youths attack the police and white youths attack blacks - the Notting Hill Race Riot.

Sep 22   Sherman Adams, assistant to President Eisenhower, resigns amid charges of improperly using his influence to help an industrialist.

Sep 28  De Gaulle has been in office four months. A referendum for the new constitution obtains 79.2 percent approval.

Oct 2  The former French colony of Guinea in West Africa proclaims its independence from France.

Oct 4  The first trans-Atlantic passenger jetliner service begins, from London to New York.

Oct 5  France's new constitution establishes an end to its Fourth Republic and the beginning of the Fifth Republic.

Oct 9   Pope Pius XII dies.

Oct 11  A moon probe rocket, Pioneer 1, is launched. It falls back short of the moon and burns up in the atmosphere.

Oct 25  Lebanon's president has created a "Salvation Cabinet" composed of leaders of the principal warring groups. US troops withdraw.

Oct 28  John XXIII is elected Pope.

Oct 29  Boris Pasternak, author of Dr. Zhivago, refuses the Nobel prize for literature.

Nov 4  John F. Kennedy and Barry Goldwater are re-elected to the Senate. During his campaign, Goldwater distanced himself from Eisenhower by calling Eisenhower's plans for health care for the aged ''socialized medicine,'' and he described the Eisenhower administration as a ''dime-store New Deal." The Democrats increase their majorities in the House and Senate.

Dec 9  In Indianapolis, Indiana, the John Birch Society is founded by twelve "patriotic and public spirited" men led by a retired candy manufacturer, Robert Welch, Jr.  Welch sees collectivism as the main threat to Western Civilization, and liberals he sees as "secret communist traitors."

Dec 21  Charles de Gaulle is elected to a seven-year term as the first president of the Fifth Republic of France. 

Dec 31  Batista flees as rebels under Fidel Castro advance toward Havana.

Dec 31  China now has 26,000 communes, in which 98 percent of its rural population lives.


1959
a_compass1
 
Jan 1  With news that Batista had fled, celebrations in Cuba start in the morning and gather momentum. People surge toward downtown Havana. They carry flags and sing their national anthem. Car caravans bedecked with flags, with the horns blowing, inch through the marchers. In the afternoon, crowds begin destroying things in casinos - considered play things of the rich.

Jan 3  Alaska becomes the 49th US state.

Jan 8  Fidel Castro flows into Havana greeted by jubilant crowds. The Eisenhower administration recognizes Castro's new government.

Jan 13  The Castro regime executes former members of Batista's regime charged with war crimes.

Jan 13  Havana's gambling industry receives word that it will be allowed to continue, but with tight strings attached.

Jan 21  Responding to criticism from outside Cuba, in Havana's Central Park, Castro asks for a show of support for the executions of Batista's "henchmen." The crowd responds with enthusiastic applause that lasts two minutes.

Jan 25  In the United States, the first transcontinental jet service opens - from Los Angeles to New York, with Boeing 707s.

Feb 1  Castro starts the distribution of land in the Sierra Maestra that he promised during his time there.

Feb 1  Voters in Switzerland turn down female suffrage.

Feb 16  Castro becomes Prime Minister.

Feb 17  In Paraguay police battle students inspired by Castro's victory against dictatorship. And worshippers find on their church benches leaflets with a "Prayer for the Tortured."

Feb 18  Women in Nepal vote for the first time.

Mar -  This month, Ho Chi Minh declares a "people's war" to unite all of Vietnam, including a rising in the southern half of Vietnam, to complete what was sought in the war against the French and denied by those who ignored the peace agreement made with the French in 1954.

Mar 4  The Cuban government nationalizes the telephone industry - an affiliate of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation.

Mar 12  China considers Tibet a part of China. In Lhasa, its military orders the Dalai Lama, age 24,  to report to their military camp. Tibetan Buddhists are offended. They believe the Dalai Lama to be one of numerous incarnations of Avolokitesvara, the Lord Who Looks Down. An estimated 5,000 Tibetan women march through the streets with banners reading "Tibet for Tibetans." At the Indian Consulate-General they present an appeal.

Mar 17 The Chinese fire two mortar shells at the Dalai Lama's palace. Six hours later, in the darkness of night, the Dalai Lama leaves his palace wearing a soldier's uniform, with a gun over his shoulder, and begins his trek out of Tibet.

Mar 18  Crowds take to the streets and violence erupts in Lhasa.

Mar 19  Castro's regime has been allowing some of Batista's functionaries to go into exile, but the number of those executed for war crimes reaches 483. The revolution's newspaper, Revolutcion, in a front page editorial, calls for an end to the executions.

Mar 31  The Dalai Lama enters India.

Apr 3  Prime Minister Nehru of India announces that his government has granted asylum to the Dalai Lama.

Apr 8  In Cuba a military court sentences Heriberto Bertematy Rodriquez to death by firing squad for trafficking in narcotics - the sale of marijuana.

Apr 15  US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles has cancer. He resigns while on this day Fidel Castro arrives for a goodwill tour, invited by American Society of Newspaper Editors.

Apr 16  Eisenhower does not want to meet Castro and goes golfing. Castro meets with the new Secretary of State, Christian A. Herter.

Apr 21  During their meeting, Nixon asks Castro about communism. Later Nixon complains that Castro is "either incredibly naive about communism or under communist discipline." His guess, he says, is the former.

May 6  Iceland gunboats shoot at British fishing boats.

May 17  Back in Cuba, Castro signs the Agrarian Reform Act, which expropriates farm lands larger than 1,000 acres and bans land ownership by foreigners. Two hundred thousand peasants receive titles to land.

May 24  British Empire Day becomes Commonwealth Day.

May 24  John Foster Dulles dies.

Jun 1  In the US, the Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations, begun in 1947, is expanded. The list now includes the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, Alabama People's Educational Association, American Committee for European Worker's Relief, American Committee for protection of Foreign Born, American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidzhan, Committee to Defend the Rights and Freedom of Pittsburgh's Political Prisoners, Committee for the Negro in the Arts, Committee for World Youth Friendship and Cultural Exchange, Committee to Defend Marie Richardson, Committee to Uphold the Bill of Rights, Michigan Council for Peace, and others. (See Wikipedia)

Jun 3  Singapore, heretofore ruled by Britain, becomes a self-governing state within the Commonwealth of Nations.
 
Jun 16 The evangelist Billy Graham is in Moscow, but not to preach. He finds "moral purity" among the people of Moscow as well as a "great spiritual hunger" for God.

Jul 17  China abolishes serfdom in Tibet, removing 90 percent of the population from the authority of the 5 percent who owned Tibet's farmland, pastures, forests, mountains and rivers as well as most livestock.

Jul 18  Khrushchev has recently abrogated the treaty with China by which the Soviet Union was to provide China with military technology. Today he publicly denounces China's communes, attributing their creation to people "who do not properly understand what communism is or how it is to be built."

Jul 23  In a conference with colleagues, Mao Zedong describes his backyard steel-making campaign as a "catastrophe." Meanwhile peasants are abandoning commune mess halls and devoting more time to private family plots.

Jul 24  In Moscow, Vice President Nixon boasts of advanced comforts available to US citizens - the famous kitchen debate. Khrushchev is annoyed. He proposes a toast "to the elimination of all military bases on foreign lands." Nixon says, "I am for peace. We will drink to talking - as long as we are talking we are not fighting."

Jul 27 Singer Billie Holliday dies of liver failure at age 44.

Aug 1  Vice President Nixon speaks on Soviet television. He criticizes communism and warns against any attempt to spread Communist ideology beyond the borders of the Soviet Union.

Aug 7  China is having border disputes with India. The Chinese claim Askai Chin, a convenient location for a road. Also, approximately 200 Chinese troops intrude into disputed territory east of Bhutan.

Aug 21  Hawaii becomes the 50th US state.

Aug 25  East of Bhutan, Chinese troops capture an Indian outpost and ten Indian soldiers.

Sep 6  Cardinal Spellman sees danger in Khrushchev's visit to the United States. He calls on the Roman Catholics in his New York Archdiocese to participate in an hour of prayer "for our beloved country."

Sep 11 Congress passes a bill authorizing food stamps - free food for the poor.

Sep 14  Congress passes the Landrum-Griffin Act, which bars convicted felons and members of the Communist Party from holding an office in a labor union.

Sep 15  Khrushchev begins a 13-day visit in the United States. He and his wife are met coming off the Soviet airplane by President Eisenhower. Khrushchev says that he has arrived "with open heart and good intentions. The Soviet people want to live in friendship with the American people."  Elsewhere, out-of- sight, are demonstrators with signs that describe Khrushchev as the "butcher of Budapest."

Sep 17  Peng Duhuai, who has called the Great Leap Forward a disaster, has been described as "anti-party" and is replaced as Defense Minister by Lin Piao.

Sep 21  Khrushchev is delighted by applause from people in San Francisco. He breaks away from security to shake hands.

Sep 23  Students at Iowa State College cheer Khrushchev. Senator Hubert H. Humphrey says that the United States must not be lulled by Khrushchev's visit into accepting a "live and let live" agreement with the Communists.

Sep 25  Khrushchev begins his visit to Camp David for relaxed talks with Eisenhower. Khrushchev enjoys chatting with Eisenhower's grandchildren. The "Spirit of Camp David" is born. A Paris summit meeting is planned.
Sep 26  Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter, Indira Gandhi, president of the ruling Congress party, criticize India's Communists for resorting to violence.

Oct 3  Relations are strained between Nasser's Egypt and China, the Egypt Foreign Ministry officials accusing the Chinese of deliberately delaying cables they have sent to their embassy in Beijing.

Oct 7  In Baghdad, a group of Baath party gunmen try to assassinate but only wound Iraq's ruler, General Abd al-Karim Qasim (Kassem). One of the gunmen, 22-year-old Saddam Hussein, is forced into hiding.

Oct 10  Pan American Airways begins offering regular jet-powered commercial flights around the world.

Oct 11 Chiang Kai-shek predicts an uprising that will produce victory for him in China in 1960. 

Oct 21  People hostile to Castro drop leaflets on Havana from a small airplane. They are accused also of dropping bombs. Two Cubans are said to have been killed and 45 wounded.

Oct 23  India announces that Chinese troops have attacked an Indian force in Kashmir.

Dec 1  Twelve countries, including the United States and the Soviet Union, sign a treaty that makes Antarctica a scientific preserve and bans military activity - the first arms control agreement since the beginning of the Cold War.

Dec 9-14  Eisenhower visits India and addresses India's parliaments, saying "We who are free, and who prize our freedom above all other gifts of God and nature, must know each other better; trust each other more; support each other."

Dec 14  Archbishop Makarios is overwhelmingly elected president of what will soon be an independent Cyprus. There are fireworks and horn-honking. The vice-president elect is Dr. Kutchuk, a Turkish Cypriot, who is delighted and speaks of Makarios deserving his success.


1960
a_compass1
 
Jan 1  French Cameroon becomes the independent Cameroon Republic.

Jan 1  In the United States, African- Americans have been hearing a lot of talk about political change for black Africans, and they have been hearing Cold War talk about freedom in the United States, and they are wondering about their freedom.

Jan 5  The government of France seizes copies of four newspapers because of reports on conditions in prison camps in Algeria.

Jan 25  President de Gaulle is supporting autonomy for Algeria.  He has dismissed the military commander in Algeria, Jacques Massu. More than 2,500 defiant European settlers build barricades in the heart of Algiers.

Jan 25  In the wake of scandal in the United States, the National Association of Broadcasters threatens to fine anyone who accepts money for playing on the radio any particular music recording.

Jan 29  In Paris most people have contempt for those who have been demonstrating for continued colonialism in Algeria.

Feb 1  Four well dressed young black men sit-in at a segregated lunch counter at the Woolworth Department Store in Greensboro, North Carolina. They are refused service.

Feb 3   Regarding resistance to President de Gaulle's policy regarding Algeria, France's National Assembly gives de Gaulle power to rule by decree. The vote is 441 to 75.

Feb 6  The sit-in at Woolworth's has been growing and has spread to the nearby Kress department store. With more than a thousand blacks seeking service, news people and observers, downtown Greensboro comes to a virtual standstill.

Feb 6  The Soviet Union agrees to buy  5 million tons of Cuba's sugar in the coming five-years and to supply Cuba with crude oil, petroleum products, wheat, iron, fertilizers and machinery, and it gives Cuba $100 million in credit at 2.5 percent interest.

Feb 11  Twelve Indian soldiers die in border clashes with Chinese.

Feb 14  General Alfredo Stroessner, the ruler in Paraguay, seeks cash assistance from the United States.  The US has been supplying the Stroessner regime with military equipment and training in counterintelligence and counterinsurgency.

Feb 27  The Soviet Union agrees to give Indonesia an additional $250,000,000 long-term credit.

Mar 2  Having been denied aid by the United States and in a border dispute with Pakistan, Prime Minister Daud has been seeking help from the Soviet Union. Premier Khrushchev of the Soviet Union is welcomed to Kabul in Afghanistan to inspect Soviet aid projects and confer with Daud.

Mar 4  A French ship carrying 76 tons of munitions from Belgium explodes in Havana harbor, killing dozens of workers and soldiers. Castro accuses the CIA of sabotage. The US denies the charge.

Mar 6  The Eisenhower administration announces that 3,500 US soldiers will be sent to Vietnam to support the Diem regime.

Mar 6  In the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland, women acquire the right to vote.

Mar 17  President Eisenhower approves a CIA plan to overthrow Castro, a plan his administration has initiated. The plan involves a budget of $13 million to train and equip "a paramilitary force" to invade Cuba.

Mar 21  In Sharpsville, South Africa, police open fire on unarmed blacks demonstrating against pass laws - which regulate movement within the country. Many are shot in the back. Sixty-nine die and 180 will be reported as wounded.

Apr 1  The United States launches a weather satellite, Tiros-1.

Apr 4  After much wrangling over scripture, the Church of Sweden (Lutheran) ordains three women theologians as priests.

Apr 9  The Dalai Lama appeals to Asian and African countries to help "rescue" his "poor and unfortunate people."

Apr 13  The US military launches a navigation satellite, Transat l-b.

Apr 26  South Korea's Christian President Syngman Rhee, in a predominately Buddhist nation, is disliked for his authoritarianism. After twelve years of rule, a student-led movement forces him to resign.

Apr 28  A DC-4 belonging to the CIA, operated Civil Air Transport, saves Rhee from death by lynching.

Apr 30  In the southern half of Vietnam, eighteen well-known Vietnamese ask Ngo Dinh Diem to permit them to function as an opposition political group.

Apr 30  In Paraguay, the Stroessner regime announces that an invasion by armed rebels had been "completely smashed."

May 1  Eisenhower has wanted proof that the US was ahead of the Soviet Union militarily, for restraint on spending for weaponry. A U-2 aircraft, on a mission to photograph missile sites in and around Sverdlovsk and Plesetsk in the Soviet Union, is shot down by a Soviet rocket, and the pilot, Gary Powers, is captured. 

May 6  News of the downed aircraft in the Soviet Union is published in the United States. The Eisenhower administration claims that the plane was a weather craft.

May 7 The Eisenhower administration claims that one of its planes equipped for intelligence had "probably" flown over Soviet territory.

May 8  Embarrassment, concern and dismay are common reactions in Western Europe to the shooting down of a United States information-gathering plane in the Soviet Union.

May 8 Cuba and the Soviet Union establish formal diplomatic relations.

May 11 The funding that Margaret Sanger, now 80, needed to create her birth control pill had been provided back in 1953 by a friend, the wealthy widow Katherine McCormick. Today, the US government agency, the FDA, approves a pregnancy prevention pill. The Catholic Church and a few in the US Congress disapprove.

May 14  Because of US flights over Russia, Khrushchev's leadership is being questioned inside the Soviet Union. He arrives in Paris for the "Big Four" summit meeting and is being chaperoned by his defense minister, Marshal Malinovksy. Khrushchev is later to say that from the time that the U-2 was shot down he "was never in full control. "

May 15  President Eisenhower arrives in Paris and is greeted warmly. He urges an end to "bickering."

May 16  Khrushchev demands an apology from Eisenhower for the U-2 intrusion into the Soviet Union. The apology is not forthcoming and the summit talks collapse. Khrushchev cancels the Soviet Union's invitation to Eisenhower to visit the Soviet Union.

May 16  In Paraguay, police beatings and arrests of students disrupt the celebration of the 150th anniversary of independence.

May 23  Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion of Israel announces that Germany's wartime official responsible for transporting Jews, Adolf Eichmann, has been taken from Argentina and is in an Israeli prison.

May 27  In Turkey the military overthrows the government of Prime Minister Adnan Menderes, who had been growing oppressive and was seen as threatening the tradition established by Ataturk.
 
Jun 7  US oil companies in Cuba refuse to refine Soviet oil.

Jun 10  Eisenhower's press secretary, James Haggerty, is rescued from irate students at Tokyo's Haneda airport. A scheduled visit to Japan by Eisenhower is cancelled.

Jun 15  At Japan's most prestigious university, Tokyo University, 580,000 students demonstrate against the Security Treaty between Japan and the United States. The treaty does not allow Japan control over how the US military bases are to be used. Japan's police arrest 182 students.  589 are injured. One student is killed.

Jun 18  In South Vietnam, guerrillas kill one of Diem's provincial governors.

Jun 20  The Mali Federation, which includes Senegal, gains independence within the French Community.

Jun 20  In Algeria, the National Liberation Front agrees to peace talks in Paris - while the fighting goes on.

Jun 26  British Somaliland acquires independence.

Jun 20-25  Khrushchev and China's Peng Zhen clash at a Party Congress in Romania. Khrushchev calls Mao Zedong a nationalist, an adventurist and a deviationist. The Chinese call Khrushchev a revisionist.

Jun 30   An independent Republic of the Congo, centered at Leopoldville, emerges from Belgian colonialism. Joseph Kasa-Vubu is President. Patrice Lumumba is Prime Minister.  Lumumba annoys the Belgians with a scathing description of their history in the Congo.

Jul 1  Newly independent Somaliland unites with the Italian Somaliland, creating the Somali Republic.

Jul 1  A Soviet MIG aircraft shoots down a six-man US RB-47 reconnaissance aircraft over Soviet Union waters in the Barents Sea north of Murmansk. Two US Air Force officers survive and are imprisoned in Moscow's Lubyanka prison.

Jul 5  Cuba nationalizes oil refineries owned by US companies after they refuse to process Soviet oil.

Jul 6  Eisenhower cancels the allowance of 700,000 tons of sugar imports from Cubu that remain for 1960.

Jul 8  The Soviet Union announces that it will purchase the 700,000 tons of Cuban sugar.

Jul 9  Khrushchev threatens to use rockets to protect Cuba from US aggression.

Jul 11  The Belgian mining company, Union Miniere, and its investment partner, Societe Generale, have been concerned about the Congo's prime minister, Lumumba. With their help and 6,000 Belgian troops, Moise Tshombe, businessman and politician, declares his province independent - Katanga province, rich in cobalt, copper, tin, radium, uranium and diamonds.

Jul 14  Belgium's government announces that it suspects that the turmoil in its former colony, the Congo, is the result of a Communist plot.

Jul 14  Jane Goodall, with her mother, is on her way to Gombe Stream National Park. Later this year she will discover champanzees using tools, challenging the belief that only humans used tools.

July 15 The United Nations begins a mission in the Congo, following a request for help from Lumumba's government. Its purpose: to prevent foreign intervention and preserve the Congo's territory. The mission begins with 10,000 troops and is to last four years.

Jul 20  The Congo government appeals to the Soviet Union or any other country of the African-Asian bloc to send troops to the Congo if the United Nations Security Council fails to take effective action in expelling Belgian troops.

Jul 23  Iran recognizes Israel.

Jul 20 Ceylon has the world's first female head of government, Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the widow of the previous prime minister, Solomon Bandaranaike, who was assassinated by a Buddhist monk.

Jul 27  The Arab League is unhappy with Iran. Nasser shuts down his embassy in Iran.

Jul 27  Lumumba asks the US for men and money with which to keep alive his 27-day-old republic.

Jul 29  The United States promises aid for the Congo but declares that it will not help Lumumba keep Katanga Province from seceding.

Jul 31  Britain's twelve-year war against Communist guerrillas in Malaya is declared over, defeated by a Commonwealth force of 35,000. The revolt's leader, Chin Peng, a Malayan Chinese, is in exile in Thailand with remnants of his army.

Aug 1  The four blacks refused service at the Woolworth Department Store return and are served.

Aug 3  Jungle combat in eastern Paraguay has resulted in dead bodies floating down the Parana River.

Aug 5  The Republic of Upper Volta leaves the French-African Community, declaring itself fully independent, with the new name of Burkina Faso.

Aug 9  Singapore leaves the Commonwealth of Nations, becoming fully independent.

Aug 11  Chad acquires independence from France.

Aug 13  The Central African Republic acquires independence from France.

Aug 13  Parliamentary government begins in South Korea.

Aug 15  The Congo whose capital is Brazzaville (not to be confused with the Congo that acquired independence from Belgium) acquires independence from France. Its formal title will be Republic of the Congo and will also be known as Little Congo.

Aug 16  Cyprus acquires independence from Britain, except for the British retaining authority over two military bases.

Aug 17  Gabon acquires independence from France.

Aug 24  Senator John F. Kennedy, the Democratic Party's candidate for President, describes Vice President Nixon's foreign policy leadership as "weakness, retreat and defeat."

Sep 5  President Kasa-Vubu dismisses Prime Minister Lumumba, who questions the legality of the move and moves to dismiss Kasa-Vubu.

Sep 7  President Eisenhower states that the Soviet Union would create a serious state of affairs if it insisted on supplying the Congo, in other words Prime Minister Lumumba, with planes and equipment for military use.

Sep 14  Colonel Joseph Mobutu, supported by President Kasa-Vubu, takes power in a military coup.  Lumumba is put under house arrest.

Sep 17  All US-owned banks in Cuba are nationalized.

Sep 20  Seventeen states join the United Nations: Cyprus, Madagascar and eleven African states. These are: Benin, Burkino Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the two Congo states, Cote d'Ivoire, Gabon, Niger, Somalia, and Togo.

Sep 26  Senator John F. Kennedy and Vice President Nixon participate in the first televised presidential debate. They attract an audience of an unprecedented size: over sixty percent of the adult population.

Sep 26  Speaking at the UN, Castro complains that the US is demanding immediate payment in dollars as compensation for lands that the Cuban government has confiscated. He states: "We were not 100 percent Communist yet. We were just becoming slightly pink. We did not confiscate land; we simply proposed to pay for it in twenty years, and in the only way in which we could pay for it: in bonds, which would mature in twenty years at 4 1/2 per cent, or amortized yearly."

Sep 28  As war continues in Algeria, France's government prohibits 140 French intellectuals, including writers, actors and teachers, from appearing on state-run radio or television or in state-run theaters.

Sep 28  Mali and Senegal join the United Nations.

Sep 30  CIA officials have decided to recruit Mafia figures to kill Castro, knowing that the Mafia is unhappy with Castro for having closed down their profitable operations in Cuba. The CIA officials believe that if necessary they can successfully deny any association with the Mafia.

Sep 30  The State Department advises all US travelers to stay away from Cuba "unless there are compelling reasons" for going there.

Oct 1  Nigeria acquires independence from Britain. Nigeria's government is a coalition of conservative parties, Muslims and Christians.

Oct 6  Candidate Kennedy derides Eisenhower and Nixon for "neglect and indifference" in allowing Cuba to slip "behind the Iron Curtain."

Oct. 6  Cuba by now has neighborhood watch groups watching for anti-Castro activities, including sabotage and violence. In eastern Cuba a dozen or so men land and head for the mountains. They are caught and shot.

Oct. 7  Nigeria joins the United Nations.

Oct 12  At the United Nations, Khrushchev pounds his shoe on a table, protesting discussion of the Soviet Union's relations with East European states.  For some in the Soviet Union it is an embarrassment.

Oct 14  The Urban Reform Act in Cuba goes into effect, commanding that rents be cut in half.

Oct 19  The Eisenhower administration places a partial trade embargo on Cuba.

Oct 20  Candidate Kennedy calls for US aid to those in exile and inside Cuba who are seeking to overthrow Castro's regime. He calls them "fighters for freedom."

Oct. 22  Candidate Nixon accuses Kennedy of having made "a shockingly reckless proposal" regarding Cuba that might lead to World War III.

Oct 24  The Cuban government seizes remaining property owned by US citizens.

Oct 26  The military ruler of El Salvador, José Maria Lemus Lopez, a member of the Party of Democratic Unification, is overthrown in a bloodless coup. Three army officers and three civilian professional men takeover the Government of El Salvador.

Nov 8  Candidate Kennedy barely wins an election victory over Vice President Nixon.

Nov 11  In Saigon, Lieutenant Colonel Vuong Van Dong, who fought with the French colonial forces against the Viet Minh, leads a coup against President Diem. The coup fails. A crackdown will follow with over 50,000 arrests. Thousands who fear arrest will flee to North Vietnam. The North will send many of them back to South Vietnam as part of his People's Liberation Armed Forces.

Nov 9  Suspicions exist that voter fraud in Illinois and Texas has robbed Nixon of the election. Nixon does not want to appear to be a sore loser and concedes shortly after midnight.

Nov 10  Eisenhower has been disgusted by Kennedy's talk of a "missile gap." He knows that there is no such "missile gap," but Nixon obeyed security regulations and did not argue that fact.  According to historian David McCullough, Kennedy's victory is Eisenhower's biggest political disappointment and he has told his son: ''All I've been trying to do for eight years has gone down the drain.''

Nov 12  The Republican Party begins bids for election result recounts in eleven states.

Nov 13  Sammy Davis Jr. marries Swedish actress May Britt. Interracial marriage remains illegal in 31 of the 50 states.

Nov 13  An armed rebellion against the government of Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes erupts in Guatemala.

Nov 17  The Fuentes regime has been friendly with the United States, including allowing his country to be used as a training camp for an anti-Castro force.  The CIA has sent bombers against the insurgency, and it is crushed. Fuentes remains in power.

Nov 18  Mauritania becomes independent of France.

Dec 1  According to semi-official figures published in France, in five years of fighting in Algeria, France to date has lost 2,998 lives and 7,287 injured from attacks by Algerian rebels.

Dec 1  Mubuto of the Congo severs relations with Nasser's United Arab Republic. Nasser seizes Belgian assets in Egypt.  Patrice Lumumba has escaped from house arrest in Leopoldville and, while running to Stanleyville, which is controlled by his supporters, he is captured by troops loyal to Mobuto.

Dec 2  Lumumba is repeatedly beaten by soldiers.

Dec 2  Cubans have been arriving in Florida at a rate of 1,000 per week. President Eisenhower authorizes $1,000,000 for their relief and resettlement.

Dec 4  Citing events in the Congo, Ghana servers ties with Belgium.

Dec 5  Eighty-one Communist parties side with Khrushchev's position of peaceful coexistence with the capitalist West - a rebuff of the Chinese Communist Party's view that war is inevitable. The 81 parties proclaim that Communism can succeed by peaceful means.

Dec 10  Charles de Gualle is visiting Algeria in an effort to persuade European colonists there to accept his plan for Algerian self-determination.

Dec 11  In Algeria, de Gualle walks alone into a crowd of cheering Muslims.

Dec 12  European colonists are rioting in Algeria's larger cities. More than a hundred people are killed.

Dec 16  In a snowstorm, two passenger airliners collide over New York City. One of the airliners crashes into a Brooklyn apartment building and into the Piller of Fire Church.

Dec 25  Queen Elizabeth II starts recording her Christmas Messages. She appeals for increased mutual understanding among the peoples of the Commonwealth.






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three-package group

Poisonous Plant

https://www.planthistories.com/

The Poisonous Plants Video package is a
2 disc. 2-hour collection exzaming the
Poisonous compounds in and from plants

Our Poisonous Plants Video package is
sold separately or as part of a
three-package group

Elements:   Building a Container House:   Political USA:     Less-than Reputable