Century 20 6 th. Decade
Century c 20 1961-1970

Timeline: 1961

Jan 1  President Sukarno swings a hoe at a ground-breaking ceremony launching an eight-year development program to achieve "Indonesian socialism."  He hopes that in eight years the income of Indonesians will have risen 11.6 percent.

Jan 3  President Eisenhower announces that a limit of endurance has been reached and has caused the US to sever relations with Cuba.

Jan 6  Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev speaks of  a mighty upsurge of anti-imperialist, national-liberation revolutions and says that "Communists fully and unreservedly support such just wars."

Jan 8  A referendum in France results in seventy-five percent favoring the granting of independence to Algeria.

Jan 17  In his final State of the Union address, Eisenhower expresses concern over military spending and an arms race, warning of the increasing power of a military-industrial complex.

Jan 17  The Belgian Minister for African Affairs has ordered the Congo to send Prime Minister Lumumba, a prisoner, to Katanga Province. In Katanga Province, Lumumba is beaten and taken by convoy into "the bush," where he is killed by a firing squad commanded by a Belgian.

Jan 20  John F. Kennedy is inaugurated President of the United States.

Jan 23  A  B-52 bomber breaks up in mid-air over North Carolina. Two hydrogen bombs, each 260 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atom bomb, fall to earth. According to a meticulous report in 2013 drawing from the Freedom of Information Act, trigger mechanisms engaged, and only one low-voltage switch prevented untold carnage and lethal carnage deposited over Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia and as far north as New York city.

Jan 25  A  military coup in El Salvador ousts the military junta that had been ruling for the past three months. The new junta accuses the old junta of  "leftist excesses."

Feb 6  Kennedy's Secretary of State, Dean Rusk, announces that the US is ready to cooperate with other American states in ending tyranny in the Western Hemisphere whether that tyranny is of the Left or Right.

Feb 17  President Kennedy discusses with his advisors the invasion of Cuba planned during the Eisenhower administration. He considers claiming that the purpose of the invasion is to destroy fighter aircraft and rockets in Cuba because they are a danger to US security.

Mar 1  President Kennedy wants to counter notions of the "Ugly American" and so-called "Yankee imperialism." By executive order he creates the Peace Corps.

Mar 1  Britain is granting internal self-government to its colony in Uganda. Uganda's first elections are held.

Mar 3  Hassan II succeeds his father as King of Morocco. He proclaims his role as Commander of the Faithful and continues to rule Morocco as a theocracy.

Mar 4   Prime Minister Hendrik F. Verwoerd of South Africa says his government will not tolerate any effort by other members of the Commonwealth to force a change of his country's racial policies.

Mar 18  A ceasefire is established in Algeria.

Mar 20  During a Charter Day ceremony, Clark Kerr, President of the University of California, raises the issue of the speaker ban created by the university's conservative Board of Regents. He says, "The university is not engaged in making ideas safe for student. It is engaged in making students safe for ideas." The ban had excluded Henry Wallace from speaking at UCLA in 1947 and a British member of parliament, Harold Laski, als from speaking at UCLA. And in May this year Malcolm X will not be allowed to speak on the Berkeley campus on the grounds that he is a religious leader.

Apr 5  The Dutch are still in control over what had been called Dutch New Guinea - the western half of New Guinea. They have been preparing people there for full independence. A locally elected council takes office. The Dutch are looking forward to the continued presence of Dutch commercial interests there. 

Apr 12  Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union becomes the first human in space.

Apr 13  An English-language radio broadcast in Moscow announces that an invasion of Cuba will happen within a week.

Apr 15  Pursuing what he calls a guided democracy, President Sukarno signs regulations permitting only eight political parties, one of which is Indonesia's Communist Party.

Apr 17  The invasion of Cuba begins. Cuban exiles are deployed in swamp land at the Bay of Pigs and they are easily surrounded. Secretary of State Dean Rusk announces that "there is not and will not be any intervention there by United States forces."

Apr 18  The CIA chief, Richard Bissell, tells President Kennedy that the invasion force is trapped and encircled. He asks Kennedy to send in US forces. Kennedy replies that he still wants "minimum visibility."

Apr 20  The CIA's belief that grateful Cubans would join the invaders against Castro has not happened. Castro announces the invasion's total defeat. Sixty-eight of the invasion force are dead and the remaining 1,209 are captured.

Apr 21  A Soviet army newspaper announces that the Soviet rocket that has put Yuri Gagarin into space could be used for military purposes.

Apr 22  In Algeria, French military officers begin a coup against France's government.

Apr 26  Conscript soldiers have responded to a radio broadcast by President de Gaulle and have refused to follow the coup leaders. The coup is a failure.

Apr 30  In the United States, exiles from the Dominican Republic announce their appeal to the US government for "effective help" against the dictatorship of Trujillo.

May 1-31  In the California State Legislature complaints are made about leftist professors and free speech at University of California at Berkeley. State Senator Hugh Burns announces imminent publication of his committee's report on Communist activity on the Berkeley campus. "Most kitchens have their cockroaches," Burns says, "and most universities have their Communists."

May 4  "Freedom Riders," blacks and whites, leave Washington DC for a bus tour of the South. The trip is organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) for the purpose of testing the Supreme Court's decision on segregation of interstate transportation. In South Carolina, John Lewis (a future Congressman), and another rider are beaten, and another rider is arrested for using a white restroom. The event is widely broadcast across the nation.

May 5  The US sends its first astronaut, Alan Shepard, into space.

May 14 At Anniston, Alabama, the Ku Klux Klan has been given permission to attack the Freedom Riders without fear of arrest. The bus arrives and is attacked by an angry crowd, with no police around. The bus moves on to Birmingham. There riders are beaten severely while police stand by. The leader of CORE, James Farmer, ends the tour and has the riders flown to the original destination: New Orleans.

May 14 Howard K. Smith, veteran journalist from World War II days, witnessed the Klan beatings. A television documentary that follows will lead to Smith leaving CBS. The Head of CBS News, William Paley, will object to Smith's lack of objectivity. Smith will reply: "They [CBS] said it was against the rules to take sides on a controversial issue. I said, I wish you had told me that during World War II, when I took sides against Hitler."

May 16  In South Korea people are tired of political chaos. Many welcome a military coup led by Major General Park Chung-hee.

May 20  Some have decided to continue the "Freedom Rides." Attorney General Robert Kennedy has asked that Alabama state police protect the Freedom Riders. When the Freedom Riders enter Montgomery, Alabama, the police disappear. A crowd of about 300 attack the riders with baseball bats, pipes and sticks. One rider is covered with kerosene and set afire. Robert Kennedy sends federal marshals to the city.

May 21  In Montgomery, a crowd begins throwing stones through the windows of a church where Martin Luther King is to speak. Armed federal marshals with tear gas move against the crowd, joined by baton wielding local police. In his speech, King calls for a massive campaign to end segregation in Alabama.

May 23  Alabama's Governor John Patterson blames the violence against Freedom Riders on the Freedom Riders. He accuses them of intenteding "to inflame local people" and "to provoke violent reactions."

May 23  The US State Department accuses the Trujillo regime of persecuting Roman Catholic officials.

May 25  The Kennedy administration, wanting a "cooling-off period," has asked civil rights leaders for a moratorium on Freedom Rides. The Freedom Rides continue, into Mississippi. Attorney General Kennedy has won an agreement from the Governor of Mississippi that the Freedom Riders will not be beaten - merely arrested.

May 25  President Kennedy tells his fellow Americans that he aims to have the US be the first to put a man on the moon.

May 29  The Kennedy administration announces that it has directed the Interstate Commerce Commission to ban segregation in all facilities under its jurisdiction. "Freedom Rides" are spreading to train stations and airports across the South. Students from across the US are buying bus tickets to the South and crowding Mississippi's jails.

May 30  In the Dominican Republic, after thirty-one years in power, on a lonely road to meet one of his mistresses, the dictator Trujillo is killed by officers of his private army.

May 31  South Africa leaves the Commonwealth of Nations, becoming completely independent.
Jun 1  In the Dominican Republic, nominal power resides with the vice president, Joaquín Balaguer. Real power is with the military. The search for the assassins of Trujillo is underway. 

Jun 3  Spain's dictator, Francisco Franco, condemns the capitalism and the "liberalism" of other Western nations. He calls Spain's style of rule the "wave of the future."

Jun 4  In Vienna, President Kennedy meets with Khrushchev. Khrushchev concludes that Kennedy will be unwilling to negotiate meaningful concessions in the arms race. Khrushchev is concerned with the US having more nuclear missiles than the Soviet Union and that some US missiles are based in Turkey, near the Soviet Union's border.

Jun 13  The Soviet Union supports Sukarno's claim that Dutch New Guinea is a part of Indonesia.

Jun 17  Rudolf Nureyev, in France with the Kirov Ballet, requests asylum.

Jun 19   Kuwait gains independence from Britain.

Jun 26  President Kennedy arrives in Berlin and makes his "ich bin ein Berliner" speech. He says "And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. Let them come to Berlin."

Jun 27 Iraq's ruler, Kassem, believes that Kuwait belongs to Iraq. Kuwait has requested protection from Britain, and Britain sends troops.

Jul 2  President Kennedy's favorite author, Ernest Hemingway, has recently received electroshock treatment that he believes has damaged his memory.  At 61 and suffering ill-health, he commits suicide.

Jul 4  President Kennedy responds to a letter from Khrushchev: "I wish to thank you personally and on behalf of the American people for your greetings on the occasion of the 185th Anniversary of the Independence of the United States ... I am confident that given a sincere desire to achieve a peaceful settlement of the issues which still disturb the world's tranquility we can, in our time, reach that peaceful goal which all peoples so ardently desire."

Jul 8  Premier Khrushchev announces that he has ordered the suspension of projected reductions in the Soviet armed forces. It is to be said that he is challenged by the charge from within governing circles that he is too weak regarding threats from the capitalist West. 

Jul 10  East Germany announces that after it signs a peace treaty with the Soviet Union it will assume full control over Allied land and air access to Berlin.

Jul 12   West Germany's chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, proclaims Western rights regarding access to Berlin.

Jul 26  President Kennedy requests an increase in military spending. The Soviet Union accuses Kennedy of exploiting the Berlin dispute as a pretext for accelerating the arms race.

Jul 27  Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York, a leading Republican, calls for public support of President Kennedy's military build-up. He says that Americans must "refuse to be bluffed, bullied or blackmailed."

Aug 1  In the past 24 hours, 1,322 have fled into West Berlin.

Aug 2  East German police confiscate identity cards from among the 50,000 residents of East Berlin who cross into West Berlin each day to work.

Aug 7  Khrushchev warns that Soviet divisions might mass on West Europe's frontiers as a defense measure. He calls for an international conference on Berlin.

Aug 13  East Germany begins constructing the Berlin Wall. Soldiers stand in front of the construction, on East German territory, with orders to shoot anyone who attempts to defect.

Aug 15  The United States, Britain and France formally protest against the closing of the border between East and West Berlin.

Aug 16  The Soviet Union warns Japan that the presence of United States military bases there makes it subject to an attack should war occur.

Aug 19  The East Germany newspaper, Leipziger Volkszeitung, claims that people criticizing the closing of the border were being "brought to reason by the hard fists of the workers."

Aug 21  In Kenya, the British release Jomo Kenyatta from prison.

Aug 24  In the US Congress it is said that Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's support for the Soviet stand regarding Berlin has damaged relations between the US and India.

Aug 24  The Kennedy administration issues a "solemn warning" that interference with Allied access to West Berlin will be considered "an aggressive act" for which the Soviet government will bear full responsibility.

Sep 1 Turkey's former prime minister, Menderes, is hanged publicly.

Sep 5  In Ghana, opposition to President Kwame Nkrumah erupts into strikes and demonstrations. Nkrumah orders strike leaders and opposition politicians arrested.

Sep 12  According to information received from physicians who work in East Berlin hospitals, the suicide rate has risen sharply.

Sep 12  In the Dominican Republic, tanks line streets following a day of disorders.

Sep 28  In Syria, nationalization of industries has enhanced opposition to Nasser's United Arab Republic. The military seizes power and proclaims Syria's independence. Egypt keeps the UAR name and Nasser chooses not to resist the break.

Oct 11  In Vietnam, Viet Cong attacks have increased, and Diem's regime wants military aid but not US combat troops. In Washington D.C. the National Security Council (NSC) meets. An estimate by the Joint Chiefs of Staff is presented, claiming that  40,000 US troops would be required to "clean up the Viet Cong threat" and another 128,000 men would be needed to oppose North Vietnam's intervention. Secretary of Defense McNamara says that "it is really now or never if we are to arrest the gains being made by the Viet Cong."

Oct 12  Khrushchev calls for the disengagement of armed forces in Central Europe and a ban on supplying nuclear weapons to either East and West Germany.

Oct 17  In Paris, police attack a demonstration against a curfew that applies only to Muslims. The official death toll is 3. Human rights groups claim 240 dead.

Oct 19  British protection of Kuwait passes to the Arab League (headquartered in Egypt). British troops leave.

Oct 20  The Dominican police use semi-automatic rifles, water hoses and tear gas against demonstrators.

Oct 27  Mongolia and Mauritania join the United Nations.

Oct 31 The 22nd Congress of the Soviet Union's Communist Party ends. Chairman Khrushchev has announced his plan to move the country to a communist society within twenty years and to surpass the United States in per capita production.

Nov 1  In the United States, the federal order by the Interstate Commerce Commission banning segregation at all interstate public facilities officially comes into effect. Desegregationists decide to test the train terminal in Albany, Georgia.

Nov 1  Kennedy has sent an advisor, retired General Maxwell Taylor, to Vietnam. Taylor concludes that "If Vietnam goes, it will be exceedingly difficult to hold Southeast Asia," His "eyes only" report to Kennedy is that Communist guerrillas are ""well on the way to success in Vietnam." He recommends more US support for Diem's regime. Appendices to the Taylor Report, written by others, speak of Diem's troops, the ARVN, lacking aggressiveness and that it would be a mistake for the US to make an irrevocable commitment to defeat the Communists in South Vietnam. It claims that foreign (US) troops cannot win battles at the village level, where the war must be fought, and that primary responsibility for saving Vietnam is with the Saigon regime.

Nov 2  The US Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, has relieved General Edwin Walker of his duties in Germany. Walker resigns from the army. He was accused of having distributed John Birch Society literature and of having described Harry Truman, Eleanor Roosevelt and Dean Acheson as "definitely pink."

Nov 2  China warns the United States against sending troops to Vietnam.

Nov 7  Albania's Communist leader, Enver Hoxha, celebrates the 44th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution.  He praises international solidarity but attacks "Soviet leaders" for considering Albanian Communists "anti-Marxist,"  "dogmatist," and "sectarian."  He describes the soviet leaders and the Yugoslavs as "revisionists."

Nov 11  A McNamara-Rusk memorandum to the US Ambassador to Vietnam, Frederick E. Nolting, mentions an increase in US military involvement and instructs Nolting to tell President Diem that "We would expect to share in the decision-making process in the political, economic and military fields as they affect the security situation."

Nov 15  Two of Trujillo's sons return to the Dominican Republic and attempt to seize power.

Nov 19  US Secretary of State Rusk warns that the United States is considering "further measures" to make sure the Trujillo family does not "reassert dictatorial domination." US warships with 4000 Marines appear off the coast of the Dominican Republic. A jet fighter flies overhead. Members of the Trujillo family flee the country, to live thereafter on savings from Swiss banks.

Dec 2  Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba will adopt Communism.

Dec 9  Tanganyika becomes independent of Britain and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Dec 10  The Soviet Union severs diplomatic relations with Albania.

Dec 11  Two US helicopter companies (33 H-2IC helicopters and 400 men) arrive in Vietnam to strengthen Saigon's faltering military efforts, giving Saigon an advantage in airpower and transport.

Dec 16  In Albany, Georgia, a movement to desegregate the city has resulted in the arrest of hundreds, including Martin Luther King, accused of parading without a permit, disturbing the peace, and obstructing the sidewalk. Albany's sheriff, Pritchard, has ordered his officers to be as non-violent as possible and to prevent brutality. His strategy is to avoid federal intervention, and it works. People have been denied their constitutional rights of free speech and assembly, but there will be no federal intervention. Albany holds out against the slightest accommodation with desegregation.

Dec 17  Nehru's patience with Portugal has run out. He sends Indian troops into Goa to end its status as a Portuguese colony.

Timeline: 1962
Jan 1  Western Samoa becomes independent from New Zealand.

Jab 3  Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro.

Jan 12  Indonesia's Army confirms that it has begun operations in Dutch New Guinea (West Irian).

Jan 18  The US tries to help the Saigon regime by spraying foliage with pesticide to reveal the whereabouts of Vietcong guerrillas.

Jan 20  In Malaya it is announced that men with four wives will receive no tax relief.

Jan 23  The British spy Kim Philby defects to the Soviet Union.

Feb 7  Employing the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, President Kennedy bans trade with Cuba except for food and medicines.

Feb 10  In Berlin, former U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is exchanged for the Soviet spy, Rudolf Abel.

Feb 20  Lt. Colonel John Glenn becomes the first US citizen to orbit the earth.

Mar 1  The Joint Chiefs of Staff and Deputy Defense Sec. Roswell Gilpatric have approved a plan to "lure or provoke Castro, or an uncontrollable subordinate, into an overt hostile reaction against the US."

Mar 2  In Burma General Ne Win ends democracy with a military coup. He announces the pursuit of the "Burmese way to socialism" and the creation of a military Revolutionary Council to be based on Buddhism.

Mar 10  The New York Times reports that Japan is sending skilled men and investment funds to most of the nations of Asia.

March 15  In a session of the United Nations Security Council the Soviet Union's representative asserts that the United States "is openly preparing within its own armed forces units of mercenaries to engage in a new intervention against Cuba."

Mar 17  The Soviet Union asks the United States to remove its military personnel from South Vietnam.

Mar 18  After seven and a half years of war, negotiations have produced a declared armistice in Algeria - the Évian Accords. Algerians are  permitted to continue freely circulating between their country and France for work. Europeans in Algeria remain French citizens, with guaranteed freedom of religion and property rights, but thousands are bitter toward de Gaulle and begin leaving Algeria for France.

Mar 22  FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, talks with President Kennedy about telephone calls between the President and Judith Exner, calls Exner had made to Kennedy from the home of mobster Sam Giancana. Kennedy ends phone conversations with Exner.

Mar 23  President Kennedy expands the ban against all imports from Cuba to include all goods made from or containing Cuban materials even if made in other countries.

Mar 25  Republican political strategists launch a campaign to label Democratic Party liberals in Congress as advocates of international surrender.

Apr 15  The Kennedy administration is afraid that opposition to Indonesia's demands concerning Dutch New Guinea might push Indonesia toward Communism. It urges the Dutch to negotiate a transfer of power in New Guinea to Indonesia.

Apr 16  Walter Cronkite succeeds Douglas Edwards at "The CBS Evening News."

Apr 16  Senator Barry Goldwater accuses the Kennedy Administration of attempting to "socialize the business of this country."

Apr 30  In the United States, Under Secretary of State George W. Ball predicts that the war against the Communists in South Vietnam will be  a "long, slow, arduous" struggle of a type that is not "congenial to the American temperament." Ball is older than Kennedy and his "whiz kids" and is not awed by them. And he has had a closer association with the French and understands their struggle in Vietnam better.

May 2  The Organisation Armée Secrète (OAS) continues its opposition to Algerian independence by a terrorist bomb attack in Algeria, which kills 110 and injures 147.

May 14  In Yugoslavia, President Tito's old comrade in arms and would be successor, Milovan Djilas,  in recent years a dissident but still describing himself as a Communist, has his prison term extended for having sneaked his book Conversations with Stalin to a publisher.  

May 23  In France, the founder of the OAS, a former general, Raoul Salan, is sentenced to life imprisonment.

May 24  In Lima, Peru, an unpopular ruling in a soccer match leads to a riot and panic that leaves 300 dead and over 500 injured.

May 30  Premier Cyrille Adoula of the Congo and President Moise Tshombe of Katanga Province announced an agreement on integrating the Katanga gendarmerie into the Congolese Army under the auspices of the United Nations.

May 31 The Israelis hang Adolf Eichmann.

Jun 1  Lee Harvey Oswald, his Russian wife and daughter, leave the Soviet Union for the United States.

Jun 25  The US Supreme Court decides a landmark case, Engel v. Vitale. Religious activity for children (including prayer) in public schools is judged to be in violation of the Establishment Clause in the First Amendment to the Constitution. Some devout Christians begin a campaign of threats, hate and harrassment against the families that intitiated the lawsuit.

Jun 30  The last of the French Foreign Legion leaves Algeria.

Jul 1   Rwanda and Burundi gain independence from Belgium.

Jul 1  In Algeria 99 percent vote in favor of independence.
Jul 17  The last atomic bomb is tested above ground in Nevada.

Jul 21  President Moise Tshombe of Katanga denounces UN Secretary General U Thant describing him and his government as "a bunch of clowns."

Jul 31  Algeria becomes officially independent from France.

Aug 3  "Battle-hardened" Australian "jungle fighters" arrive in South Vietnam to teach anti-guerrilla tactics.

Aug 5  Actress Marilyn Monroe is found dead, apparently from an overdose of sleeping pills.

Aug 5  In South Africa, Nelson Mandela has been in hiding and politically active for seventeen months. He is found, arrested and charged with incitement to rebellion.

Aug 6  Jamaica becomes independent of Britain.

Aug 15  Indonesian and Dutch negotiators have agreed on Indonesia control over Dutch New Guinea beginning in May, 1963. The agreement stipulates that within six years the Papuans will be free to decide between Indonesian control and independence. Papuans were expecting the independence that the Dutch had promised them, and they are angry.

Aug 20  Pakistan has been asked by the United Nations to provide a military force to keep order in Dutch New Guinea.

Aug 22  Members of the OAS attempt to assassinate President de Gaulle - to be portrayed in the book and film Day of the Jackal.

Aug 24  From a speedboat, Cuban refugees fire weapons at a Havana hotel.

Aug 24  The Fourth Asian Games start in Jakarta. Despite rules of the Asian Games Federation, Indonesia's government has refused visas for the Israeli and Taiwanese delegations, the government succumbing to pressure from Arab countries and the People's Republic of China.

Aug 31  The islands of Trinidad and Tobago become independent of Britain and together form a republic.

Sep 2  The Soviet Union believes that the US intends to attack Cuba. It agrees with Cuba to send arms to deter an attack.

Sep 3  The Fourth Asian Games end with Indonesians booing India's athletes, its flag and national anthem.

Sep 16  Britain is planning independence for the remainder of its empire in Southeast Asia. It creates Malaysia by combining Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo.

Sep 19  Yemen's monarch, Imam Ahmad, dies at the age of 71.

Sep 21  Border fighting erupts again between China and India.

Sep 26  In the US Congress, anger rises against the Soviet Union's plans to build a fishing port in Cuba.

Sep 26  In Yemen, the 35-year-old heir of Imam Ahmad is assassinated in his palace by a military faction, which proclaims a "free republic."

Sep 27  Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring is published. In June excerpts were published in New Yorker magazine. She is a marine biologist, a scientist who cites evidence for her claims. A storm of protest and hyperbole rises from chemical companies, including Monsanto, and a few scientists friendly with the chemical industry. This gives her book more publicity. The environmentalist movement is stimulated.

Sep 28   The new regime in Yemen executes ten former government officials.

Sep 29  Egypt (the United Arab Republic) recognizes the Republic of Yemen.

Sep 30  Khrushchev invites Kennedy to visit the Soviet Union.

Oct 1  Escorted by Federal Marshals, James Meredith becomes the first black to register at the University of Mississippi.

Oct. 7  According to Egyptian radio, Yemeni troops and planes are fighting a "pitched battle" against Saudi Arabian forces on Yemen's northern frontier.

Oct 8  Algeria becomes a member of the United Nations.

Oct 9  Uganda becomes independent of Britain and chooses to be a member of the Commonwealth.

Oct 10  The New York Times correspondent, David Halberstam, reports that In a Vietnamese village, Communist guerrillas have thrown a party for local people and served food, tea and weapons.

Oct 11  Pope John XXIII convenes the first ecumenical council in 92 years, called Vatican II.

Oct 14  The Soviet Union's long-range missiles are ineffective. There has been no missile-gap. Khrushchev has effective "medium range" missiles and has decided to put them in Cuba.  A U-2 flight over Cuba takes photos of Soviet nuclear weapons being installed.

Oct 16  President Kennedy is informed of the missiles in Cuba.

Oct 19  The Cuban Missile Crisis begins. Air Force chief of staff General Curtis LeMay argues that the blocking Cuba and political talks without accompanying military action will lead to war, that the Soviet Union will not move against West Berlin if we act in Cuba but will so move if we fail to act. He concludes, "I just don't see any other solution except direct military intervention right now."

Oct 22  Senate leaders have called for air strikes against Cuba. Kennedy has decided on an arms blockade. A broadcast from Moscow says that unusual activity in Washington indicates that the United States "once again [is] raising its armed fist over Cuba." Kennedy tells the public that "Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island." In the Soviet Union and Cuba there is objection to the missile sites being described as offensive.

Oct 23  Khrushchev's quick response to the appeal by British philosopher Bertrand Russell is welcomed by the British government as a sign that the Soviet Union will back away from a showdown over Cuba.

Oct 24  Soviet ships on their way to Cuba receive radio orders to hold their position. Talking with his advisors, Kennedy says that if the US invades Cuba within the next ten days, some of the missiles in Cuba will likely be fired at US targets. He asks about evacuating people from cities a few days before the invasion. He is told that cities provide the best protection against radiation. Talking alone with his brother Robert, Kennedy entertains the idea that Khrushchev is trying to influence the Congressional Elections just a couple of weeks away.

Oct 25  The US aircraft carrier Essex hails the Soviet tanker Bucharest. The tanker's hatches are too small to accommodate missiles and the ship claims that it is now carrying cargo quarantined by the US The Essex allows the Bucharest to proceed to Cuba, but it is shadowed by a US destroyer.

Oct 26 Castro cables Khrushchev, urging a nuclear strike against the US in the event of an invasion of Cuba. Khrushchev sends a note to Kennedy offering to withdraw missiles from Cuba if the US closes its military bases in Turkey.

Oct 27  A SAM missile shoots down a U-2 aircraft over Cuba. The US pilot is killed. Kennedy decides against ordering an attack on the missile site but agrees to strike at all SAM missile sites if any more US airplanes are attacked. Discussing Khrushchev's proposal concerning Turkey, Kennedy complains that "last year we tried to get the missiles out of there because they were not militarily useful." General Taylor reports that the Joint Chiefs of Staff want an air strike against Cuba no later than the morning of the 29th unless there is irrefutable evidence that the missiles are being dismantled.

Oct 28  Kennedy promises Khrushchev not to invade Cuba and Khrushchev agrees to the removal of Soviet missiles in Cuba.

Oct 29  Many in the world are happy to be alive.

Oct 30  Khrushchev writes to Castro: "Had we, yielding to the sentiments prevailing among the people, allowed ourselves to be carried away by certain passionate sectors of the population and refused to come to a reasonable agreement with the US government, then a war could have broken out, in the course of which millions of people would have died and the survivors would have pinned the blame on the leaders for not having taken all the necessary measures to prevent that war of annihilation."

Nov 1  As promised, the Soviet Union begins dismantling their missiles in Cuba.

Nov 4  Halberstam reports that Communist guerrillas consider the mountainous territory north of Saigon as their own and that the Saigon regime's military officers tend to agree.

Nov 4  The kingdoms of Jordan and Saudi Arabia are supporting the royalist forces in Yemen. Egypt is assisting Yemen's republican forces.

Nov 5  Saudi Arabia breaks diplomatic relations with Egypt.

Nov 6  The U.N. General Assembly calls for member states to end military and economic ties with South Africa.

Nov 9  A fifth Saudi Arabian prince has joined his brothers in exile in Egypt. They have renounced their titles and have pledged to work for a "free Saudi Arabia."

Nov 11  Royalist forces in Yemen claim to have killed 250 Egyptian soldiers.

Nov 20  Fifty US helicopters carry Saigon troops on an operation against what has been regarded as a Communist sanctuary.

Nov 21  China agrees to a cease-fire on the India-China border. At the U.N. the Soviet Union agrees to withdraw bomber aircraft from Cuba. Kennedy ends the arms quarantine against Cuba.

Dec 2  On a trip to Vietnam at President Kennedy's request, Senator Mike Mansfield of Montana reports that US money poured into Vietnam in the last seven years has accomplished nothing. He blames the Diem regime for its failure to share power and win support from the South Vietnamese people. Mansfield's view surprises and irritates President Kennedy.

Dec 8  In Britain's colony Brunei an army backed by Indonesia rebels. The Sultan of Brunei escapes. The army seizes oil fields and takes European hostages. In the evening, British and Gurkha troops arrive from Singapore.

Dec 9  Tanganyika becomes independent of British rule and a republic within the Commonwealth.

Dec 16  In Brunei, the British claim to occupy all major rebel centers.

Dec 19  The United States recognizes the Republic of Yemen.

Dec 21  Juan Bosch, a 53-year-old novelist and political science professor, is elected president of the Dominican Republic by a vast margin.

Dec 24  Cuba exchanges 1,113 participants in the Bay of Pigs invasion for $53 million worth of food.

Dec 30  UN troops take over the last of the rebel positions in Katanga Province. Moise Tshombe, moves to South Rhodesia.

Timeline: 1963

Jan 11  In his inaugural speech as governor of Alabama, George Wallace proclaims "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever."

Feb 8  Iraq's ruler, General Kassem, is overthrown in a coup led by members of his military and the Ba'ath party. After a quick trial he is shot. Kassem had suppressed the Communist Party in Iraq, and now the killing of Communists, other leftist intellectuals and trade unionists begins. Saddam Hussein, a junior member and former hit man for the Ba'ath Party, returns to Iraq.

Feb 8  President Kennedy makes travel to Cuba and financial and commercials transactions with Cuba illegal for US citizens.

Feb 27  The leftist former professor, Juan Bosch, takes office as President of the Dominican Republic.

Mar 22  In Britain a leading Conservative Party leader and Minister of War, John Profumo, denies to the House of Commons that back in 1961 he had been involved with Christine Keeler, who is known to have been involved with a Soviet attaché.

Mar 31  The last of the streetcars disappear in Los Angeles.

Apr 1  In Dallas, at his second job since returning from the Soviet Union,  Lee Harvey Oswald has been rude with his fellow workers and inefficient at his job - as a photoprint trainee. A supervisor finds him on his lunch break reading the Soviet Union's satirical magazine Krokodil - available in the United States as part of a cultural exchange agreement between the US and the Soviet union. Oswald is fired.

Apr 8  US advisors complain that Diem's forces in the Mekong Delta are hampering the war effort by their reluctance to take casualties.

Apr 10  In Dallas, Oswald fires his rifle into the home of the former general and outspoken anti-Communist, Edwin Walker, barely missing Walker. Oswald returns home with his rifle, undetected.

Apr 20  President Sukarno of Indonesia endorses Beijing's foreign policies in exchange for Beijing's support for Sukarno's opposition to the formation of the new state of Malaysia.

May 1  The UN hands control over what had been Dutch New Guinea to Indonesia. 

May 8  In Vietnam, Buddha's birthday is being celebrated. President Diem, a Roman Catholic, has a law against Buddhists displaying their flag. The Buddhists are aware of Papal flags having been flown, and they line streets defiantly flying their flag. Diem sends troops in armored vehicles against them. Nine Buddhists are killed.  Diem accuses the Buddhists of sympathizing with the Communists.

May 11  In a television interview, Fidel Castro, recently returned from red carpet treatment in the Soviet Union, says that the United States has "taken some steps in the way of peace" in its relations with Cuba and that these might be the basis of better relations.

May 22  In Greece, a popular member of parliament, Grigoris Lambrakis, is intentionally run down by a truck. 

May 27 Lambrakis dies. Unrest follows, with the government castigated as a moral accomplice in the death of Lambrakis.  

Jun 5  John Profumo confesses that he misled the House of Commons back in March. He resigns.

Jun 10  In a speech at American University in West Virginia, President Kennedy says, "Some say that it is useless to speak of peace or world law or world disarmament - and that it will be useless until the leaders of the Soviet Union adopt a more enlightened attitude. I hope they do. I believe we can help them do it ... I am not referring to the absolute, infinite concepts of universal peace and goodwill of which some fantasies and fanatics dream ... No government or social system is so evil that its people must be considered as lacking in virtue ... Among the many traits the peoples of our two countries have in common, none is stronger than our mutual abhorrence of war."

Jun 12  The Field Director of the NAACP in Mississippi, Medgar Evers, is shot and killed in front of his home.

Jun 11   At a busy intersection in Saigon, a Buddhist Monk sets himself on fire - a scene televised across the world.  President Diem's sister in law, Madam Nhu, acting first lady of Diem's regime, says she would "clap hands at seeing another monk barbecue show."

Jun 11  In Alabama, federal troops force Governor George Wallace to allow black students to enter the University of Alabama.

Jun 16  The Soviet Union sends the first woman, Valentina Tereshkova, into space.

Jun 17 The US Supreme Court rules 8-1 to strike down rules requiring the recitation of the Lord's Prayer or reading of Biblical verses in public schools.

Jun 20 The United States and Soviet Union agree to a communications hot line between the two powers and sign a treaty limiting nuclear testing.

Jun 21 In California, the Board of Regents who govern the state's university system abolishes the speaker ban by a vote of 15 to 2 with one abstention. One of those opposed, Regent Jerd F. Sullivan Jr, expresses his opposition: " ... to allow an agent of the Communist Party to peddle his wares to students of an impressionable age is just as wrong, in my estimation as it would be to allow Satan himself to use the pulpit of one of our best cathedrals for the purpose of trying to proselyte new members... Communism ... is a foreign ideology; a subversive conspiracy dedicated to the overthrow of our form of government, by force if necessary. Their sales ability has been well demonstrated by the strides they have made in many parts of the world. Therefore, if we as a country feel that our ideology is superior, why leave our youth open to the narcotic influence of that salesmanship."

July 19  Since May, Lee Harvey Oswald has been working at the Reilly Coffee Company. He is fired from this third job since having returned from the Soviet Union.

Aug 3  Madam Nhu accuses Buddhist leaders of treason, murder and describes them as "so-called holy men who use Communist tactics."

Aug 4  In Vietnam another Buddhist priest burns himself to death.

Aug 9  Buddhist leaders, fearing more suicide demonstrations, prohibit suicide by fire.

Aug 11  US intelligence becomes aware of "deep and smoldering" resentment against Diem in his army.

Aug 12  President Betancourt of Venezuela wants the former dictator Perez Jiminez back in Venezuela to face charges of embezzling 13 million dollars. After careful legal study the Kennedy administration extradites him. 

Aug 12  In Vietnam an 18-year-old Buddhist girl maims herself in protest against Diem's religious policies.

Aug 13  A 17-year-old Buddhist student priest burns himself to death.

Aug 15  A Buddhist nun, in her twenties, burns herself to death.

Aug 16  A 71-year-old Buddhist monk burns himself to death in the city of Hue.

Aug. 17  Forty-seven faculty members at the University of Hue resign to protest the Government's discharge of the Roman Catholic rector of the university and what they call government "indifference" toward settling a 14-week-old religious crisis.

Aug 18  At the Xa Loi pagoda in Saigon, about 15,000 Buddhists, most of them young people, sit-in and commit to a hunger strike.

Aug 21  Hundreds of heavily armed policemen and soldiers, firing pistols and using tear-gas bombs and hand grenades, swarm into the Xa Loi pagoda.

Aug 22 The US State Department criticizes Diem's government for violating its assurances that a reconciliation with Buddhists was being sought.

Aug 23  In Vietnam, David Halberstam of the New York Times reports growing anti-American feeling and student unrest.

Aug 25  In response to student unrest, Diem's regime announces the closure of all public and private secondary schools and Saigon's university.

Aug 28  At the Lincoln Memorial, Martin Luther King makes his "I have a dream" speech.

Sep 6  Senator Barry Goldwater urges postponing the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

Sep 16  Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo are united into the Federation of Malaysia.

Sep 21  The government of Indonesia announces the takeover of all British Companies.

Sep 23  During an interview by Walter Cronkite, President Kennedy says that South Vietnam's Government cannot win its war against the Communists unless it recovers popular support. He also expresses a domino theory: that "if we withdrew from Vietnam, the Communists would control Vietnam. Pretty soon, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaya, would go..."

Sep 25  The US Senate, by a vote of 80 to 19, ratifies the treaty outlawing nuclear tests - in the atmosphere, in space and in the waters of the earth.  President Kennedy sets out on an eleven-state tour to plead for support for his domestic program.

Sep 26  President Sukarno says that the new federation of Malaysia was created "to corner Indonesia" and that Indonesia will need to "fight and destroy" it.

Sep 26  In the Dominican Republic, some are opposed to the reforms of Juan Bosch. In a pre-dawn military coup, the government of Juan Bosch is overthrown. Coup leaders describe Bosch's government as having been "corrupt and pro Communist."

Sep 27 The United States halts all economic aid to the Dominican Republic and suspends diplomatic relations.

Sep 27  Lee Harvey Oswald has taken a bus to Mexico City where he visits the Cuban consulate, hoping to move to Cuba, which he believes has a socialism superior to that of the Soviet Union.

Sep 27  Madam Nhu announces that a number of Junior officers are plotting against her brother-in-law's government.

Oct 2  President Kennedy sends a message to Ambassador Lodge in Vietnam, declaring that "no initiative should now be taken to give any encouragement to a coup" against Diem but that Lodge should "identify and build contacts with possible leadership as and when it appears."

Oct 5  The rebel generals, led by Duong Van "Big" Minh, have asked for assurance that US aid to South Vietnam will continue after Diem's removal from office and assurance that the US will not interfere with their coup. President Kennedy gives his approval and the CIA passes it on to the rebel generals.

Oct 7  President Kennedy ratifies a limited nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union. Nuclear testing is outlawed in the atmosphere, underwater and in outer space.

Oct 9  Madam Nhu's father, Tran Van Chuong, who recently resigned as South Vietnamese Ambassador to the United States, has joined those opposed to the Diem regime. He calls for a selective cut in American aid to his country.

Oct 11  The US has 16,300 members of the military in Vietnam, increased from 800 by President Kennedy. Kennedy issues an order for the withdrawal from Vietnam of 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963. According to Kennedy's Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, to be stated in the early 21st century, Kennedy is considering pulling US troops out of Vietnam after the 1964 election.

Oct 14  Madam Nhu accuses Washington of going soft on Communism and of basing its policies toward Vietnam on domestic political concerns.

Oct 15  Oswald is back from Mexico after having been denied a visa by Cuba. He has acquired a job at the Texas School Book Depository at $1.25 per hour filling customer orders for books.

Oct 16  In South Korea the leader of the ruling junta, Major General Park Chung-hee, is elected President.

Oct 18  In Britain the government of Harold Macmillan has lost credibility because of the Profumo affair, and Macmillan is suffering ill-health. He resigns.

Oct 24  This is U.N. Day, and the U.N. Ambassador, Adlai Stevenson, is in Dallas Texas, where he is jeered, pushed, hit by a sign and spat upon.

Oct 25  Ambassador Lodge reports a coup is "imminent."  The White House tells Lodge to postpone the coup. Lodge says that the coup can be stopped only by betraying the conspirators to Diem.

Nov 1  The Diem regime is overthrown. Diem and his younger brother, Madam Nhu's husband, are said to have committed suicide. In fact they were assassinated. People in Saigon bedeck army tanks with flowers and parade joyously through the streets.

Nov 2  Madam Nhu accuses the United States of having stabbed the Diem government in the back.

Nov 4  In elections in Greece, former Premier George Papandreou and his Center Union party win over former Premier Constantine Caramanlis and his rightist National Radical Union.

Nov 6 In Greece, King Paul gives Papandreou a mandate to form a new government.

Nov 12  The Kennedy administration has hopes for better relations with Cuba and is arranging a meeting with Castro's regime, a meeting Kennedy does not want leaked to the press.

Nov 14  In Greece hundreds of political prisoners are freed.

Nov 16  In the United States the touch-tone telephone is introduced.

Nov 20  In the United States a handbill is being prepared for distribution during President Kennedy's visit to Dallas. It blames Kennedy for betraying the Constitution, for " turning the sovereignty of the US over to the communist controlled United Nations," for endangering the security of the US with "deals" with the Soviet Union, for being "lax in enforcing Communist Registration laws", giving "support and encouragement to the Communist inspired racial riots, and having "consistently appointed Anti-Christians to Federal office."

Nov 22  In Dallas, President Kennedy rides in an open limousine on a route of public knowledge. It passes in front of the building where Oswald works. Oswald takes his rifle to work with him and shoots the President. Vice President Johnson becomes President.

Nov 24  Jack Ruby, owner of a girly bar and friend of Dallas policemen, kills Oswald.

Nov 24  After walking in the procession from the White House behind the Kennedy cortege, President Johnson meets with Secretary of State Rusk, Secretary of Defense McNamara, CIA Director McCone and Ambassador Lodge. He expresses doubts that getting rid of Diem was the right course. He declares that he will not "lose Vietnam." He tells Lodge to tell Duong Van Minh and the other generals who made up the ruling Military Revolutionary Council that bickering among them must stop.

Nov 29  President Johnson appoints Chief Justice Earl Warren as head of a commission to investigate the Kennedy assassination.

Nov 30  In Cyprus, quarrels have erupted between Greeks and the Turkish minority. President Makarios hopes for better cooperation between the two communities and proposes thirteen amendments to the Constitution for consideration by leaders of the Turkish Cypriot community.

Dec 1  In the US, Malcolm X, a spokesperson for Elijah Muhammad of the Nation of Islam, describes the assassination of Kennedy as "the chickens coming home to roost."  This irritates Elijah Muhammad, who suspends Malcolm's right to speak for the movement for 90 days.

Dec 20  In a seventeen-day accord, East Germany allows West Berliners one-day to visit relatives in East Berlin.

Dec 21 In Cyprus, proposed constitutional amendments would eliminate most of the special rights of Turkish Cypriots in exchange for greater integration between the two communities, with some guarantees for Turkish rights. Among Turkish Cypriots, rioting erupts.

Timeline: 1964
Jan 8  President Johnson declares "War on Poverty."

Jan 9  US high school students in the Panama Canal Zone violate an order banning the flying of any flag. A scuffle between US and Panamanian students ensues and escalates. Anti-US rioting erupts in the zone. Twenty-one Panamanians and four US soldiers are killed.

Jan 10  Panama severs relations with the US and demands revision of the Canal Treaty.

Jan 17  A loose confederation of fourteen Arab countries - the Arab League - meets in Egypt and creates the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Its charter claims that Israel is an illegal state and pledges "the elimination of Zionism in Palestine."

Jan 30  In a bloodless coup, General Nguyen Khanh takes over as Saigon's ruler. He had been a military officer with the French, fighting for French colonialism against his countrymen's desire for independence.

Feb 1  President Johnson says that he sees no chance of negotiating peace for Southeast Asia as proposed by President de Gaulle.

Feb 7  The Beatles land in New York, making their debut in the United States. Their record, I Want to Hold Your Hand" is a best seller.

Feb 10  The US House of Representatives votes on and passes the Civil Rights Act that had been sent to Congress by President Kennedy in June 1963.

Feb 26  Saigon's forces (ARVN) surround the Viet Cong and keep their distance, hitting the Viet Cong instead with air strikes and artillery. The Viet Cong slips away. General Khanh is displeased and sacks five of his division commanders.

Mar 8  Malcolm X has broken with Elijah Mohammad's Nation of Islam. He believes in the separation of races and announces that he is forming a Black Nationalist Party.

Mar 13  In Queens, New York, residents fail to respond to the cries of Kitty Genovese, 28, as she is being stabbed to death.

Mar --  This month's issue of Playboy publishes an interview with Ayn Rand, who says, "I consider the Birch Society futile, because they are not for capitalism but merely against communism ... I gather they believe that the disastrous state of today's world is caused by a communist conspiracy. This is childishly naive and superficial. No country can be destroyed by a mere conspiracy, it can be destroyed only by ideas."

Apr 3  The US and Panama agree to resume diplomatic relations

Apr 4  In Brazil, landowners and industrialists have been unhappy with reformist President Joao Goulart. He is driven from power in a bloodless military coup, ending reforms called for by the Alliance for Progress and starting 21 years of dictatorship. US. Ambassador Lincoln Gordon will admit US encouragement to the plotters and that during the coup the US Navy stood off the coast. Aid will flow to the new government of Brazil that was denied to Goulart's government.

Apr 19  Malcolm X is in Mecca meeting devout Muslims of different races. He has softened, believing that racial barriers can be overcome and that Islam is the religion that can do it.

May 2  Four hundred to 1,000 students march through Times Square, New York, and another 700 in San Francisco, in the first major student demonstration against the Vietnam War. Smaller marches also occur in Boston, Seattle, and in Madison, Wisconsin.

May 14  In Egypt, Nikita Khrushchev joins President Nasser in setting off charges, diverting the Nile River from the site of the Aswan High Dam project.

May 22  President Johnson speaks to a graduating class and presents his idea for a "Great Society."

May 25  The Supreme Court rules that closing schools to avoid desegregation is unconstitutional.

May 27  The US has 16,000 military people in Vietnam, and so far 266 of its forces there have been killed. In a taped conversation, President Lyndon Johnson says to his national security advisor, McGeorge Bundy: "I don't think it's worth fighting for, and I don't think we can get out ... What in the hell is Vietnam worth to me? What is Laos worth to me? What is it worth to this country?"

Jun 2  Governor Nelson Rockefeller has been considered the front runner among Republicans for the presidency. In the California primary he has been attacking Goldwater as too dangerous, and Goldwater has attacked Rockefeller's morality. Social conservatives have been offended by Rockefeller's divorce and remarriage in 1963. Republican voters choose Goldwater by a margin of less than 3 percent, ensuring Goldwater's nomination at the upcoming Republican convention.

Jun 3  In Seoul, Korea, an estimated 10,000 student demonstrators over-power the police. President Park Chung Hee declares martial law.

Jun 5  In Seoul, student demonstrations continue, and demonstrations erupt in eleven other cities. The students, it is said, are impatient and frustrated concerning the country's economic misery. President Chung Hee Park accepts the resignation of his right-hand man, Kim Chong Pil, to placate student opinion.

Jun 12  President Chung Hee Park's ruling Democratic Republican party and opposition politicians agree to form a 24-man committee to solve problems resulting from student demonstrations.

Jun 12  In South Africa, Nelson Mandela and seven others are sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to Robben Island prison.

Jun 15  The last of France's military leaves Algeria.

Jun 19  The Senate votes on and passes the Civil Rights Act. Senator Goldwater is one of only six Republican senators who votes against the bill.

Jun 20  General Westmoreland succeeds General Paul Harkins as head of the US forces in Vietnam.
Jun 21  A summer of civil rights activities are underway in the South. Three civil rights workers, Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman and James Chaney are murdered near Philadelphia, Mississippi, by law enforcement officials. The governor of Mississippi, Paul Johnson, offers little help and dismisses fears that the three have been murdered. He says, "Maybe they went to Cuba," suggesting the Communist tie that was commonly used to discredit the civil rights movement in the South. Johnson is moderate for a white Mississippian regarding race, but conformism involved in appealing to voters led him in a 1963 to criticize advocacy of civil rights for blacks and to indentify the NAACP as standing for: "Niggers, alligators, apes, coons, and possums." (Time, August 16, 1963)

Jun 25  The Vatican condemns use of the contraceptive pill for females.

Jul 2  President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into Law.

Jul 6  Malawi declares its independence from Britain.

Jul 13  In San Francisco, the Republican Convention's party platform reads: "Humanity is tormented once again by an age-old issue - is man to live in dignity and freedom under God or be enslaved -- are men in government to serve, or are they to master their fellow men?" The platform accuses the Johnson Administration of seeking "accommodation with Communism without adequate safeguards and compensating gains for freedom." It describes the Democrats of having "collaborated with Indonesian imperialism by helping it to acquire territory belonging to the Netherlands and control over the Papuan people."  And it states that "This Administration has refused to take practical free enterprise measures to help the poor."

Jul 14  At the podium at the Republican convention, Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York is booed extensively when he denounces extremism.

Jul 16  Senator Barry Goldwater wins the nomination for president on the first ballot.

Jul 18  In Harlem, New York, six days of rioting begins. According to the New York Times, thousands of blacks "race through the center of Harlem shouting at policemen and white people, pulling fire alarms, breaking windows and looting stores." Whites had moved out of Harlem by 1950 and by 1960 middle class blacks had followed.

Jul 19  In Harlem, Jesse Gray, leader of a rent strike, calls for "100 skilled black revolutionaries who are ready to die" to correct "the police brutality situation in Harlem."

Jul 21  Five days of race riots erupt in Singapore. It begins with Malays commemorating the Prophet Mohammad's birthday with a march.  A few marchers respond in anger to a policeman ordering some to return to the ranks of the marchers. Marchers attack Chinese passersby and spectators.  Retaliations against Muslims follow.

Jul 27  From the US, 5,000 more military "advisers" are sent to South Vietnam, bringing their total in Vietnam to 21,000.

Aug 1  The Republic of the Congo, formerly the Belgian Congo, changes its name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Aug 2  North Vietnamese torpedo boats retaliate against ships involved in attacks on a radio transmitter on the island of Hon Ngu off the coast of North Vietnam, in the Tonkin Gulf. The torpedo boats approach the US destroyer Maddox, which sinks two of the torpedo boats and damages a third.

Aug 4  On the USS Maddox, in the dark of night, an "overeager sonar man," to be described as such by the ship's captain, mistakenly believes that his ship is under attack again. For two hours the Maddox and another destroyer, the USS Turner Joy, fire at imaginary targets. Air support from two US aircraft carriers are sent on a retaliatory mission against targets on Vietnam's coast. President Johnson speaks to the American public about "deliberate attacks on US naval vessels" and his retaliation and adds that "we must and shall honor our commitments."

Aug 6  In a meeting with US legislators, Defense Secretary McNamara gives a distorted description of  US naval activities in the Tonkin Gulf. 

Aug 7  US congressmen and senators vote in favor of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, giving President Johnson powers in lieu of a declaration of war. The vote in the House of Representatives is 416 to 0, in the Senate 88 to 2.

Aug 11  Since the rioting in Harlem, trouble has been expected in Paterson, New Jersey. According to one report "carousing teenagers in the slum Fourth Ward began pelting passing police cars with bottles and rocks. Soon hundreds of Negroes were racing through the streets, smashing windows and hurling debris at police."

Aug 12  Twenty miles south of Paterson, in Elizabeth, New Jersey, rioting erupts. People pitch Molotov cocktails into three taverns, and soon, a report says, "hundreds of Negroes were flinging bottles and bricks from rooftops and street corners."

Aug 21  In Saigon, students and Buddhist militants begin a series of escalating protests against the General Khanh's regime. General Khan brings in others to share power. People unhappy with the US backed regime are encouraged, and mob violence erupts.  

Aug 22   At the Democratic Party's convention, Fannie Lou Hammer, representing the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, challenges the all-white Mississippi delegation. Johnson hurridly calls a press conference to tell reporters things they already know, to get the television cameras off Ms Hamer, and this succeeds, but the networks will rebroadcast her speech repeatedly, with Hamer in an electrifying speech, asking that her delegation be seated to represent MIssissippi. Johnson calls Hamer an "ignorant woman." He needs to compromise with southern whites in order to get civil rights and other legislation passed. Humphrey and labor leader Walther Reuther help sway the Democrats to side with Johnson. There will be no seating of the Mississippi Freedom delegation.

Aug 28-30  In predominately black neighborhoods on the north side of Philadelphia, well-publicized allegations of police brutality have created unrest. Two policemen, one white, one black, try to remove a black woman from her car after she refuses to cooperate with them. Rumors spread that a pregnant black woman has been beaten to death by white cops. Three days of rioting follow, with mobs looting and burning mostly white-owned stores. 341 are injured and 774 arrested.

Sep 1  "Freedom Summer" in Mississippi is drawing to a close. White Mississippians fear what will happen if civil rights including the right to vote are extended to blacks. They remain opposed to the freedom schools that have advanced literacy and delighted blacks. There have been 35 shootings incidents, 6 murders of activists, 80 beatings and 65 houses and chuches burned.

Sep 4  At the University of California at Berkeley, students have returned from summer vacation, some of them from civil rights activities in the South. US Senator William Knowland's newspaper, the Oakland Tribune, is picketed by a civil rights group that organizes on campus.

Sep 14  On the Berkeley campus, Dean Katherine Towle bans posters, easels and tables on campus and reminds student groups of prohibitions against collecting funds or using university facilities in planning or implementing off-campus political and social action.

Sep 17  Some twenty student activist organizations form a coalition to oppose the regulations announced by Dean Towle. The "Free Speech Movement" is born.

Sep 21  Malta becomes independent from Britain.

Sep 27  The Warren Commission Report is released. It concludes that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the assassination of President Kennedy.

Oct 1  Campaigning for the presidency in Hammond, Indiana, Senator Goldwater promises his audience that he will liberate Eastern Europe, and he tells them that only victory can end Communism.

Oct 1  A  Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) volunteer, Jack Weinberg, sitting at a table on the Berkeley campus, is put into a police car by campus police. A crowd growing to about 3,000 surround the police car.  Mario Savio, fresh from civil rights activities in the South, climbs on top the police car after respectfully removing his shoes, and he makes a speech.

Oct 2  Approximately 450 policemen rescue the police car, book and then release Jack Weinberg. Student activists take up a collection to repair the police car's dented roof.

Oct 13  Nikita Khrushchev returns from a vacation and finds that members of the Presidium (formerly the Politburo) have called a special meeting. Its members vote to send him into retirement. Khrushchev will be given a pension and watched closely by the KGB. His successor as Premier will be Alexei Kosygin and as Communist Party First Secretary will be Leonid Brezhnev.

Oct 13  The Soviet Union has spectacular success launching a three-man spacecraft that returns after 24 hours. N

Oct 15  President Johnson says if he is elected he will take important new steps to reduce world tensions.

Oct 16  China explodes an atomic bomb in Sinkiang province.

Oct 16  In his first major campaign speech on civil rights, Goldwater declares that "forced integration is just as wrong as forced segregation."

Oct 16  Former Vice President Richard M. Nixon says that a Johnson administration would be "a sitting duck" for the ruthless and tough-minded leaders who have replaced Nikita Khrushchev.

Oct. 20  Goldwater describes Johnson's foreign policy as a "policy of drift, deception and defeat."

Oct 21  Campaigning for re-election in Akron, Ohio, President Johnson says "[We] are not about to send American boys nine to ten thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves."

Oct 22  Jean Paul Sartre, French philosopher and novelist, declines the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Oct 23  The Republic National Chairman, Dean Burch, says that a private Republican poll shows that Senator Goldwater leads President Johnson in electoral votes, 261 to 258.

Oct 24  Goldwater repudiates his campaign film, "Choice," which contends that social "rot" is undermining American society.

Oct 27 A speech by Ronald Reagan is broadcast on television for the Goldwater campaign. Reagan tells of switching from Democrat to "another course." He complains about tax burdens and he asks whether a "little intellectual elite in a far-distant capital can plan our lives for us better than we can plan them ourselves." The speech enhances his standing in the Republican Party.

Nov 1  A pre-dawn mortar assault by the Viet Cong at the Vien Hoa air base, 12 miles north of Saigon, kills five Americans, two South Vietnamese and wounds nearly one hundred others. President Johnson dismisses recommendations for a retaliatory air strike against North Vietnam.

Nov. 1  Senator Barry Goldwater says that the attack on Bienhoa airbase shows that the United States is involved in an undeclared war. He adds that it is "high time" for the president to speak frankly about it to the people.

Nov 2  A radio program titled "Goldwater's New World," creates a minor panic among listeners in the Netherlands.

Nov 3  It is election day. Goldwater carries only Arizona and five segregated states of the deep South,  from Louisiana east to South Carolina, excluding Florida. Johnson is re-elected with 61 percent of the vote. The Democrats win both the Senate and the House of Representatives. Robert Kennedy wins the race for US Senator from New York. 

Nov 4  Lenny Bruce, stand up comic, is arrested in New York City for using "bad language" in one of his routines.

Nov 9  In Britain, the House Commons abolishes the death penalty for murder.

Nov 18  Martin Luther King has accused FBI agents in Georgia of failing to act on complaints filed by blacks. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover retaliates, describing King as "the most notorious liar in the country."

Nov 24  In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Belgian paratroopers liberate around 1,600 Europeans who had been taken hostage by a rebel army in early August.

Nov 29  In the US, the Catholic Church changes its liturgy, including the use of English rather than Latin.

Dec 2-3  The chancellor at U.C. Berkeley has refused to drop plans to discipline "Free Speech Movement" leaders. More than 500 students stage an overnight sit-in takeover of the campus administration building. California's governor, Pat Brown, a liberal Democrat, gives a deputy Alameda district attorney permission to bring in off-campus police: sheriff's deputies and officers from the Highway Patrol. Removing the students is a job made harder by the students refusing to cooperate and made easier by dragging them down flights of stairs, bumpety bumpety bump, to waiting police vans. Students on their way to class that next morning are appalled by the site of fellow students being manhandled, and liberal faculty members are also appalled.

Dec 18  The University of California Regents affirm that university rules should follow the US Supreme Court decisions on free speech.

Dec 20-21  Another military coup occurs in Saigon, led by Nguyen Cao Ky and Nguyen Van Thieu, which keeps General Khanh as part of the new government. US Ambassador Taylor reacts with anger, summons the young officers to the US embassy and tells them he is "tired of coups." General Khanh retaliates, saying that the US is reverting to "colonialism" in its treatment of South Vietnam.

Timeline: 1965

Jan 2  Martin Luther King Jr. begins a drive to register black voters in the US South.

Jan 3  A new chancellor is appointed for the University of California at Berkeley. It is announced that political activity will be allowed on campus. Students are to be allowed to hold rallies and speak from the steps of the administration building, Sproul Hall.

Jan 4  In his State of the Union address,  President Johnson proclaims his Great Society. Also he announces plans to promote birth control abroad, using "our knowledge to help deal with the explosion in world population and the growing scarcity in world resources."

Jan 14  The prime ministers of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland meet for the first time in 43 years, a sign of improving relations.

Jan 16  A federal grand jury in Mississippi indicts 18 men for violating the civil rights of Schwerner, Goodman and Chaney, murdered in Mississippi in 1964.

Jan 20  In Spain, Generalissimo Francisco Franco meets with Jews to discuss legitimizing their communities.

Feb 6  A Viet Cong raid on a base in Pleiku, South Vietnam, kills 8 Americans. This is done by Vietnamese believingthat they are continuing a fight that began with French colonialism and that they are fighting murderous foreign intruders and a minority of Vietnamese who supported the French.

Feb 8  President Johnson orders more bombing in North Vietnam.

Feb 15  Canada acquires a new flag.

Feb 21 In New York, Malcolm X is assassinated in front of 400 people. His assassins will be described as members of Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam.
 Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King Jr. (President Johnson in the background)

Mar 7  Selma, Alabama, is a city of 29,500 people - 14,400 whites and 15,100 blacks. Its voting rolls are 99 percent white and 1 percent black. With clubs and tear gas, state troopers attack a march for voting rights led by

Martin Luther King. It is broadcast on television.

Mar 8  In Vietnam, 3,500 US Marines arrive - the first ground force units from a foreign power since the war between the Vietnamese and the French.

Mar 9  From California to Washington D.C., people demonstrate against the police action in Selma.  Michigan's Governor George Romney leads a protest parade of 10,000. Demonstrators block rush-hour traffic in downtown Chicago's Loop. In Selma a second attempt to march is stopped. Later, three of the marchers on their way from a restaurant to a black church pass through one of the poorer white neighborhoods. A white Unitarian-Universalist minister, James Reeb, is clubbed to the ground and goes into a coma during a delayed journey to a hospital in nearby Birmingham.  

Mar 9  In the National Review, Russell Kirk writes that if applied in South Africa, one-man/one-vote "would bring anarchy and the collapse of civilization." He describes whites as having "rescued South Africa", and "Bantu political domination would be domination by witch doctors (still numerous and powerful) and reckless demagogues."

Mar 11 James Reeb dies. President Johnson sends flowers and a jet plane to return Mrs. Reeb to Boston.  More demonstrations erupt across the country.

Mar 12  President Johnson instructs his aides to draft a voting rights bill.

Mar 13  In Selma, civil rights demonstrators, including ministers and nuns, try to break through a police blockade. In the White House President Johnson meets with and scolds Alabama's slightly contrite governor, George Wallace. "The Negro," says Johnson, "is going to win his right to participate in his own government." He tell Wallace: "Consider history's verdict. You ought to be thinking of where you will stand in 1995, not 1965."

Mar 14  In Selma, local lawmen arrest four men suspected of connection with Reeb's death.

Mar 16  In Montgomery, Alabama, police attack 600 SNCC marchers.

Mar 17  President Johnson's voting rights proposal reaches Congress.

Mar 18  A federal judge rules that Martin Luther King and the SCLC have a right to march, as originally intended, from Selma to the state capitol, Montgomery, to petition state government.

Mar 21  Martin Luther King leads 3,200 marchers from Selma to Montgomery.

Mar 21-23  Police in Casablanca, Morocco, attack students and workers campaigning against King Hassan II. The number killed is to be estimated at 1,500, according to the BBC more than thirty years later.

Mar 24-25  At the University of Michigan the first teach-in is held against the US war in Vietnam.

Mar 25  In Alabama, Klansmen shoot to death Viola Liuzzo, of Michigan, as she is driving marchers from Montgomery back to Selma.

Mar 26  President Johnson appears on television and announces the arrest of four Klansmen suspects in Liuzzo's death.

Apr 7  In a speech at John Hopkins University, President Johnson says that we fight in Vietnam "to live in a world where every country can shape its own destiny." He describes "the first reality" in Vietnam as North Vietnam having "attacked the independent nation of South Vietnam."

Apr 28  Civil war has erupted between the followers of deposed President Juan Bosch and the military junta that ousted him. President Johnson sends 42,000 Marines to protect US citizens and prevent an alleged Communist takeover. 

May 12 West Germany and Israel establish diplomatic relations.

May 13  Several Arab nations break diplomatic ties with West Germany.

May 15  Professors from across the country stage a national teach-in in Washington DC. Television networks and major newspapers cover the event, and radio stations broadcast the proceedings to 122 campuses.

May 21-23  On the U.C. Berkeley campus, the Vietnam Day Committee runs an anti-war teach-in. Speakers include Dr. Benjamin Spock; socialist leader Norman Thomas; novelist Norman Mailer; the  journalist I.F. Stone and Professor Staughton Lynd of Yale. Bertrand Russell sends a taped message.

Jun 7 King Hassan II suspends Morocco's constitution and assumes all legislative and executive powers. He has sufficient backing from his military to accomplish this.

Jun 18  Nguyen Cao Ky takes power in South Vietnam as Prime Minister. Nguyen Van Thieu is the official chief of state. It's the 10th government in Saigon, South Vietnam, in 20 months. Much of Vietnam and the world sees the United States as the stable power ruling in Vietnam. The Johnson administration is looking forward to the regimes in Saigon beinf truly independent and Vietnamese, but the administration is already claiming it is,
and it's fooling mostly Americans who want to believe their government.

Jun 19  In Algeria, President Ben Bella's old friend in the military, Houari Boumedienne, has grown disappointed with Ben Bella's dogmatism and authoritarianism. He leads a bloodless coup, ousting Ben Bella from power.

Jun 22  Japan and South Korea renew ties with a Treaty of Basic Relations, signed in Tokyo.

Jul 2   President Johnson announces that he has ordered an increase in US military forces in Vietnam to 125,000. To accomplish this, the monthly draft call is raised from 17,000 to 35,000.

Jul 30  President Johnson signs the Social Security Act into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid.

Aug 1  In Britain, advertising cigarettes on television is banned.
Morley Safer
Morley Safer

Jonathan Daniels
Jonathan Daniels

Aug 5  In Vietnam, newsman Morley Safer covers US Marines setting afire Vietnamese homes in the village of Cam Ne. His story is broadcast on CBS Evening News. Johnson is angry and believes that Safer must be a Communist. He orders a security check, and, when learning that Safer is Canadian, he says, "Well, I knew he wasn't an American."

Aug 6  Chiang Kai-shek's plan to take back the mainland has been launched. Mainland forces sink two of his naval vessels assigned to transport troops on a recon mission. Two hundred of his troops are lost.

Aug 6  President Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act into law.

Aug 9  Singapore separates from the Federation of Malaysia, becoming a sovereign nation. Lee Kuan Yew is its prime minister.

Aug 11-17  In the community of Watts in Los Angeles a riot begins following a policeman pulling over a driver he suspects is intoxicated. Police send in squads to protect their fellow police, who act with ferocity. On the third day of the riots in Watts, 1,500 National Guardsmen arrive. The number is insufficient, so 13,000 more arrive. During the seven days of rioting, 34 people are killed, 1,100 people injured, 4,000 people arrested, and there is an estimated $100 million worth of damage.

Aug 20  In Haneville, Alabama, an Episcopal seminarian, Jonathan Daniels, on his way with some teenage blacks to buy a soda at a store known to sell to blacks, is met at the door by a deputy sheriff with a shotgun who aims his gun and threatens to "blow their brains out." Daniels steps in front of the others and is shot to death. An all white jury will acquit the deputy of the charge against him: manslaughter. 

Sep 28  Fidel Castro announces that anyone can leave for the United States.

Oct 1 In Indonesia, Sukarno's military has fragmented into left-wing and right-wing camps, one camp close to Indonesia's Communist Party, the other anti-Communist. Acting on a report that a coup is to be launched against President Sukarno, a group of leftist soldiers stage a pre-emptive coup. They kill three anti-communist generals, and a fourth escapes. Sukarno has not been warned of the move to support him and feels endangered.
Oct 6  Sukarno meets with his cabinet and issues a statement denouncing the coup. Alongside Sukarno and guaranteeing his safety is Major-General Suharto, Indonesia's future dictator. The head of Indonesia's Communist Party is flying in an army plane to various places, meeting with party leaders and instructing them to let the military settle things among themselves. He tells them that to avoid creating suspicion they should not organize demonstrations or go underground.

Oct 15  An anti-Communist Jakarta newspaper has accused Chinese intelligence agents of having plotted and financed the leftist coup. Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia are being attacked. More than 5,000 members of Moslem organizations demonstrate, shouting "Crush the Communists" and "Hang Aidit."

Oct 15  Anti-war marches take in various locations around the country. In Berkeley, a march intending to pass into Oakland to an army base leaves campus, fills Telegraph Avenue from curb to curb and stretches one mile from Ashby Avenue back to the campus. It is stopped at the Oakland border by a line of Oakland police.

Oct 16  In Berkeley a second march takes place. The Oakland police let members of a motorcycle gang, the Hell's Angels, through their line. The march leaders order the marchers to sit down. A Hell's Angel shouts "Go back to Russia you f***ng communists." One kicks a marcher. The Berkeley police club the Hell's Angels back to Oakland. They club and arrest the Hell's Angel leader, Sonny Barger.

Oct 24  Muslim vigilante groups are massacring anyone believed to be a Communist. This includes people who belong to labor unions. President Sukarno complains that left-wing organizations are the "victims of false slander." He orders the army to "shoot to kill" to stop the massacres, but he is ignored.

Oct 29  In Paris, an internationally celebrated Moroccan leftist in exile, Mehdi Ben Barka, disappears, never to be seen again.

Oct 30  A counter-demonstration by supporters of President Johnson's war in Vietnam takes place in Washington DC. They are estimated at 25,000 and are led by five Congressional Medal of Honor recipients. Rather than entertain the possibility that the war is a mistake, they appear to be associating support for Johnson's war with patriotism and love of country.

Oct 31  The John Birch Society has an article published in the Palm Beach Post that asks, "What's Wrong with the Civil Rights Movement?" It claims that nothing is wrong except that "the American Negro" is better off than negroes elsewhere thanks to whites, and it claims that the Civil Rights Movement "has been deliberately and almost wholly created by the Communists, patiently building up to this present stage for more than forty years."

Nov 6  Cuba and the United States agree on an American airlift of 3,000 to 4,000 emigrants from Cuba to the United States each month.

Nov 11  Britain has declared that it will not grant independence for its colony of Southern Rhodesia until majority rule is created there. The majority of the people there are black. The leader of the white government there, Ian Smith, declares independence.

Nov 22  In Indonesia, vigilantes with enemy-lists continue invading villages across Indonesia. Ethnic Chinese continue to be associated with Communism and are targeted. The army has captured Aidit and he is executed. Soon the US ambassador to Indonesia, Andrew Gilchrist, will total the slaughter victims at 400,000. Sweden's ambassador will describe this as a "very serious under-estimate."

Nov 24 In a bloodless coup in the Republic of the Congo, Lieutenant-General Mobutu seizes power from Joseph Kasavubu and declares himself president.

Nov 26  Mobutu cancels elections set for next spring, saying he will rule as president for the coming five years.

Dec 17  The British government begins an oil embargo against Rhodesia. The United States joins the effort.

Dec 21  Soviet scientists condemn Trofim Lysenko, the Stalinist biologist, for pseudo science.

Dec 30  Ferdinand Marcos has won an election and takes office as President of the Philippines.

Timeline: 1966


Jan 1  In the Central African Republic a military coup ousts its first president, David Dacko, who had established a one-party state and enjoyed the support of France. Dacko is replaced by Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa and imprisoned.

Jan 2  According to the New York Times, President Johnson's greatest personal disappointment for the year just ended is the failure of the United States to convince Hanoi and Beijing of the sincerity of its desire for peace in Vietnam.

Jan 4  Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) has been a single-party state since independence in 1960. In response to student, labor, civil service unrest and a general strike, a military coup ousts its first president, Maurice Yaméogo. In agreement with demonstrators, General Sangoué Lamizana takes power as head of a "provisional military government."

Jan 7 In Hanoi, a high level delegation from the Soviet Union expresses unity with North Vietnam and its wishes for an early Communist triumph over the United States forces in the South.

Jan 8  In Vietnam, the US launches its largest operation yet - Operation Crimp - with 8,000 troops and tanks. The purpose is to clear away the Viet Cong and capture their base near the district of Chu Chi, just north of Saigon. The area is razed and no Viet Cong base found.

Jan 9  In Nigeria, ethnic and regional differences mixed with unhappiness over recent elections has created unrest. There is rioting, looting and the burning alive of political rivals.
Julian Bond
Julian Bond

Jan 10  In the US, a duly elected young black, Julian Bond, is denied his seat in Georgia's legislature because of his opposition to the war in Vietnam.

Jan 10  In the Soviet Union, the Pakistani-Indian peace negotiations to resolve the Kashmir dispute has ended in an agreement. Pakistan and India sign a treaty. Signing for India is Prime Minister Shastri.

Jan 11 Prime Minister Shastri of India dies of a heart attack.

Jan 11 A journalist, Clyde Petit, has interviewed a couple hundred US servicemen in Vietnam. He passes along a statement from an officer that reads: "If there is a god, and he is very kind to us, and given a million men and five years and a miracle in making the South Vietnamese people like us, we stand an outside chance of a stalemate."

Jan 15 The Federal Prime Minister of Nigeria is kidnapped and two of the country's regional prime ministers are killed in a military coup.

Jan 16  Major-General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi announces that he has accepted an invitation by the Council of Ministers to head a provisional federal military government for the purpose of maintaining law and order.

Jan 22 Ghana's President-for-Life, Kwame Nkrumah, officially opens his great dam on the Volta River.

Jan 24  In India, Indira Gandhi is sworn in as prime minister.

Jan 31  Responding to its displeasure with Ian Smith in Southern Rhodesia, Britain ceases all trade with what Smith calls Rhodesia.

Feb 6  Fidel Castro faults China for trying to spread hostility toward the Soviet Union among Cuban soldiers.

Feb 23  In Syria a group of army officers take power in Syria. The coup leaders describe their move as a "rectification" of Ba'ath Party principles.

Feb 24  Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana is visiting China. Nkrumah is allowing only a single political party. In Ghana, the army and police overthrow of his rule. It is an internally driven operation -- with support from the United States, via the CIA. The new regime cites Nkrumah's abuse of individual rights and liberties, corruption, dictatorial practices and the country's deteriorating Marxist-oriented economy.

Mar 2 Kwame Nkrumah arrives in Guinea and is granted political asylum.

John Lennon, 1966
John Lennon, 1966

Mar 4  John Lennon is annoyed and says, "We [Beatles] are more popular than Jesus." Some believe he is bragging and move to boycott Beatles music.

Mar 11 In Indonesia, Sukarno signs an order that transfers his presidential powers to General Suharto, while keeping his title as president.

Mar 22 General Motors President James M. Roche appears before a US Senate subcommittee and apologizes to consumer advocate Ralph Nader for the company's campaign of intimidation and harassment against him.

Mar 27 In South Vietnam, 20,000 Buddhists march in demonstrations against Saigon regime policies.

Mar 29 A Gallop poll for the past week has 54 percent approving President Johnson's handling of the Vietnam war and 31 percent opposed.

Apr 21 US Senator J William Fulbright, Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, is critical of President Johnson's efforts in Vietnam. He makes his "Arrogance of Power" speech at John Hopkins University and says
that "Unlike the Republic of South Korea, South Vietnam has an army which [is] without notable success and a weak, dictatorial government which does not command the loyalty of the South Vietnamese People."

Apr 21  President Sukarno admonished his ministers not to view him "as a puppet."

Apr 29  US troops in Vietnam total 250,000.

May 4  Fiat signs a contract with the Soviet government to build a car factory in the Soviet Union.

May 6  The California Senate releases a report that describes the U.C. Berkeley campus as a haven for Communists.

May 12 In California, Ronald Reagan is running for republican nomination for governor. He has been listening to people complaining about wasteful government programs and "welfare chiselers," rising taxes, government regulation, arrogant bureaucrats and the unruly students at Berkeley. Reagan calls for the dismissal of those who contributed to the "degradation" of the university. He demands a legislative investigation of Communism and sexual misconduct at UC Berkeley, and he blames turmoil on the Berkeley campus on "a small group of beatniks, radicals, and filthy speech advocates."

May 13  In Berkeley, students are hard at work studying. It is spring and sometime around now I pass a little house a couple blocks from campus where a party has spilled onto the front lawn. Berkeley is still a friendly place and with few outsiders to detract from it being a student community, where people trust each other. I'm welcomed to the party where people are dancing, eating cheese and sipping wine. Maybe it was a birthday party. But the friendliness is about to change. Pot smoking is just beginning. Front doors have not yet closed. People are talking to each other at parties. Telegraph Avenue is still overwhelming filled with students going to and from campus. Outsiders have not yet flocked to Berkeley in significant numbers in response to media news and Berkeley's notoriety. People along Telegraph Avenue are still open, friendly and easy to meet. There is a sense of community. But this is about to change.

May 16  In China, an angry Mao Zedong has emerged from a semi-retirement and is still a venerated figure. He charges that a "bureaucratic class" is oppressing the workers and peasants. He has seen what he believes are counter revolutionary expressions in art. His wife, Jiang Qing, has spoken of "poisonous weeds." Mao delivers a report to the Communist Party's Central Committee charging that "representatives of the bourgeoisie" have infiltrated the Communist Party at all levels. "Persons like Khrushchev, for example," says Mao "are still nestling beside us."

May 21-27 This week the American Council on Education names U.C. Berkeley the "best-balanced distinguished university in the country." Harvard is named as second.

May 24  The Nigerian government forbids all political activity in the country, a prohibition to last until 1969.

May 26  Guyana achieves independence from the United Kingdom.

Jun 1 Mao sides with a student rebellion at Beijing University. His wife, Jiang Qing, distributes armbands to the students and declares that they are a new vanguard of the revolution.

Jun 2
  In the Republic of the Congo, four former cabinet ministers have been accused of plotting to assassinate President Mobutu. They are executed.

Jun 6  Civil rights activist James Meredith is shot while on his "March against Fear" from Memphis Tennessee, heading to Jackson, Mississippi. The march will continue, joined by an angry young activist Stokely Carmichael, Martin Luther King Jr. and many others.

Jun 13  The US Supreme Court, in Miranda v Arizona, rules that police must inform criminal suspects of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.

Jun 14 The Vatican abolishes the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (index of banned books).

June 18  In China, a decree postpones university entrance exams for six months in order to refashion the education system. Middle schools and universities throughout the country are closed as students devote their time to Red Guard activities.

Jun 19  The Senate Internal Security subcommittee charges that Communists have played a key role in organizing campus demonstrations against the war in Vietnam.

Jun 28  In Argentina, Peronist gains in local elections and worker unrest concern the military. Another of Argentina's military coups deposes president Arturo Umberto Illia. The new military junta appoints General Juan Carlos Ongania as its leader.

June 29  US planes begin bombing Hanoi and Haiphong.

Jun-Jul ? Jacqueline Kennedy beats the chest of a friend from the days of the Kennedy administration, Robert S. McNamara, still Secretary of Defense, and asks him to "do something to stop the slaughter" in Vietnam.

Jul 4  North Vietnam declares general mobilization.

Jul 14  Richard Speck murders eight student nurses in their Chicago dormitory.

Jul 18-23  Days of violence in Cleveland's predominately black neighborhoods include arson destroying several blocks of homes and businesses. There are 275 arrests. Four people are killed and 30 critically injured. The Ohio National Guard reestablishes order.

Jul 28  Stokely Carmichael delivers a "black power" speech - a lecture to other blacks. Previously an integrationist allied with Dr. King's movement, Carmichael has turned separatist. He attacks whites helping the civil rights movement as "nothing but treacherous enemies." He says that what the "white press" has been calling riots are "rebellions not riots."

Jul 28 President Johnson announces that to meet" mounting aggression" in Vietnam he is increasing "our fighting strength from 75,000 to 125,000 men almost immediately." In month ago a Gallup poll showed disapproval of his handling of the war at 44 percent and approval at only 38 percent. Now his approval rating will leap back into the lead with 43 percent against 38 percent disapproving.

Jul 29
  A power struggle continues in Nigeria. Another military coup, by northern officers, puts Lieutentant-General Yakubu Gowon in power. Thousands of the Igbo tribe flee from massacres in the north. The previous coup leader, Major-General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, an Igbo, and his host, Lietuenant-Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi, are stripped, flogged, beaten and then machine-gunned to death.

Aug 1  At the University of Texas at Austin, a sniper, Charles Whitman, kills thirteen.

Aug 1  Mao Zedong supports the Red Guards in a speech to the 11th plenum of the eighth CCP Congress.

Aug 5  Martin Luther King Jr. leads a march into Cicero, Illinois, where whites live next to a black community to their south and fear integration. The march finds hostility from bystanders, and King is struck by a rock.

Aug 5 In Beijing, Bian Zhongyun, principal of a Girls' Middle School, is beaten to death by "Red Guard" students.

Aug 6  University students in West Germany begin to take interest in political activism.

Aug 6  In Bolivia, the popular Rene Barrientos takes office as president. He is helped by his fluency in Quechua and his oratory. He describes himself as a staunch Christian and appears to some as a revolutionary and to others as a law-and-order conservative.

Aug 9  In Lansing, Michigan, 200 or 300 black youths have rampaged for the second night. Governor George Romney denounces advocates of "black power" and threatens action.

Aug15  Syrian and Israeli troops clash for three hours on their border at the Sea of Galilee, otherwise known as Lake Genesaret.

Aug 21 Seven men are sentenced to death in Egypt for anti-Nasser agitation.

Aug 30  Following riots in French Somaliland, France promises the colony independence.

Aug 31  In China, Red Guards are traveling around the country, using free transportation and accusing local authorities of bourgeois transgressions. The Red Guards have begun a campaign to destroy "old ideals, old culture, old customs and old habits." Street names are to be changed, books burned and temples razed.

Sep 3  In China, Lin Biao rides the Maoist bandwagon and urges students to criticize those party officials who have been influenced by the ideas of Nikita Khrushchev.

Sep 6  In Cape Town, South Africa, Prime Minister Verwoerd is stabbed to death by Dimitri Tsafendas, who will be certified insane. Tsafendas, whose father was Greek and mother black, was classified as white but is said to have been shunned because of his dark skin.

Sep 9  In his campaign for Governor of California, Ronald Reagan lashes out at appeasement of campus malcontents by the California university system president, Clark Kerr, and appeasement by his opponent, Governor Pat Brown. He calls for keeping the university "isolated from political influence."

Sep 30  Botswana acquires independence from British rule.

Oct 27 Southwest Africa, a League of Nations mandate territory taken from the Germans after World War I, is ruled by South Africa. The United Nations calls on South Africa to withdraw from the territory.

Yevgeny Yevtushenko
Yevgeny Yevtushenko

Nov 7 The Russian poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko opens a six-week tour in the United States.

Nov 7 At Harvard University, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara receives courteous treatment until he is set upon by around 800 organized by the Harvard chapter of the Students for a Democratic Society. Twenty-five of them get under his car to prevent his get away. The crowd jeers, screams and calls him a fascist and a murderer.

Nov 7 In California the campaign for governor ends. Reagan has heard Governor Pat Brown ridicule him for being an actor. Reagan has been campaigning against students who want to rebel rather than just study, against high taxes, wasteful welfare spending, air and water pollution and Governor Brown believing in "throwing money" at problems.

Nov 8  Ronald Reagan is elected Governor of California. In Massachusetts, Edward Brooke becomes the first African American elected to the United States Senate since Reconstruction.

Nov 13  The American Civil Liberties Union appeals to the nation's college and university presidents to block efforts by the House Committee on Un-American Activities to obtain membership lists of campus organizations critical of American policy in Vietnam.

Dec 7  The Caribbean Island of Barbados achieves complete independence from Britain.

Dec 16  The U.N. Security Council approves an oil embargo against Rhodesia.

Dec 31 There are now 385,000 US troops in Vietnam. There, 5,008 US military personnel died in action 1966, an average of more than 13 per day. Another 1,045 died from "non-hostile" occurrences.

Timeline: 1967

Timothy Leary
Timothy Leary

Jan 13 In Togo, Lieutenant-General Gnassingbe Eyadema seizes power in bloodless coup. Political parties are dissolved. Eyadema will rule as "president" unchallenged until he dies in 2005.

Jan 14  In San Francisco's Golden Gate Park approximately 30,000 take part in a "be-in." Among the participants are Allen Ginsberg, credited with creating the term "flower power," and Timothy Leary, fired Harvard professor and LSD guru, who calls on people to "Turn on, Tune in and Drop out."

Jan 16  California's governor, Ronald Reagan, meets with FBI agents for information on Berkeley campus radicals.

Jan 20  Governor Reagan and the state's Board of Regents fire Clark Kerr, president of California's university system. Reagan thinks Kerr has been too soft on student protesters.

Jan 20  Evangelist Billy Graham describes some of the Crusaders for Christ at the Berkeley campus as "a bit zealous" but says he prefers that to "cold, frigid" efforts.

Jan 27  A fire erupts during a launch pad test, killing US astronauts Gus Grissom, Edward Higgins White and Roger Chaffee.

Jan 27  The US, Soviet Union and Britain sign an Outer Space Treaty. The treaty prohibits use of space, the moon or other celestial bodies as a military base or for any purpose not peaceful.

Feb 7  In Britain, the British National Front is founded. Its purpose is to oppose immigration, multiculturalism and to replace internationalism, including the United Nations and NATO, with bilateral agreements.

Feb 15  In Vietnam, thirteen US helicopters are shot down in one day.

Feb 18  China sends three divisions to Tibet.

Feb 24  The Soviet Union forbids its East European satellites to form diplomatic relations with West Germany.

Feb 27  The Caribbean Island of Dominica acquires independence from Britain and remains within the Commonwealth.

Mar 1  China's Red Guards have been having disputes over which of them best represents Chairman Mao's thinking. Now they are returning to school.

Mar 6  President Johnson announces his plan for a lottery for conscription into the military: "the draft."

Mar 9   While in India, Stalin's daughter, Svetlana Alliuyeva, defects to the US through its embassy.

Mar 12   Indonesia's State Assembly removes all powers from Sukarno and names General Suharto acting president.

Mar 13  Soul singers Otis Redding and Sam & Dave arrive in London to begin their 4-week tour of Europe to rave audiences. The Beatles send their private limos to pick them up. Their use of the word "soul" say Sam & Dave, who helped popularize the word, is not about race, it is about freedom.
Gerald R. Ford, a hawk
Gerald R. Ford, a hawk regarding Vietnam

Colonel Papadopoulos, dictator
Colonel Papadopoulos, dictator

Mar 21-23  In Sierra Leone four days have passed since its first parliamentary elections since independence. The head of the army, Brigadier-General David Lansana, seizes power. Multi-party democracy in Sierra Leone ends. Two days later, senior military officers overthrow Lansana and create a "National Reformation Council." Democracy is not restored.

Mar 22  Regarding Vietnam, Republican House Minority Leader, Gerald R Ford, alongside Republican Senator Dirksen, says that President Johnson "does not have sufficient resolution."

Mar 29  France launches its first nuclear submarine.

Apr 4  Martin Luther King Jr. denounces the war in Vietnam. An angry President Johnson will call him "that goddam nigger preacher."

Apr 5  Grayline bus service begins tours of the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, its tourist riders to stare at so-called hippies who live there.

Apr 14  In San Francisco thousands protest President Johnson's policy in Vietnam by marching from the Ferry building to Kezar Stadium which they fill to capacity. A Vietnam veteran, David Duncan, gives the gathering's keynote speech.

Apr 17 Long hair has been growing in popularity among Greek youth, and rightist military leaders dislike it. The Rolling Stones perform in Athens and receive a tumultuous welcome, but they feel bad vibrations from the police and are happy to return to their departing airliner.  

Apr 21 Ultra-conservative generals in Greece fear results of the elections scheduled for May. A coup led by Colonel George Papapoulos takes power. Papadopoulos is to appoint himself prime minister and regent to the crown. Moderate and leftist politicians will be arrested. Long hair and Western music will be banned along with the music of composer Mikis Theodorakis of "Zorba" fame.

Apr 25  Britain grants internal self-government to Swaziland.

Apr 28 Boxing champion Muhammad Ali has refused induction into the Army and is stripped of his boxing title.

Apr 28  General William Westmoreland tells the US Congress that the United States will "prevail in Vietnam." His analysis of the war is that the stuggle in Vietnam did not have origins within Vietnam - as with French colonialism. Westmoreland sees the problem as South Vietnam (a creation rising from French colonialism) as having been "marked as a target for the Communist stratagem called 'War of National Liberation.'" He says he sees "no evidence that this is an internal insurrection."

May 1 In Nicaragua, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, a member of the family that has ruled since 1937, becomes president. He remains director of the National Guard, giving him absolute political and military control.

May 8  Boxer Muhammad Ali is indicted for refusing induction into the US Army.

May 8  Twenty-six Black Panthers, led by Bobby Seale, visit California's state legislature concerning gun legislation. They are openly armed, arrested and charged with disturbing the peace.  

May 16  Egyptians have been interested in erasing the disgrace of their defeat by Israeli forces back in 1956. Egypt's president, Gamal Abdul Nasser, sends his tanks forward on Egyptian territory in the Sinai desert,  closer to Israel. He asks the United Nations to withdraw its peacekeeping forces from the Sinai.
King Hussein of Jordan
King Hussein of Jordan and Nasser of Egypt sign a war treaty

The Lebanese newspaper, al-Jarida
The Lebanese newspaper, al-Jarida, foresees a Nasser victory

May 24  The UN forces have left the Sinai. Egypt has erected a blockade at the Strait of Tiran against Israel's access to shipping in the Red Sea. Egypt moves 9,000 men, 200 tanks and guns to positions at the edge of the
Gaza Strip, near Rafah. A speech by Nasser gives his military officers confidence in victory.

May 25  The Israeli military chief of staff, Yitzhak Rabin, suffers a nervous breakdown from which he will soon recover.

May 26  Israel's foreign minister, Abba Eban, leaves Washington after a one-day visit. President Johnson is friendly toward Eban and complains of his need of Congressional approval if he is to help Israel with the weaponry that it wants. In recent days Johnson has been bombarded by telegrams from Jews requesting help for Israel, but he is upset over widespread hostility among Jews in the US toward his policies regarding Vietnam, and he is angry with Israel for its failure to publicly support the US in Vietnam and to press Israel's friends in the US to back his policies in Vietnam. "Israel gets more than it's willing to give," he comments, "It's a one way street."

May 27 Nasser postpones his military attack planned for the 28th. He is afraid of  US intervention and does not know whether he will have military support from the Soviet Union. Nasser's pilots are disappointed. One of them complains that they should "trust that Allah will aid us."

May 30 Jordan signs a pact with Egypt, stipulating that Jordan's forces are to be placed under Egyptian military command. Iraq joins the pact.

Jun 2  Students in West Germany have been protesting every week. Today Benno Ohnesorg, protesting with others a visit by the Shah of Iran, is shot dead by overzealous police. Protesting youth acquire a martyr.

Jun 2  Rioting and looting erupt in the Roxbury section of Boston. Nearly 100 are arrested.

Jun 2  Nasser's strategy is now to let Israel strike first. He claims that he cannot risk alienating world opinion by attacking first. He assures his military commanders that they could manage a first strike from Israel and says that it will come by June 5 at the latest.

Jun 5  Egypt's air force is on alert and expecting air attacks at dawn. When the attack doesn't come the pilots relax and have breakfast, away from their planes. Israeli aircraft, employing the tactical element called "the unexpected," show up at nine in the morning, having avoided Egyptian radar by approaching from an unexpected direction. Within 100 minutes Egypt no longer has an airforce. Egypt's 13 airbases, 23 radar stations, anti-aircraft sites and 107 aircraft are destroyed. The Israelis lose nine planes. In the United States, Secretary of State Dean Rusk is relieved that the Israelis have not been driven to the beaches, but he is angry with them for having struck first.

Jun 9  Israel turns around an attack by Egypt's ally, Syria. Israel attacks the Syrians on the Golan Heights - high ground from which the Syrians had been shelling Israel.

Jun 10  Egypt has launched its tanks against Israel, but, with Israel ruling the skies and Egyptian troops suffering poor communications, Egypt's ground war fails.

Jun 11 In Egypt the fiction has arisen that British and American intervention is the cause of the poor performance of Egypt's military. From Cairo, a radio broadcast of "Voice of the Arabs" tells the Egyptian people that the United States is "the hostile force behind Israel ... the enemy of all peoples, the killer of life, the shedder of blood that is preventing you from liquidating Israel." The Soviet Union plays to Arab sentiment. It verbally attacks the US and severs relations with Israel.
Janis Joplin in her happier time
Janis Joplin in her happier time

Jun 12  The US Supreme Court declares all state laws prohibiting interracial marriage unconstitutional.

Jun 16-17 The Monterey International Pop Festival opens in California and is attended by over 200,000. Featured are Janis Joplin, the Jefferson Airplane, the Greatful Dead, Jimi Hendrix, the Who, Otis Redding and many others.

Jun 17 Communist China has successfully tested a hydrogen bomb.

Jun 19  On television, Paul McCartney of the Beatles repeats his admission that he has taken LSD.

Jun  21 Summer begins. A song is in the air called California Dreaming. "If you are going to San Francisco be sure to wear some flowers in your hair." The lyrics also speak of "a love-in there." School is out. Tens of thousands of young people are headed to San Francisco for what will be called a "summer of love."

Jun 26  A "race riot" begins on the east side of Buffalo, New York, where fourteen people are shot. The Buffalo riots will last five days.

Jun 28 The California State legislature passes a law, the Mulford Act, prohibiting the carrying of firearms in any public place, effectively outlawing Black Panther safety patrols in Oakland.

Jul 4  Britain's parliament decriminalizes homosexuality.

Jul 4  In the United States the Freedom of Information Act becomes official. To withhold information, government agencies must show its need to be classified.

Jul 6  The Biafra region of Nigeria claims succession. Civil war erupts that is to last two years and claim approximately 600,000 lives.

Jul 13  Black "rioting" begins in Newark, New Jersey.

Jul 15  Black "rioting" erupts in Detroit.

Jul 17 Black "rioting" erupts in Cairo, Illinois.

Jul 20  Black "rioting" erupts in Memphis, Tennessee.

Jul 26  The Black power celebrity, H. Rap Brown, is arrested for inciting a riot in Maryland.

Jul 27  President Johnson appoints the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence. The report will be released in early 1968. It will conclude that the rioting of 1967 was the result of black frustration over a lack of economic opportunity.

Jul 30  A week of looting and burning in Detroit is quelled by the arrival of 4,700 paratroops dispatched by President Lyndon Johnson.

Jul 30  Four people are killed during a "race riot" in Milwaukee.

Jul 30  General William Westmoreland claims both that he is winning the war in Vietnam and needs more troops.

Aug 1  Blacks riot in Washington D.C.

Aug 1  Israel acts on a threat made to Jordan at the beginning of the Six-Day War. Because Jordan did not stay out of the war, Israel takes control of the entire city of Jerusalem.

Aug 3  President Johnson announces plans to send 45,000 more troops to Vietnam.

Aug 7 China agrees to give North Vietnam aid in the form of a grant.

Aug 7  In East Jerusalem a general strike by Arabs protests Israel's annexation.
movie Bonnie and Clyde opens.
Movie Bonnie and Clyde opens.
Aug 13  In US theaters the movie Bonnie and Clyde opens.

Sep 4  During an interview for television, Michigan's governor, George Romney, says he was brainwashed by US officials during his 1965 visit to Vietnam. It is to be seen as the end of his chances for the Republican presidential nomination for 1968.

Sep 23  The Soviet Union has been under moral pressure from North Vietnam to help their struggle for national liberation. It signs an agreement with Hanoi to send more aid.

Oct  Former US Vice President, Richard Nixon, writes an article for Foreign Affairs magazine and says "Taking the long view, we simply cannot afford to leave China forever outside the family of nations."

Oct 2  Thurgood Marshall becomes the first black justice of the US Supreme Court.

Oct 6  The "summer of love" in San Francisco has turned into a nightmare. The "Diggers," recognized by their activism as leaders of "hippie" community in San Francisco, parade with a coffin in the Haight-Ashbury district to mark the "Death of Hip."  Haight-Ashbury cultural radicals have been moving north into rural Mendocino County, where until recently young men with long hair had been beaten up. Mendocino County is about to be transformed. 

Oct 9  In Bolivia, Che Guevara and fellow guerrillas have failed to win over rural farmers. Guevara and three comrades are captured and executed. 

Oct 17  In New York the musical Hair premiers Off-Broadway.

Oct 17  President Johnson's draft has mobilized those who are threatened by it. In Oakland, California, young men subject to the draft join anti-war protesters from the Berkeley campus and overturn cars, block intersections and temporarily close down the Oakland city center. Anti-war demonstrations also take place outside draft boards in various cities.

Oct 17  The US Army sends one of its battalions into a trap, killing sixty-one of them. This is not supposed to be happening, and the army will describe it to news people as a victory. (See They Marched into Sunlight by David Maraness.)

Oct 18  At the university in Madison, Wisconsin, hundreds of students protest recruiting by Dow Chemical, the maker of napalm and Agent Orange. Madison police turn violent. Dozens of students are beaten bloody and 19 police officers are treated for minor injuries at local hospitals. The violence by police politicize thousands of previously apathetic students.

Oct 20  In Meridian, Mississippi, seven men are convicted of violating the civil rights of the three civil rights workers murdered in 1964.

John S. McCain III
John S. McCain III
Oct 26  John McCain bails from his damaged plane and falls into Hanoi’s Truc Bach Lake. He is viewed as a heinous criminal, beaten, bayoneted in the foot and groin and taken away for imprisonment and more primitivity and torture. 

Oct 26  The Government eliminates draft deferments for those who violate draft laws, including the burning draft cards or interfering with military recruitment for the war.

Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Oct 26  In Iran, his imperial majesty, the King of Kings, the Shadow of God and Light of the Aryans, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, has his official coronation.

Oct 27  Richard Nixon claims that the US must pursue the war in Vietnam to a "successful" conclusion or risk a Third World War.

Oct 28  While going for food at four in the morning, Huey Newton is pulled over and hassled by sarcastic Oakland policemen. A shootout results in the death of one of the officers, John Frey. Newton is taken to the police station, spit at and threatened with "an accidental shooting."

Nov 2  President Johnson holds a secret meeting with a group of the nation's most prestigious leaders ("the Wise Men") and asks them to suggest ways to unite the American people behind the war effort. They conclude that the American people should be given more optimistic reports on the progress of the war.

Nov 7  President Johnson signs the Public Broadcasting Act, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

Nov 9  A five-choice Vietnam war referendum at University of California showed today 55 per cent of the students casting ballots favored immediate withdrawal of US troops.

Nov 13  In Oakland, a county grand jury indicts Huey Newton on charges of first-degree murder, attempted murder and kidnapping.

Nov 13  In Cleveland, Ohio, Carl Stokes is elected mayor - the first African-American mayor of a major US city.

Nov 17  President Johnson tells the nation that in Vietnam "we are making progress." He says, "We are inflicting greater losses than we're taking."

Nov 21 President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the air quality act, allotting $428 million for the fight against pollution.

Nov 21 General Westmoreland tells news reporters:  "I am absolutely certain that whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing."

Nov 30  South Yemen becomes independent from Britain.

Dec 5  In the city of New York, 1,000 antiwar protesters try to close a draft center, resulting in the arrest of 585, including Allen Ginsberg and Dr. Benjamin Spock.

Dec 8-10  From Moscow, Leonid Brezhnev flies to Prague, invited by the Czech Communist Party's first secretary and the country's president, Antonin Novotny, who wants Brezhnev's help in resolving a political crisis. Brezhnev is dismayed by the extent of dislike for Novotny among his fellow Communists. It is your business (eto vasha dyelo) he tells the Czechs and flies back home.

Dec 10  Otis Redding joins the many music stars who die in airplanes. He and six others die when their plane crashes into Lake Monona in Wisconsin.

Dec 31  Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Paul Krassner, Dick Gregory and friends pronounce themselves "Yippies" members of the Youth International Party. These are young men who know about street theater attracting media attention. Rubin believes that pot smoking is going to end the war in Vietnam.

Dec 31  Some 474,300 US soldiers are now in Vietnam.

Timeline: 1968


Major targets of the Tet Offensive
Major targets of the Tet Offensive

US Marines at Khe Sanh
US Marines at Khe Sanh

Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson
Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson, 
from Atlanta, Georgia

The Mỹ Lai Massacre
The Mỹ Lai Massacre

Alexander Dubcek in 1968  
Alexander Dubcek in 1968

Jan 5  In Czechoslovakia, the Communist Party's Central Committee votes out Antonin Novotny as First Secretary and replaces him with Alexander Dubcek. Novotny remains the country's president, but it is the beginning of what will be known as the Prague Spring - a reference to the blossoming of reform.

Jan 31 General Giap of North Vietnam launches the Tet Offensive, with minimum and maximum goals of success. The Viet Cong emerges from hiding to do most of the fighting. The offensive involves simultaneous attacks in the larger cities and against major US military bases.

Feb 1  US forces launch a counter-attack against Giap's offensive. The Viet Cong suffers heavy losses.

Feb 2  President Johnson describes the Tet Offensive "a complete failure." The offensive is to continue for two more months.

Feb 4  Addressing his Atlanta congregation about the US in Vietnam, Martin Luther King Jr. says, "And we are criminals in that war. We've committed more war crimes almost than any nation in the world, and I'm going to continue to say it. And we won't stop it because of our pride and our arrogance as a nation. But God has a way of even putting nations in their place." King predicts this response from the Almighty: "And if you don't stop your reckless course, I'll rise up and break the backbone of your power."

Feb 8  Communist forces kill 21 US Marines at Khe Sanh.

Feb 24  US Marines occupy the Imperial Palace in the heart of the city of Hue. The Marines lose 142 killed and 857 wounded. The US Army's loss is 74 killed and 507 wounded. Saigon's forces lose 384 killed and 1,830 wounded. Communist forces dead are estimated at over 5,000.

Feb 27 Television news anchorman Walter Cronkite has just returned from Saigon and tells his viewers that "the bloody experience of Vietnam is to end in a stalemate."

Feb 28  In the US, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, at the behest of General Westmoreland, asks President Johnson for an additional 206,000 soldiers and mobilization of reserve units.

Mar 1  President Johnson's popularity drops below 30 percent and endorsement for war policies falls to 26 percent.

Mar 8-11  In Warsaw, Poland, university students are protesting against policies of the Communist regime. The government arrests ten students and sentences them to prison on charges of hooliganism and insulting the police. Tens of thousands of Poles clash with policemen in front of Communist party headquarters and at the statue of the national poet, Adam Mickiewicz.

Mar 12  In Poland three government officials are fired and Jewish Zionists and some other Jews are accused of having organized the disturbances.

Mar 12  President Johnson barely wins the New Hampshire Democratic primary against a critic of the war, Senator Eugene McCarthy.

Mar 15  In Czechoslovakia, those who have been censoring printed materials ask permission to end their censorship.

Mar 15  Student defiance of the Communist regime in Poland enters its second week. A boycott of classes spreads from the city of Krakow to Warsaw.

Mar 16  Robert F. Kennedy, now a US Senator from New York, announces his candidacy for the presidency. Polls indicate Kennedy is more popular than the President.

Mar 16  A US Army company enters the hamlet of My Lai and finding no Viet Cong soldiers they vent their frustration on people in the hamlet, killing everyone in sight - an estimated 300. A helicopter lands, and pilot Hugh Thompson, door-gunner Lawrence Colburn and crew chief Glenn Andreotta put themselves in the line of fire between the troops and fleeing civilians and begin evacuating the wounded civilians.

Mar 18  The US Congress repeals the requirement for gold as the backing of US currency.

Mar 18  In Paris, youths set off bombs in the offices of Chase Manhattan Bank, the Bank of America and Trans World Airlines. They believe these companies are involved in the war in Vietnam.

Mar 19  Wladyslaw Gomulka, the Polish Communist party leader, seeks to moderate the anti-Zionist campaign that has spread across the country in the past week.

Mar 22  Antonin Novotny resigns as President of Czechoslovakia.

Mar 22  In Paris, police arrest five young persons concerning the recent bombings. A group of about 150 gather at the University of Paris to protest the arrests, and they begin what they call the Movement of March 22.

Mar 25-26  In Washington D.C. the wise men gather again, including Clark Clifford, former Secretary of State Dean Acheson and General Omar Bradley. Their non-unanimous recommendation is withdrawal from Vietnam.

Mar 26  Communist East Germany's leading ideologist, Kurt Hager, denounces Czechoslovakia's Communist Party reformers.

Mar 28  A report of the My Lai incident by the participating Army company leaders describes 69 Viet Cong killed and mentions no civilian casualties.

Mar 31  President Johnson announces: "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President."

Mar 31  In Poland the government closes eight departments at Warsaw University, expels 34 students and suspends 11.

Apr 1  Alexander Dubcek affirms his determination to make Communism in Czechoslovakia democratic.

Apr 4  In Memphis, Tennessee, in the motel where he and his associates were staying, Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated by a rifle shot.

Apr 11  President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968. The act prohibits housing discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, physical handicap or family status.

Apr 23-30  In New York City, protesting the war in Vietnam, students at Columbia University take over administration buildings and shut down the university.

May 4  At the University of Paris - the Sorbonne - police are called in to end student rioting. 500 are arrested.

May 6  In the Latin Quarter in Paris pitched battles are fought between radicals and police.

May 11  Thousands of students fight again in the streets in the Latin Quarter. They erect more the 60 barricades.

May 13  French labor unions, students and teachers begin a 24-hour general strike. Labor unions turn their factory yards into fairgrounds in support of the student uprising. The celebrated intellectual Jean Paul Sartre and 121 other intellectuals sign a statement asserting "the right to disobedience," and Sartre speaks approvingly of student barricades.

May 15  Two thousand workers occupy the aircraft construction plant of Sud-Aviation at Nantes, and they are holding the plant manager and his principal aides prisoner.

May 17  Gold prices soar in London to $41.37 per ounce.

May 19  Military maneuvers by Warsaw Pact forces along the Czechoslovak border is making Czechs nervous. I have passed from East Berlin to Prague, and in Prague I walk in a demonstration which has banners reading "it is our business" (eto nasha dyelo) - a message meant for the Russians. Demonstrators who learn I am an American complain about being depicted in the US as anti-Communist.

May 20  In France millions more workers occupy factories, mines and offices.

May 21  In Prague I hope to get permission from a sitting group of hard-looking Polish officials who don't want to let student trouble makers pass into their country. I don't dare tell them I'm from Berkeley. Instead I tell them I'm a fisherman from California. Maybe it is my visa for the Soviet Union that gets me permission to enter Poland. 

May 23  In southwestern France, dissident farmers have formed command squads to disrupt highway traffic to  protest government agriculture policies.

May 23  In Belgium, students occupy the Free University of Brussels and say they will remain until their demands are met for changes in curriculum, teaching methods, examinations and the structure of the university.
Paris most violent and widespread battle
Paris most violent and widespread battle

May 25  In Paris, a student demonstration that started peacefully the day before turns into the most violent and widespread battle with the police since the student revolt began more than two weeks ago.

May 26  France's striking workers gain a 35 per cent increase in minimum wages.

May 26  The American writer, Eric Hoffer writes of nations such as Turkey, Russia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Algeria and Indonesia having driven out "thousands, even millions of people." He wonders about Arabs displaced by Israel's warring having created eternal refugees and complains that "everyone insists that Israel must take back ervery single Arab." Hoffer appears to dislike what he describes as Arnold Toynbee calling "the displacement of the Arabs an atrocity greater than any committed by the Nazis."

May 27  In Warsaw I've been staying with students in a large university dormitory. Sudents who fill a small room tell me how unhappy they are with the Communist regime in power. Two Cubans among them walk with me around Warsaw and tell me how much they like Castro and fault the Polish students for not appreciating socialism. The Polish student who brought me in to stay at the dormitory as his guest is questioned by a government agent.

May 28  Paris has been hosting peace talks between Washington and Hanoi. The US has reduced its bombing in North Vietnam to encourage Hanoi to end its struggle.  A frustrated President Johnson calls on the negotiations "to move from fantasy and propaganda to the realistic and constructive work of bringing peace."
May 29  Hanoi's spokesman at the peace talks accuses Johnson of using "hypocritical, false, lying words" in charging Hanoi with obstructing the talks.

May 30  President de Gaulle dissolves France's National Assembly and warns France that if necessary he will take measures to prevent a Communist "dictatorship."  France's middle class rallies. In Paris, hundreds of thousands march in support of de Gaulle.

May 30  Gen. William C. Westmoreland reports to President Johnson that the forces of the enemy in Vietnam are "deteriorating in strength and quality."
Jun 3  I am in Moscow. My ballpoint pen has stopped working. I walk around the city looking for a shop that sells ballpoint pens. I find none. I try to buy a pen from a couple of secretaries, with no luck. At the train depot, while waiting to depart for Siberia, I find a ballpoint pen cartridge with other items for sale under glass. I buy it and on the trip east will write with just a cartridge.

Jun 5  Robert Kennedy wins the California primary and appears to be on his way to becoming the Democratic Party's nominee for president.

Jun 6  On the Trans-Siberian railway, a Russian passenger politely approaches and tells me that Robert Kennedy has been shot and killed.

Jun 10  General Chreighton Abrams replaces William Westmoreland as US military commander in Vietnam. Westmoreland pursed a strategy of "search and destroy" to defeat an elusive enemy. Abrams is open to the idea that force can be counterproductive and he will look more also to winning hearts and minds.

Jun 23  In parliamentary elections in France the relatively conservative Gaullist party triumphs, increasing its seats in parliament from 200 to 297. With its allies the Gaullist party will hold 385 of the 487 seats in the Assembly. The Socialists drop from 118 seats to 57. Communist Party seats decrease from 73 to 34.

Aug 8  Richard Nixon is chosen as the Republican Party's presidential candidate. He promises "an honorable end to the war in Vietnam."

Aug 1 In Japan, the many nearby family-owned shops make the country charming for me and a consumer's paradise compared to the Soviet Union.

Aug 20-21  Warsaw Pact forces with tanks and aircraft enter Czechoslovakia. Alexander Dubcek urges people not to resist.  Dubcek and other reformers are taken to Moscow on a Soviet military transport aircraft.  

Aug 22-30  In Chicago, police riot against antiwar demonstrators, and the Democratic National Convention nominates Johnson's vice president, Hubert Humphrey, as its candidate for president.

Aug 27 In Moscow, comrade Brezhnev has scolded Alexander Dubcek concerning what he considers unfair,"rightist" criticisms in Czechoslovak publications. Now, Dubcek and others are returned to Prague and Dubcek retains his position as the First Secretary of Czechoslovakia's Communists Party.

Arthur Ashe
Arthur Ashe

Sep 9  Arthur Ashe defeats Tom Okker of the Netherlands to win the US Open.

Sep 27 Antonio Salazar, 79, conservative dictator of Portugal since 1932, has suffered a stroke and is replaced by another authoritarian conservative, Marcello Caetano.

Sep 29  In Greece, the military junta, in power since April, 1967, maintains press censorship and martial law.  The junta leader, Papadopoulos, warns those he has released from prison that he hopes that they "will not make another false step and force me to put them away again." His regime holds a referendum on its new constitution, claiming that it is a step democracy. The yes vote is tallied at 95.2 percent.

Sep 30  The 900th US aircraft is shot down over North Vietnam
Student unrest has plagued Mexico Cityv
Student unrest has plagued Mexico City

Oct 2  Student unrest has plagued Mexico City since summer. Discontented students want those responsible for police brutality dismissed from government, and they want to exploit world attention on the city from the coming Olympic games. The government of Luis Echeverría uses the army and police, tanks and armored cars to crush the student demonstration. Ammunition is fired at the demonstrators, which also strikes people who are not a part of the demonstration. The government will describe 4 dead and 20 wounded. Most sources will report between 200 and 300 deaths. A study will conclude that the demonstrators were unarmed. In 2006 Echeverría will be charged with genocide and placed under house arrest.

Oct 11  In Panama a military coup overthrows the democratically-elected government of President Arnulfo Arias.

Oct 12-27 The Olympic Games are held in Mexico City. On the victory stand, during the playing of the US national anthem, sprinters Tommie Smith (center) and John Carlos raise their fists to show support for black power and unity and both are suspended from the US Olympic team.

Oct 31  Citing progress in the Paris peace talks, President Johnson announces that he has ordered a complete cessation of "all air, naval and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam" effective November 1.

Nov 2  Presidential candidate Nixon is afraid that President Johnson is plotting a peace deal with North Vietnam will help the Democratic Party's candidate Hubert Humphrey win the election. Nixon promises Saigon's President Nguyen Van Thieu a better deal for South Vietnam under a Nixon presidency and urges him to reject any peace settlement that Johnson is pursuing with his bombing halt. Johnson will be furious and call it treason. It's not an exaggeration: The Logan Act of 1799 forbids citizens, including presidential candidates, from interfering with negotiations between the United States and foreign governments.

Nov 5  The left-of-center in the United States has fragmented. The AFL-CIO is deeply into Cold War rhetoric, hardline regarding dealing with communism, including supporting President Johnson's war in Vietnam. There are those for patience and working for peace with the Soviet Union and critical of Johnson's policies regarding Vietnam. And there are those blue-collar workers who dislike the civil rights movement and are supporting George Wallace. The Democratic Party suffers from the fragmentation. In today's presidential election, Richard Nixon wins the presidency with 43.4 percent of the vote. Hubert Humphrey, the Democrat, takes 42.7 percent. George Wallace, with Curtis Lemay as his running mate, receives 13.5 percent of the popular vote and wins in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia.

Dec 3 Elvis Presley's singing career has been in decline. His last single was in 1962. His movie box office has also been in decline, and there are fears that he is considered not cool. Presley likes Nixon, perhaps irrelevant as today he stages a comeback on a NBC television show. Presley will visit with Nixon in 1970 and give him a hug and a Colt 45 semi-automatic pistol.

Timeline: 1969


Jan 18 -19  Yippies and others hold a counter-inaugural parade, and at midnight they hold mock swearing-in ceremony. The character representing the president wears a pig mask, followed by a play assassination. They have an inaugural ball, with a poetry reading, a light show and rock bands. Many in the United States, including liberals, ignore it or dismiss it as an infantile disorder. A writer for New York's hippest newspaper, the Village Voice, describes the "bash" as "more depressing, deluded, exploitative, and trapped in the past than any straight event I attended during my time in Washington."

Jan 20  Richard Nixon enters the presidency convinced "that a clear-cut victory in Vietnam [is] no longer possible." ( Kissinger, Diplomacy, 1994, p. 676.) In his inaugural address Nixon proclaims that Americans "cannot learn from one another until we stop shouting at one another." And he says, "the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. This honor now beckons America."

Jan 25  In Paris, peace talks resume, attended by representatives from the US, the Saigon regime, North Vietnam and the Viet Cong. President Nixon favors a negotiated settlement of the war, believing that a unilateral US withdrawal would be a disaster. He wants the war to end but without the appearance of a US capitulation.

Jan 27  In Baghdad, nine Jews are executed for spying. Baghdad Radio invites Iraqis to "come and enjoy the feast." An estimated 500,000 men, women and children parade and dance past the hanging bodies and chant "Death to Israel" and "Death to all traitors."

Jan 28  A "Third World" strike has been dwindling on the US Berkeley campus. Governor Reagan arranges to have police intervene to protect students from disruption.

Jan 29  Near Santa Barbara an offshore oil well begins what in the coming eleven days will be the release of 200,000 gallons of oil that will spread over 800 square miles of ocean and 35 miles of coastline. The people of this affluent part of California are outraged.
Frank Bardacke lectures the National  
At U.C. Berkeley, Frank Bardacke lectures the National
Guard. For more on Bardacke, Google his name.

Feb 4  Al-Fatah leader Yasser Arafat takes over as chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

Feb 5  Turmoil has increased as off-campus anarchists have attacked a police line and the police have retaliated in forays that strike at students merely walking off campus. War between students and the police has erupted. Governor Reagan declares "a state of extreme emergency" on the Berkeley campus and surrounding area.

Feb 25  In Vietnam, Navy Lt. Bob Kerry takes part in a raid on the village of Thanh Phong. More than a dozen women, children and old men are killed. Kerry is to receive a Bronze Star for the raid and would later express regret over his actions.

Feb 27  Governor Reagan orders the National Guard to control the Berkeley campus.
Mr. and Mrs. Lennon
Mr. and Mrs. Lennon

Mar 15   Violence erupts between China and the Soviet Union over a disputed island on the Ussuri River.

Mar 17  Moscow calls China a threat to world peace.

Mar 17  Golda Meir becomes Israel's fourth prime minister.

Mar 20  John Lennon, Beatle, marries Yoko Ono, artist.

Mar 18  US B52s begin carpet bombing in Eastern Cambodia, ordered by President Nixon, who wants to destroy sanctuaries for the North Vietnamese that could make remaining US forces vulnerable to attack when
withdrawals of US forces begin.

Mar 21 The FBI is targeting the Black Panther Party in its program of investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States - a program labeled COINTELPRO. Alex Rackley, a 24-year-old member of the New York chapter of the Black Panthers, was suspected of being an informant and taken to the Panther headquarters in New Haven, Connecticut. There he was tortured and held for two days. On March
21 he is fatally shot and his body dumped in the Coginchaug River. 

Mar 28  Former President Eisenhower dies of heart failure.

Mar 29  In Stockholm, Czechoslovakia beats the Soviet Union in ice-hockey. Celebrations in Prague turn into demonstrations against the Soviet Union. Czechs attack Soviet occupation troops and ransack the Soviet airline office.

Apr 7  A legal search for betting paraphernalia in the home of Robert Eli Stanley has turned up a movie and projector. Stanley has been prosecuted for possessing obscene material. In Stanley v Georgia, the Supreme Court unanimously strikes down laws prohibiting private possession of obscene materials on the grounds of a constitutional right to privacy.

Apr 8  The first artificial heart is implanted into a human.

Apr 9  At Harvard University, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) occupy University Hall and are evicted by police. Thirty-seven are injured and 200 arrested.

Apr 17  In Paris, North Vietnam's representative rejects the US proposal for mutual troop withdrawals.

Apr 17  The "Prague Spring" has ended. Communist Party chairman Alexander Dubcek is forced to resign as First Secretary of Czechoslovakia's Communist Party. Soon he will be made ambassador to Turkey.

Apr 19  On this Saturday at Cornell University, armed black students forcibly eject parents and university employees from Willard Straight Hall and occupy the hall. Their complaint: the university lacks "a program relevant to black students."

Apr 21  Cornell's faculty votes 726 to 281 for the application of campus rules that would punish those blacks who broke the rules. A spokesman for the blacks, Tom Jones, speaks of a showdown with the university and announces on a local radio station that seven faculty members and administrators will be "dealt with."

April 24  Leading faculty members at Cornell accuse the university administration of "selling out to terrorists." Some professors refuse to teach until they have written assurance from the university president, James A. Perkins, that the campus is disarmed.
Mao and Lin Biao
Mao and Lin Biao

Liu Shaoqi, "traitor and scab"
Liu Shaoqi, "traitor and scab"

Apr 24  In China, the three-week long Communist Party Congress ends. It is the second such congress since 1949. Sixty percent of former Party members have been replaced. Lin Biao has been named Mao's successor, and he has denounced his old comrade Liu Shaoqi, who is in prison.  He describes Liu Shaoqi as a "traitor and a scab."

Apr 24  More bombing by B-52's occurs in eastern Cambodia.

May 1  The Soviet Union celebrates without the display military power of previous May Day celebrations.

May 10-20  The US launches an offensive in South Vietnam against Hill 937 (Hamburger Hill). The hill is bombed into a wasteland. When finally occupying the hill, the 101st Airborne Division finds that the North Vietnamese have withdrawn. Seventy US soldiers have died and 372 have been wounded.  

May 15  At dawn, a chain-link fence is quickly erected around a one-third acre of university-owned property called People's Park - ordered by the university's Board of Regents. Rioting begins as a crowd of about 3,000, many of them non-students, march from a noon rally on campus intent on "taking back" the park. Governor Reagan is involved with the Regents regarding Berkeley and calls for a tough response against trouble. The Country Sheriffs carry shot guns. A few "street people" on roof troops throw stones down onto the police. By the end of the day one young man on a roof-top, James Rector, has been shot and is near death. Another is blinded. At least 128 persons are treated in local hospitals for head trauma from clubbing, shotgun wounds and other injuries inflicted by law enforcement. Hundreds have been taken to a nearby prison at Santa Rita. Anti-police warfare results in minor injuries for nineteen policemen. None is hospitalized.

May 21 James Rector has died of his wounds. People gather on campus listening to speakers regarding Rector. It is considered an illegal assembly and National Guard troops with drawn bayonets force the crowd to disperse. Rioting erupts. Helicopters fly over the campus dropping CS gas. Gas carries into Cowell Hospital on the edge of the campus and over most of the rest of campus. Classes are closed and the campus vacated. Some who are late in leaving run through clouds of gas and past club wielding police with gas masks. The entire city of Berkeley is put under military control, including a curfew. Downtown Berkeley is lined with rows of barbed wire. City Councilman Ron Dellums, a Democrat and future chairman of the Congressional Armed Services Committee, rises as a spokesperson for the outraged.
May 30  Berkeley citizens, numbering approximated 30,000 (out of a total of 100,000), have secured a Berkeley city permit and march without incident past barricaded People's Park to protest recent events. Young girls slide flowers down the muzzles of bayoneted National Guard rifles, and a small airplane flies overhead trailing a banner that reads, "Let a thousand parks bloom."

May 31 John Lennon and Yoko Ono record "Give Peace a Chance."

Jun 1  A black professor at Cornell University, Thomas Sowell, accuses the university of "paternalism" toward black students and quits, joining a few other disgusted professors.

Jun 5-6  In Connecticut, in two successive nights in two square miles of Hartford's north end, hundreds of black youths hurl stones, break store windows and loot. The police establish a curfew and the rioting ends.

Jun 8  President Nixon begins his "Vietnamization" plan. He tells President Thieu of South Vietnam that 25,000 US troops will leave Vietnam by August.

Jun 11 China complains of Soviet troops crossing into its territory, in Sinkiang province, killing a herder, kidnapping another and concentrating armored troops on the border.

Jul 4  Linda Kasabian has left her home in New Hampshire, looking for God. She joins a group living on a ranch in the Los Angeles area. She describes the leader of the group, Charles Manson, as a beautiful person. Another young woman on the ranch, Susan Atkins, who enjoys getting high with the others, believes Manson is Jesus Christ. 
Charles Manson, jail photo  
Charles Manson, jail photo
Charles Manson, publicity photo
Charles Manson, publicity photo


Henry Kissinger National Security
Henry Kissinger National Security Advisor

Jul 9  US Ambassador to Indonesia, Frank Galbraith, notes that possibly 85 to 90 percent of the population in West Papua (Irian) "are in sympathy with the Free Papua cause." He observes that recent Indonesian military operations in West Papua has "stimulated fears and rumors of intended genocide."

Jul 18 A car driven by Senator Edward Kennedy runs off a bridge on Chappaquiddick Island and submerges in water. His passenger, 28-year-old Mary Jo Kopechne, drowns.

Jul 20  Mankind, represented by astronaut Neil Armstrong, steps onto the moon.

Jul 25  Stokely Carmichael, black power advocate and former prime minister of the Black Panther Party, meets Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver in exile in Algiers. He says that his differences with other Black Panther Party leaders is unresolved.   

Jul 28  President Nixon and Henry Kissinger visit Indonesia. Kissinger characterizes President Suharto as  "moderate." He has advised President Nixon that it would be best that they "not raise this issue" of West Papua and that "we should avoid any US identification" with what Indonesia is doing there."

Aug 8  Charles Manson wants to bring about a race war by having members of his group kill wealthy people and cast suspicion on blacks. He believes that in their music the Beatles have been warning of a coming holocaust, which he calls Helter Skelter. Manson's first target is the house where Terry Melcher once lived. Melcher failed to help Manson in his music career. Manson sends some followers to the house, with Susan Atkins assuming an aggressive role. Among the five people his followers kill is the pregnant wife of movie producer Roman Polanski: Sharon Tate.

Aug 10  Manson's second Helter Skelter operation kills Leno and Rosemary LaBianca.

Aug 15-18  What begins as a profit venture becomes a free concert, to be known as Woodstock, in upstate New York.

Sep 1  King Idris of Libya is in Turkey for medical treatment. Military officers led by Captain Muammar al-Gaddafi take power. Gaddafi is a socialist and will proclaim Libya to be ruled by the people. He will accept a ceremonial rank of colonel and assume no formal office. He will take the title "Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution."

Sep 2 The president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh, dies.

Sep 10  Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, sends President Nixon a memo stating that if Vietnamization takes too long, public restlessness might increase. The note expresses concern about Hanoi continuing its course of "waiting us out."

Sep 11  President Nixon wants to encourage the North Vietnamese to settle the war to his liking. He resumes bombing in North Vietnam. 

Oct 4  In West Hollywood, Diane Linkletter jumps from her sixth-story home to her death. Her famous father, Art Linkletter, will blame drugs and Timothy Leary. Drugs but no LSD will be found in her system.  

Oct 8  In the US, small faction within the Students for a Democratic Society have split off from the others. They believe that a war should begin immediately against the capitalist system. The are called the "Weathermen," from a Bod Dylan song about "which way the wind blows." In Chicago they gather to begin "bringing the war home." Only 300 of the 10,000 they expected show up. They rampage through downtown Chicago, smashing windows. They also blow up a statue dedicated to police casualties in the 1886 Haymarket Riot. Six of them are shot and seventy arrested.

Oct 9-10  In Chicago two smaller violent confrontations occur. The capitalist system has withstood the shock. The "Days of Rage" are over. The Weathermen go into hiding and are determined to continue fighting.

Oct 15  President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke of Somalia is assassinated by a policeman.

Oct 21  In Somalia, a Soviet Union oriented Marxist general, Mohamed Siad Barre, takes power in a military coup. He throws the former prime minister in prison. He is to start a large-scale public works programs, begin an urban and rural literacy campaign and is to rule dictatorially until 1991.

Oct 21  Jack Kerouac, author of "On the Road" has recently described himself not a beatnik but as a Catholic. He has painted a portrait of the Pope. On this day he dies from alcoholism - internal bleeding from cirrhosis of the liver. He was 47.

Nov 3  In a televised speech, President Nixon describes the "Nixon Doctrine." He states that the US henceforth expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense.  He opposes withdrawal of US forces, sayling: '"Our defeat and humiliation in South Vietnam without question would promote recklessness in the councils of those great powers who have not yet abandoned their goals of world conquest. This would spark violence wherever our commitments help maintain the peace--in the Middle East, in Berlin, eventually even in the Western Hemisphere."

Nov 6  A black-power movement is said to be spreading through the English-speaking Caribbean, putting pressure on political leaders in former British colonies as well as in the US Virgin Islands.

Nov 6  In jail for auto theft, Susan Atkins begins bragging about the Tate murders. The law is about to learn what was behind the Tate murders.

Nov 12  The US Army admits that a massacre of civilians took place at My Lai and announces that an investigation of the incident is underway. 

Nov 12  In the Soviet Union, Alexander Solzhenitsyn is expelled from the Writers' Union.

Nov 13  The nation remains divided concerning the US fighting and dying in Vietnam. Regarding President Nixon's speech on Nov 3, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew speaks of a "small and unelected elite" of television producers, "their minds... made up in advance," having attempted to undermine the President's plea for national unity, as if the president could get national unity by pleaing for it if only the "Eastern Liberal Elite" didn't intervene. </p>

Nov 15  In Washington D.C. a quarter of a million people stage a peaceful protest against the Vietnam War.

Nov 20  The Nixon administration announces a halt to residential use of the pesticide DDT.

Nov 20  A group of 80 American Indian college students occupy Alcatraz Island in the name of all tribes.

Dec 6  A free concert "Woodstock of the West" is attempted at Altamont Speedway, about 50 miles east of Oakland and Berkeley. The Rolling Stones and some other big names are featured. The Hell's Angels are hired for security. Fans are  beaten. A Hell's Angel stomps and stabs Meredith Hunter to death.

Dec 16  The British House of Commons votes 343 to 185 to abolish the death penalty.

Dec 26  Timothy Leary is sentenced to 10 years in prison for possession of marijuana.

Timeline: 1970


Jan 2  Regarding Nixon administration policy toward Africa, including South Africa's apartheid, Henry Kissinger sends President Nixon a memorandum recommending adoption of a National Security Council (NSC) option, the so-called "tar baby" option, which states: "The whites are here to stay and the only way that constructive changes can come about is through them. There is no hope for the blacks to gain the political rights they seek through violence, which will only lead to chaos and increased opportunities for the communists." The NSC option favors "more substantial economic assistance ... to draw the two groups [whites and blacks] together and exert some influence on both for peaceful change."

Jan 26  In Britain, rock star Mick Jagger is fined £200 for possession of marijuana.

Feb 2  England's Bertrand Russell, described by some as the 20th century's greatest philosopher, dies at the age of 97.

Mar 1  The United States declares commercial whale hunting illegal.

Mar 5  A three-story townhouse in Greenwich Village in New York City blows up, killing three Weathermen (
a terroirs group) who were making a bomb. All that can be found of one of the three, Diana Oughton, is the tip of one of her fingers. A Pulitzer prize-winning book will be written titled Diana: The Making of a Terrorist.

Mar 5  Forty-three nations have ratified the nuclear non-proliferation treaty and the treaty goes into effect. It acknowledges five nuclear-weapons states. Other signatory states agree not to acquire or produce nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. The treaty was proposed by Ireland.

Mar 13  While Cambodia's popular head of state, Norodom Sihanouk, is abroad, conservative forces order North Vietnamese troops to leave Cambodia.

Mar 17  The US Army charges 14 officers with suppression of facts regarding the My Lai massacre.

Mar 18  Norodom Sihanouk is still abroad. A vote in Cambodia's National Assembly removes him from power.  He is replaced by General Lon Nol, who is pro-US and anti-Vietnamese. Cambodian conservatives look forward to economic advancement through association with the United States and Japan.

Mar 29  In Cambodia, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces launch an offensive against Cambodia's army.

Apr 1  President Nixon signs a bill banning cigarette advertising on radio and television, to take effect on January 1, 1971. 
Ohio Governor James Rhodes

Apr 1  The US Army charges Captain Ernest Medina with war crimes at My Lai.

Apr 12  In Mississippi a black one-armed farmer, Rainey Pool, is beaten and tortured by a mob and his body thrown off a bridge into the Sunflower River.

Apr 30  President Nixon announces on television a joint US-Saigon offensive into Cambodia. The goal: to drive North Vietnamese forces from Cambodia.

May 1  Protests erupt on campuses across the United States.

May 3  In a press conference, the Republican governor of Ohio, James A. Rhodes, calls anti-war protesters "the worst type of people we harbor in America, worse than the brown shirts and the communist element." Governor Rhodes orders the National Guard to quell the demonstration at Kent State University.

May 4  At Kent State University, national guardsmen order a noontime rally of some 2,000 students to disperse. The guardsmen fire tear gas and charge the crowd. A number of guardsmen fire their rifles at the students for 13 seconds, killing four and wounding from 9 to 11 others.

May 5  In response to the Kent State shootings, over 900 colleges and universities shut down. So too do some high schools and elementary schools. The Kent State campus is to remain closed for six weeks.

May 8  Division in the US about the war is at a new emotional high. On Wall Street in New York City, construction workers break up an anti-war demonstration.

May 14  At Jackson State College in Mississippi, around 100  protestors set small fires and overturn vehicles. Police fire into the demonstration, killing two.

May 20  Around 100,000 people demonstrate in the Wall Street district in support of the war.

May 31  The federal government shuts off power and stops fresh water supplies on its property, Alcatraz Island, still occupied by American Indians. Hundreds of Indians flock to the island to protest the government's plan to turn the island into a park.

Jun 20  President Nasser of Egypt, King Hussein of Jordan, and other Arab leaders have flown to Libya to take part in celebrations regarding the US having turned its military air transport base near Tripoli over to the Libyans.

Jun 30  President Nixon announces the withdrawal of US troops from Cambodia but warns that if necessary he will continue to bomb Vietnamese troops and supply lines there. He expresses hope that Hanoi will now agree to serious negotiations.

Jul 1  More than 5,000 soldiers from South Vietnam - those allied with the United States - remain in Cambodia, occupying areas with large populations. Looting and pillaging of Cambodian towns by South Vietnamese troops is reported in the New York Times as having "become a serious problem."

Jul 6  California passes the nation's first "no fault" divorce law.

Aug 1  After three days of disturbances involving blacks and Puerto Ricans, a state of emergency is declared in Hartford, Connecticut. A curfew is established from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m.  A Puerto Rican man is shot and differences arise as to who is responsible.

Aug 2  In Hartford, police arrest seven men at the Black Panther Party headquarters. The seven are said to be suspected of sniper shootings.

Aug 24  A bomb planted by "anti-war extremists" explodes at the University of Wisconsin's Army Math Research Center, killing 33-year-old researcher Robert Fassnacht.

Sep 4  With 36.3 percent of the vote, a socialist candidate, Salvador Allende Gossens, wins the presidential election in Chile.

Sep 6-14  The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine hijack five airliners. One is an Israeli airliner, and security on board thwarts the highjacking. The four other airliners are forced to fly to an airfield near Amman, Jordan. The fifth airliner is flown to Cairo, the passengers are taken off the plane and the plane is blown up. In Jordan, the highjackers bargain for the release of Palestinian prisoners.  
asser Arafat Jimi Hendrix

Sep 9  US Marines launch a ten-day search for North Vietnamese troops near Da Nang.

Sep 12  With help from his wife Rosemary and the Weathermen, Timothy Leary walks away from a minimum security prison where he has been serving time for marijuana possession.

Sep 15  At a meeting in the oval office, President Nixon says he wants to prevent president-elect of Chile, Salvador Allende, from taking office.

Sep 16  In Jordan war erupts. It is called Black September. The Palestinian Liberation Army, led by Yassar Arafat, attempts to seize power. Syria sends a force with around 200 tanks to help Arafat's forces.

Sep 18  Jimi Hendrix, British rock star guitarist, age 27, dies in London of a drug overdose.

Sep 22  The League of Arab states meets in order to end the fighting between King Hussein and Palestinians in Jordan. Hussein accuses Arafat of conspiring to overthrow him, and Arafat pounds the table and screams obscenities. He accuses Hussein of being an agent of imperialism and of conspiring with the USA and Israel against the Palestinians. The Libyan leader, General Moammar al-Gaddafi, accuses Hussein of being a lunatic.
King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, disheartened by the vulgar recriminations and incoherent ranting, declares them all to be mentally unbalanced.

Sep 28  An ailing and tired President Nasser of Egypt dies of a heart attack at the age of 52. 
Janis Joplin

Oct 1  With Nasser's funeral procession through Cairo's streets, millions are weeping, and mourners attempt to bear Nasser's coffin themselves. Soldiers use their rifle butts and batons to repel the crowd. People are crushed to death. Authorities end the procession by transferring the coffin to a military vehicle and rushing it to the place of burial.

Oct 4  Janis Joplin, rock star, dies at the age of 27. The cause of death: whisky and heroin overdose. In the US an age of pushing sensation and thrill to its limits is coming to an end.

Oct 8  Soviet author Alexander Solzhenitsyn is named winner of the Nobel Prize for literature.

Oct 10  Quebec Provincial Labor Minister, Pierre Laporte, and the British trade commissioner, James Cross, are kidnapped by the Front de Liberation du Quebec.

Oct 10 Fiji becomes independent of British rule.

Oct 12  President Nixon announces the pullout of 40,000 more American troops in Vietnam by Christmas.

Oct 14  Moscow accuses Nobel judges of anti-Soviet motives in giving the Nobel Prize to Solzhenitsyn. 
Salvador Allende

Oct 18  The body of Pierre Laporte is found in the trunk of a car. He has been strangled to death.

Oct 23  The commander-in-chief of the Chilean Army, General René Schneider, is assassinated. He was opposed to military involvement in politics and stood in the way of CIA plans to have Salvador Allende overthrown by military force.

Oct 31  China describes Japan's "white paper" on defense as intending unrestricted expansion of Japanese armaments, acquisition of nuclear weapons and a preparation for "unleashing a new war of aggression."

Nov 3  Salvador Allende is inaugurated President of Chile.

Nov 3  In California, Ronald Reagan wins a second term as governor. His Democratic Party opponent was Jesse Unruh, whom he described as a tax-and-spend liberal.

Nov 4  Andre Sakharov, Russian nuclear physicist, forms his Human Rights Committee.

Nov 9  Charles De Gaulle dies at age of 79.

Nov 20  In the UN General Assembly, an Algerian resolution to unseat the regime in Taiwan, which claims to represent China, and replace it with representation by the People's Republic of China, wins majority approval.

Nov 21  Fifty-six US commandos, supported by 26 aircraft, attempt to rescue POWs at the Son Tay camp north of Hanoi. The prisoners have been moved to another camp and the commandos return empty-handed.

Nov 24  The Viet Cong has changed its name from the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam to the Government of the Republic of South Vietnam. 
Yukio Mishima

Nov 25  In Japan, novelist Yukio Mishima invades the military headquarters in Tokyo, fails to persuade the military to join him in renouncing the US imposed constitution and commits hara-kiri.

Nov 26  The Nixon administration has been holding to a wait and see attitude regarding Chile's new president, Allende. Allende has taken over two businesses controlled by American companies and on this day he announces to Communist Party leaders his plans for large-scale nationalization of basic industries.

Nov 27  Alexander Solzhenitsyn, whose books are not published in the Soviet Union, says he has decided not to ask for official permission to go to Stockholm to accept the 1970 Nobel Prize for Literature.    

Dec 2  President Nixon creates the Environmental Protection Agency, which takes over functions previously performed by the Department of Interior.

Dec. 7  In Poland, Chancellor Willy Brandt of West Germany signs a treaty opening normal relations with Poland. Poland is expected to allow "tens of thousands" of ethnic Germans still living in Poland to emigrate to West Germany.

Dec 18  In Poland, five days of unrest come to an end, said to have been caused by shortages and rising prices. The Polish government describes six people as having been killed by government forces in the city of Gdansk.

Educational videos offered by:
Richard Orberson

Welcome to Our World of Plants,
a modern open area for learning
and understanding the mysteries
of the plant world!

Herbaceous Plant

Our Herbaceous Plants Video package is a
2 disc. 3 hour set, packed full of information.

Herbaceous Plants Video package is sold
separately or as part of a
three-package group

Pharmaceutical Plant

Pharmaceuticals Video package is a
3 disc. 3 hour explaining the medical
compounds derived from plants

Our Pharmaceutical Plants Video package is
sold separately or as part of a
three-package group

Poisonous Plant

The Poisonous Plants Video package is a
2 disc. 2-hour collection exzaming the
Poisonous compounds in and from plants

Our Poisonous Plants Video package is
sold separately or as part of a
three-package group

Elements:   Building a Container House:   Political USA:     Less-than Reputable