Century  20 10 th. Decade 
Century   20 1991-2000


Jan 12  The UN has authorized its members to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait if those forces are still there after January 15. The US president, George Herbert Walker Bush has worked to be a part of a broad coalition of nations and seeks congressional approval to use military force "against Iraq pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 678." In the House of Representatives, Democrats vote no 179 to 86. In the Senate, the Democrats vote no 45 to 10. An overwhelming vote yes by Republicans makes passage possible.

Jan 13  The Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev has sent Soviet troops against Lithuanian efforts at independence. The troops assault the Vilnius TV tower and kill 14 unarmed civilians. The pro-Soviet National Salvation Committee in Lithuania accuses Lithuanian nationalists of preparing to "unleash direct military actions" and "pogroms" against pro-Moscow Russians and other residents.

Jan 15  The United Nations' deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the start of Operation Desert Storm.

Jan 16-17  In Baghdad, the night quiet is broken by dogs barking. Then comes continuous fireworks created by airstrikes, broadcast without commercial interruptions on CNN.

Jan 17  Iraq fires 8 Scud missiles into Israel, breaking glass, injuring seven people and scaring many more.

Feb 18  The Provisional Irish Republican Army explodes bombs at Paddington station and Victoria station in London, killing one man and wounding forty.

Feb 23  In Thailand the prime minister and formal general, Chatichai Choonhavan, has allowed one faction of the military to get rich on government contracts. A rival military faction overthrows the prime minister in a bloodless coup.

Feb 24  Ground forces begin their move out of Saudi Arabia against Iraq's occupation of Kuwait.

Feb 25  An Iraqi Scud missile hits an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killing 29 and injuring 99 US soldiers. In Kuwait, Iraqis are setting fire to oil facilities.

Feb 26  Iraq's frontline troops are melting away and surrendering in droves. Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait.

Feb 27  A column of tanks, armored vehicles, trucks and looted cars driving north into Iraq is attacked by air. Every vehicle is destroyed and no one is seen as having survived.

Feb 28  President Bush is moved by the sight of the "Highway of Death." He asks his military advisor, General Colin Powell, "Why not end it now?" Powell, Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney and the US commander in Iraq, General Schwarzkopf, agree that it is time to end the fighting. Hussein's elite Republican Guards are fleeing from the south northward toward Baghdad.

Mar 3  Iraq accepts UN conditions for a permanent cease fire. Allied military commanders and Iraqi military commanders meet at a captured Iraqi airbase, at Safwan, to arrange terms of a formal cease-fire. General Schwarzkopf assures the Iraqis that the boundary on his map marking the area occupied by his coalition forces is temporary. The Iraqis claim they need their helicopters to transport wounded soldiers and other tasks and ask if they could fly armed helicopters across that line. Schwarzkopf says yes. Later he is to say that he had been "suckered."

Mar 6  Regarding reports of rebellions against the Hussein regime, US State Department spokesman Richard Boucher says: "We don't think that outside powers should be interfering in the internal affairs of Iraq."

Mar 6 An exultant President Bush tells a cheering joint session of Congress that "aggression is defeated. The war is over."

Mar 15  Four Los Angeles police officers are indicted for the videotaped March 3 beating of motorist Rodney King during an arrest.

Mar 16  A speech by Saddam Hussein is broadcast in which he promises to allow multi-party democracy.

Mar 16  Hussein is crushing a rebellion in southern Iraq, using helicopter gunships and troops in areas occupied by US soldiers.

Mar 19  Iran radio reports that the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (not to be confused with Khomeini) believes that the Hussein Government cannot endure for long "because of the arms that have fallen into the hands of the people."

Mar 20  An Iranian press agency reports that Kurdish rebels say they now control the city of Kirkuk, a major oil production center and Iraq's fourth-largest city.

Mar 29  Lee Atwater dies of a brain tumor at the age of 40. In 1988 he led the campaign that won the presidency for George H. W. Bush. Wikipedia would write that Atwater was criticized for his "unethical and dirty tricks" but was "widely regarded as a brilliant political operative who delivered victory for his candidates." It would be said on PBS's Frontline that had he continued operating for Bush, Bill Clinton would not have won the presidency in 1992.

Mar 31  Albania has its first multi-party elections for seats in parliament. Communists hold on to 160 of the 250 seats, but the head of the Communist Party, Ramiz Alia, loses in his parliamentary district to a young geologist representing the newly formed Democratic Party.

Apr 2  In the UN Security Council, France fails to persuade members to adopt a resolution to provide protection for the Kurds. China, the Soviet Union and the United States are opposed, claiming that it would create a precedent for involvement in a sovereign country's internal matters.

Apr 3  A month long rebellion against Saddam Hussein by Kurds is coming to an end as Kurdish rebels flee to their mountains. A Baath Party newspaper claims that the rebellion will be "stamped out within days."

Apr 5  Saddam Hussein's regime announces "the complete crushing of acts of sedition, sabotage, and rioting in all towns of Iraq." Thousands of civilians are reported to have been killed. Hussein's security forces are applying a fear strategy for control. They have been arriving in the wake of armored assaults and executing people at random and rounding up thousands of others.

Apr 10  The Bush administration demands that Iraq cease all military activity north of the 36th parallel - a line south of Mosul but excluding the oil area of Kirkuk. It warns Iraq that it will use force if there is military interference in international relief efforts for the Kurds.

Apr 17  Armed forces of the United States and other countries move into northern Iraq, declaring that they will coordinate relief supplies and set up camps to secure the safety of Kurdish refugees.

Apr 18  Iraq declares some of its chemical weapons and materials to the UN, as required by Resolution 687. Iraq claims that it does not have a biological weapons program.

May 14  Jiang Qing, or Madam Mao, 77, has been released from prison because of her throat cancer. She commits suicide by hanging herself in the bathroom of a hospital.

May 21  Rajiv Gandhi (46), grandson of Nehru and son of Indira Gandhi, former prime minister, is assassinated while campaigning as the Congress Party leader during parliamentary elections. His assassin is a female suicide bomber for Sri Lanka's Tamils (who are 90 percent Hindu). The attack is believed to have been revenge for his having ordered Indian troops to intervene in Sri Lanka's civil war.

May 25  An article in the New York Times describes Iran's government as supplying Shiite rebels and Kurdish dissidents in Iraq with more weapons, supplies and moral support.

May 29  In Nepal, the first elections in thirty years were held earlier in the month - long opposed by the country's landed and feudal elite. The Nepali Congress party has won bare majority. Various Communist parties make a strong showing. A Nepali Congress Party government is installed with G.P. Koirala as prime minister.
Jun 12  In the Republic of Russia - still a part of the Soviet Union - Boris Yeltsin wins 57 percent of the vote for president, defeating a candidate preferred by the Soviet Union's president, Gorbachev.

Jun 17  In South Africa, President de Klerk is still negotiating with Nelson Mandela's African National Congress. The South African Parliament repeals the Population Registration Act, which has required racial classification of all South Africans at birth. The repeal convinces numerous countries to end their boycott against South Africa.

Jun 25 With the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and dissatisfaction with the Serb majority domination, Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Jun 26 Yugoslavia's government does not recognize Croatian and Slovenian independence. Units of Yugoslavia's federal troops fail to dislodge Slovenian militias occupying border posts.

Jun 28  Iraq soldiers fire warning shots at a U.N. inspection team attempting to intercept Iraqi vehicles they believe might be carrying nuclear related equipment.

Jun 30  The Yugoslav Army issues an ultimatum to Slovenia, saying it will take "decisive military action" unless Slovenia gives up control of its border.

Jul 1  At a meeting in Praque, Warsaw Pact representatives dissolve the organization.

Jul 6  Croatia has a large ethnic minority, Serbs, eleven percent of Croatia's population, and they have been rebelling against the idea of Croatian independence. Yugoslav army tanks and troops deploy in Croatia, ostensibly to keep peace between Croats and Serbs, but violence between Croats and Serbs continues, while Croatia's government agrees to postpone independence.

Aug 1  Croatia has drawn up a peace plan offering its Serb minority key concessions, including home rule and control over local police. Some Serbs in Croatia will reject the offer, wanting instead their neighborhoods unified with a greater Serbia.

Aug 3  Croatia's military has suffered another defeat, with reports today that as many as 80 police officers and national guardsmen were killed in an unsuccessful attempt to hold three strategic towns in eastern Croatia.

Aug 19  In the Soviet Union a coup attempt begins with President Gorbachev put under house arrest.

Aug 20  Estonia declares independence from the Soviet Union.

Aug 21  Latvia declares independence from the Soviet Union.

Aug 23  In Moscow, Yeltsin has called for a general strike to resist the coup against Gorbachev. Huge crowds and some tank commanders support Yeltsin. The coup collapses.

Aug 24  President Gorbachev resigns as General Secretary of the Communist Party.

Aug 24  Ukraine proclaims independence from the Soviet Union.

Aug 25  Belarus declares independence.

Aug 27  Moldova declares independence.

Aug 27  The Supreme Soviet suspends all Communist Party activities.

Aug 31  Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan declare independence.

Sep 1  Serbians have an Eastern Orthodox religious heritage and a history of victimhood at the hands of Muslims and Roman Catholics. In Yugoslavia, President Milosevic of Serbia, the largest republic in Yugoslavia, announces that Serbs are surrounded by enemies. To thunderous applause he says, "If we must fight, then my God we will fight, and I hope they will not be so crazy as to fight against us. Because if we don't know how to work well or to do business, at least we know how to fight well."

Sep 6  The Soviet Union recognizes the independence of the Baltic States. The city that since 1924 has been called Leningrad reverts to its original name: Saint Petersburg.

Sep 8  In a referendum, Macedonians vote in favor of independence from Yugoslavia.

Sep 30  For four days Iraqi soldiers have refused to allow UN weapons inspectors to leave a site without the inspectors turning over documents they have confiscated. The UN Security Council threatens enforcement actions. Iraq permits the inspectors to leave with the documents.

Sep 30  Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is removed from power by a bloody military coup led by Lieutenant General Raoul Cedras.

Oct 5 Croatia has been subject to mortar and air attacks. Croatia's President Tudjman calls all Croats to mobilize to defend against "Greater-Serbian imperialism."

Oct 7  Bombs planted in Croatia's capital destroy government rooms but fail to kill government leaders.

Oct 15  In the US Senate, contentious hearings on the nomination of Clarence Thomas for a seat on the Supreme court have ended. The Senate votes 52 to 48 to confirm.

Oct 29  Yugoslav warplanes attack positions across Croatia's eastern panhandle. European Community foreign ministers threatened to impose economic sanctions on Serbia, Yugoslavia's dominant republic, if it does not accept its peace plan for Yugoslavia.

Nov 1  In an interview for Croatian television, Britain's former prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, criticizes Western governments for not recognizing the right of Croats and Slovenians to independence and for failing to help the Croats with the arms they have needed to defend themselves from Serbian-led Yugoslav army attacks.

Nov 14  In connection with the downing of the Pan Am Flight 103, US and British authorities announce indictments against two Libyan intelligence officials.

Dec 1  In a referendum, Ukrainians vote overwhelmingly for independence.

Dec 4  In Beirut, the American journalist Terry Anderson is released after seven years as a prisoner of terrorists.

Dec 13  North and South Korea sign a non-aggression and cooperation agreement, to become effective February 19, 1992. The Joint Declaration calls for bilateral nuclear inspections to verify the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. It states that the two sides "shall not test, manufacture, produce, receive, possess, store, deploy or use nuclear weapons," and that they "shall not possess nuclear reprocessing and uranium enrichment facilities." North Korea's has benefitted from help from the Soviet Union regarding nuclear developments, but the Soviet Union no longer exists and Russia is not providing North Korea with the help it once received.

Dec 16  The 12-nation European Community unanimously agrees to recognize Croatia and Slovenia by January 15. President Bush disagrees with this decision, saying that it is "fraught with danger."

Dec 24  The president of the Russian Republic, Boris Yeltsin, has met in secret with the leaders of the Ukraine and Byelorussian republics and agreed to leave the Soviet Union and form a Commonwealth of Independent States.

Dec 25  At the United Nations, the Russian Federation takes the seat that had belonged to the Soviet Union.

Dec 26  The Supreme Soviet meets and formally dissolves the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union ceases to exist. Millions of ethnic Russians find themselves in independent states other than Russia.

Timeline: 1992


Jan 2 
In Russia, President Yeltsin follows the advice of an American economist, Jeffrey Sachs, and institutes "shock therapy <>" toward the creation of a free market economy. He will allow prices to rise to three to ten times previous levels on nearly all consumer products, while there will be no concomitant rise in wages.

Jan 13  Japan's government apologizes for the old empire having forced Korean women into sexual slavery.

Jan 15  Slovenia and Croatia are recognized as independent by the 12-nation European Community.

Jan 16  El Salvador's conservative government and rebel FMLN leaders have concluded an agreement that ends eleven years of civil war.

Feb 3  The recycling of trash begins in Portland, Oregon.

Feb 7  The Treaty of Maastricht (in the Netherlands) moves what had been the European Community toward what will now be the European Union. The treaty forms a basis for cooperation in foreign and defense policy, judicial and internal affairs and the creation of an economic and monetary union, including a common currency. A bumpy ratification by member states follows.

Feb 12  Mongolia's constitution is ratified, marking the official beginning of the republic's multi-party political system.

Feb 21  The UN Security Council resolves to send a peacekeeping force to Yugoslavia.

Feb 25-6  Armenians have been warring in a dispute over territory with Azerbaijani. The Armenians are largely Christian, the Azerbaijani largely Shia . An Armenian force kills 613 Azerbaijani civilians in the town of Khojaly. The Armenians will complain that the Azerbaijani did not allow the civilians to leave the area of battle and that Azerbaijani soldiers intermingled with civilians. Others will claim that this is no excuse.

Feb 26  In Ireland a Supreme Court ruling allows a 14-year-old rape victim to travel to England to have an abortion.

Mar 9  The People's Republic of China ratifies the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Mar 17  A suicide car-bomb goes off in the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires, killing 29 and injuring 242. Islamic Jihad claims responsibility.

Apr 6  The Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina proclaims its independence from Yugoslavia.

Apr 8  The US recognizes the independence of Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The European Community joins in recognizing the independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina. In rural Bosnia-Herzegovina Christian Serb forces are fighting local Muslims, and Serbian troops have begun besieging Bosnia-Herzegovina's main city, Sarajevo. What will be called the Bosnian War has begun.

Apr 26  A jury has found the Los Angeles police officers accused of excessive force against Rodney King not guilty.

May 2  Troops from the 7th Infantry Division and 1st Marine Division arrive in Los Angeles after four days of rioting. It will be estimated that approximately 3,600 fires have been set and 1,100 buildings destroyed, between 50 and 60 people killed and as many as 2,000 people injured. Much looting has occurred. Stores owned by Korean-Americans and other Asians have been targeted. Stores owned by whites and blacks have been destroyed. Street gangs have found opportunity to settle old scores.

May 12  The International Herald Tribune reports economic trouble in Russia: The output of goods has fallen "by an estimated 18 percent" and the "entrepreneurs being spawned in Russia today are mainly black marketers or corrupt officials who have stolen state property... The economic outlook is bleak for all except hustlers and fast-ruble artists."


National Debt as a percentage of Gross

National Debt as a percentage of Gross Domestic
Product, an issue in the US presidential race. 

Jun 1  Japan's stockmarket index, the Nikkai 225, has fallen nearly 60 percent from its high of nearly 40,000 on December 29, 1989, to around 16,000. (It would be down to 7,568 in 2009.) Companies, banks and securities companies, loaded with cash, have created an investment bubble that has broken. Land prices in major cities have been falling since early 1990. Japan's economc growth has been zero since 1991, down from 7 percent in the 1980s.

Jun 19  President Bush and Bill Clinton have won primary elections for the presidential nomination of their respective political parties. A poll lists a still undeclared independent, Ross Perot, as beating President Bush, 39 to 31 percent, with Bill Clinton finishing third at 25 percent. Perot has been expressing his desire to see the budget deficit put under control and the tax system reformed.

Jul 16  At the Democratic National Convention, Bill Clinton, 45, is nominated for US President. Tennessee Senator Al Gore is his vice-presidential running mate.

Aug 19  To protect Shiites in southern Iraq, the US, Britain and France agree on a plan to shoot down Iraqi military aircraft that enter a zone that begins just south of Baghdad.

Aug 20  At the Republican National Convention, President George H.W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle are chosen again to lead their party.

Sep 18  Undaunted by Perot's withdrawal from the race for president, his supporters get his name on the ballot in all 50 states.

Sep 23  A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb destroys forensic laboratories in Belfast.

Sep 24  The Kentucky Supreme Court rules that laws criminalizing same-sex sodomy are unconstitutional and predicts that other states will agree.

Oct 1  Ross Perot re-enters the race for the presidency.

Oct 9  In Peekskill, New York, a 13-kilogram (29-pound) meteorite destroys a Chevy Impala parked in a family's driveway.

Oct 31  Pope John Paul II apologizes and lifts the Inquisition's edict against Galileo Galilei.

Nov 3  Bill Clinton wins the presidential election with 43 percent of the vote. George H.W. Bush gets 37.4 percent and Ross Perot 18.9 percent. Many others divide 4.7 percent of the vote, including Harold Stassen on his
9th run. The Democrats will control both the House of Representatives and the Senate.

Nov 11  The Church of England votes to allow women to become priests.

Dec 3  UN Security Council unanimously passes Resolution 794, to send peacekeepers to Somalia to establish order and make possible famine relief.

Dec 4  President Bush announces Operation Restore Hope: troops to Somalia under the aegis of the United Nations.

Dec 6  Thousands of Hindu militants destroy the mosque Babri Masjid, which they believe was built upon a Hindu temple and where Rama of the Ramayana was born.

Dec 9  In India, waves of shootings, stabbing and arson occur as Muslims respond to the destruction of the mosque Babri Masjid.

Dec 9  A UN force, prepared for stealth and combat, lands in an early morning darkness on the shore by the city of Mogadishu, greeted by international media and lighting for cameras. The US troops are joined by soldiers from Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and Zimbabwe.

Dec 27  Russian military and intelligence installations remain in the now independent Baltic states, and most of the people in these states are unhappy about it. Unhappy too are the thousands of Russian troops experiencing what they consider petty harassments and humiliations.

Timeline: 1993

Jan 1  Czechoslovakia divides into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, peacefully.

Jan 5 The Bush administration announces that Iraq has moved surface-to-air-missiles into the southern part of the country - the no-fly zone - that is patrolled by United States and allied warplanes.

Jan 7  In Ghana, Jerry Rawlings is inaugurated President, after having switched from military rule to winning an election described by international observers as free and fair.

Jan 13 An international arms control agreement is signed that prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and usse of chemical weapons. Almost all UN member states sign the agreement. It is to become effective 29 April 1997. Five states will not sign the treaty: Angola, North Korea, Egypt, South Sudan, and Syria.

Jan 14  A deadline issued by the United States to Iraq to remove anti-aircraft missiles has passed. And Iraq has announced that it will no longer allow weapons inspectors to be flown into Iraqi territory in United Nations aircraft. US, French and British aircraft bomb missile sites in southern Iraq.

Jan 19  Iraq decides to allow UN weapons inspectors to enter Iraq aboard UN aircraft.

Jan 20  William Jefferson Clinton becomes the 42nd President of the United States.
The twin towers of the World
The twin towers of the World
Trade Center, New York City.

Jan 21  The Clinton administration announces that it will continue the Bush administration's policy of pre-empting attacks on American pilots in Iraq.

Jan 29  President Clinton announces his plan to lift the ban on gays in the military.

Feb 22  The UN Security Council passes Resolution 808, establishing an international tribunal to prosecute violations of international law in Yugoslavia.

Feb 26  Men connected to Osama bin Laden's network of activists drive a van heavily laden with a bomb into the parking area under the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. They walk away. The truck explodes. They planned to topple one tower onto the other amid a cloud of cyanide gas. It does not work, but six people die and 1,042 are injured. Firefighters learn that they have inadequate communications equipment.

Feb 28  US Cargo planes from Germany drop food, medicine and other supplies to besieged Muslim towns in eastern Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Feb 28  In Texas, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents raid a compound with a warrant to arrest on firearms violations the inhabitants' leader, David Koresh - who claims to be the Final Prophet with a right to many wives as young as eleven. A firefight erupts. Four agents and 5 followers of Koresh die. The federal agents retreat. The FBI will take over and keep the compound surrounded while trying to talk the occupants into surrendering.

Mar 12  In the city of Bombay several bombs kill 257 and injure hundreds more. The motive will eventually be judged as revenge for Hindus destroying the Babri Masjid mosque in northern India. See December 6, 1992.

Mar 12  North Korea, still led by Kim Il-sung, refuses to allow inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) access to nuclear sites, and responding to IAEA instistance it announces its plan to withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

Apr 8  The Republic of Macedonia is admitted to the United Nations.

Apr 13  President Clinton reports that NATO air action including US airplanes are enforcing UN ban on unauthorized (Serbian) military flights over Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Apr 16  Niger's first democratically elected president takes office. With freedom of the press, several newspapers will come into existence.

Apr 19  Concluding 51 days of waiting for David Koresh to surrender, the FBI receives approval from Attorney General Janet Reno to move against his compound militarily. Fire erupts inside the compound, and gunshots are heard from within the compound. Koresh and 75 others die, including 21 children. Some cult members outside the compound expect Koresh to be resurrected in 1996.

Apr 30  The World Wide Web is developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, a little northwest of Geneva, Switzerland.

May 1  In Sri Lanka, a Tamil suicide bomber assassinates President Ranasinghe Premadasa.

May 24  After thirty years of war to free itself from attacks from Ethiopia, and after a UN sponsored referendum, Eritrea wins recognition of its independence.

May 28  The UN gains two new members: Eritrea and Monaco.

May 31  In Israel, openly homosexual men and women have begun serving in the military.

Jun 2  The FBI, CIA and others in the Department of Justice have concluded that during his visit to Kuwait back in mid-April the former president, George Bush, was likely the target of an assassination attempt that originated with the Iraqi government.

Jun 5  In Mogadishu, Somalia, 24 Pakistani members of the UN force are killed in a firefight with people who, it will be reported, are outraged over a rumor that UN troops were planning to occupy the radio station controlled by Gen. Mohammed Farah Aidid.
Burundi's first elected president
Burundi's first elected president, Hutu
 intellectual, Melchior Ndadaye.

Jun 12-16  US and UN troops attack targets associated with General Aidid.

Jun 27  In response to evidence of the attempted assassination against the former president, George Bush, Bill Clinton orders a cruise missile attack on Iraqi intelligence headquarters in the Al-Mansur District of Baghdad.

Jul 2  In Turkey a mob calling for death to infidels sets fire to the hotel where Satanic Verses translator and author Aziz Nesin was attending a cultural festival. Nesin escapes but 37 others die.

Jul 10  In Burundi, a progressive intellectual, Melchior Ndadaye, has won 65 percent of the vote for the presidency - a vote, certified as free and fair by international observers. He is a Hutu, replacing what had been a Tutsi dominated government, in a country more than 75 percent Hutu but with a Tutsi dominated military. A coup against Ndadaye has failed and he takes power, becoming Burundi's first Hutu president and its first democratically elected president.

Jul 20  Deputy White House counsel Vince Foster is found dead with a 38 caliber pistol and the kind of damage to his head that results from a shot fired inside the mouth.

Jul 27  Microsoft begins manufacturing Windows NT operating systems.

Aug 8   Clinton signs into law an increase in income tax rate for the highest earners from 35 percent (set by Bush the Elder) to 39 percent. Taxes on corporations are set at 35 percent. The tax on transportation fuels is raised 4.3 cents per gallon. The bill is called the Deficit Reduction Act.

Aug 11  The Justice Department discloses the text of a note left in Vince Foster's briefcase, which reads: "I made mistakes from ignorance, inexperience and overwork ... I did not knowingly violate any law or standard of conduct ... I was not meant for the job or the spotlight of public life in Washington. Here ruining people is considered sport." Money is forthcoming from critics of the Clintons to investigate and publish whether Hillary Clinton is involved in Vince Foster's murder.

Aug 30  Russia withdraws the last of its troops from Lithuania.

Aug 31  The siege of Sarajevo by Serb forces continues. Amid the shelling and sniper fire, Susan Sontag is stagingWaiting for Godot.

Sep 13  PLO and Israeli leaders have already worked out an agreement in Oslo, Norway. In Washington D.C., in the presence of President Clinton, PLO leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, sign the Oslo Peace Accords and shake hands. Agreed to is the withdrawal of Israeli forces from parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank and in those areas the right of Palestinians to self-government through the creation of a Palestinian Authority.

Sep 17  Russian troops leave Poland.

Sep19  In Poland discontent with market reforms and the increase in unemployment following the collapse of Communism gives Communists a boost in parliamentary elections. Political power is going to a coalition of left-wing parties that intends to slow the pace of privatization and economic reform.

Sep 22  In Moscow, President Yeltsin has reacted to parliament's move to repeal special powers it had given him. Involved is Yeltsin's support of shock therapy transition to a free enterprise economy - not altogether popular. Public opinion and democracy were opposed. Yeltsin yesterday ordered parliament disbanded and elections for a new legislative body in December. His order violates the Russian Constitution of 1978. Parliament moves to oust Yeltsin from power.

Sep 24  The Cambodian monarchy is restored, with Norodom Sihanouk as king.

Sep 28  President Yeltsin is surrounding parliament with hundreds of troops, concertina wire, water trucks, and mounted police.

Oct 2  Encouraged by the Oslo Accords, delegates from 43 nations promise the Palestinian Authority $2 billion in aid over the next five years. The US pledges $500 million. US Secretary of State Warren Christopher speaks of demonstrating the "tangible benefits of peace" and says "we must do so quickly if the advocates of peace are to be strengthened and the enemies of peace are to be isolated and discredited."

Oct 3  In Mogadishu, a battle between US forces and local militia kills 18 US Rangers and 500 Somalis. One of the dead US soldiers is seen on television being dragged through the streets.

Oct 4  President Clinton orders more than 200 troops, tanks, armored personnel carriers and gunships to Somalia.

Oct 4  Tens days of street fighting in Moscow ends with a reported 187 persons killed and 437 wounded. Yeltsin's illegal and anti-democratic power grab is portrayed as opposition to Communist revanchism. It will have the support of the Clinton administration.

Oct 5  A Palestinian driving a car packed with explosives attacks an Israeli commuter bus outside the Israeli Army headquarters in the West Bank.

Oct 5  In Moscow, military and security forces clear parliament by force, ending the effort to remove Yeltsin from power. Yeltsin bans leftist and nationalist parties and newspapers that had supported parliament.

Oct 6 In an address to the Russian nation, Yeltsin calls on regional councils that had opposed him to disband - the overwhelming majority of the regional councils.

Oct 6  Rejecting a plea from President Clinton, China has just exploded a nuclear weapon in its western desert. Clinton responds to the opinion that if other nations resume testing the US will need to also, and he orders preparations for a nuclear test in 1994.

Oct 8  President Clinton says he is doubling the size of the US ground forces in Somalia to lay a foundation for stability there. He promises to remove all forces within six months. He adds: "Let us demonstrate to the world, as generations of Americans have done before us, that when Americans take on a challenge, they do the job right."

Oct 12  The Central Council of the Palestine Liberation Organization ratifies the peace accord with Israel. Yasir Arafat is elected to be head of the Palestinian National Authority by a vote of 78 to 0, with 4 abstentions.

Oct 15  In the US Senate, Arizona's John McCain calsl for a "prompt and orderly" withdrawal from Somalia. It is supported by some Democrats and Republicans but defeated.

Oct 20  In Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto's political party has won a plurality in recent elections for seats in parliament. Today she became prime minister again, returning to the office from which she was banished in 1990.

Oct 21  A military coup in Burundi led by the Tutsi includes the murder of President Ndadaye. Another civil war between the Hutu and Tutsi begins.

Nov 7  President Clinton on Meet the Press says, “North Korea cannot be allowed to develop a nuclear bomb.”

Nov 11  In Sri Lanka, the on-again, off-again civil war since 1983 is on again with the Battle of Pooneryn, begun by Tamil guerrillas. They seek separation and independence.

Nov 14  In Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's candidate for president, Farooq Leghari, a member of her political party, the PPP, wins in the voting in the two houses of parliament. In three years he will dismiss Bhutto on charges of corruption.

Nov 17  President Clinton has been arguing for NAFTA, and the US House of Representatives passes NAFTA legislation.

Nov 28  The London Observer reveals a channel of communications exists between the IRA and the British government, despite government denials.

Dec 30  Israel and the Vatican establish diplomatic relations.

Timeline: 1994

Jan 1  In Mexico the Zapatistas declare war against the Mexican government, take hold of five municipalities in the state of Chiapas and announce plans to march towards Mexico City.

Jan 1  Rudy Giuliani becomes Mayor of New York City.

Jan 6  Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's national police surround the Bhutto family mansion and clash with supporters of her mother, Nusrat Bhutto.

Jan 6  Nancy Kerrigan, US skating champion, is clubbed on the knee in a conspiracy involving skating rival Tonya Harding.

Jan 14  Prime Minister Bhutto responds to angry charges from her mother, saying that her mother does it "to damage me and pave the way for the son that she feels should be, in her own words, the heir."

Jan 14  Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin sign the Kremlin Accords, which end the aiming of nuclear missiles at each other and provide for the dismantling of the nuclear arsenal in Ukraine.

Jan 25  President Clinton delivers his first State of the Union address, calling for health care reform, a ban on assault weapons and welfare reform. He boasts that his administration has "replaced drift and deadlock with renewal and reform."

Feb 3  The US lifts its trade embargo against Vietnam.

Feb 25  In the West Bank, an Israeli medical doctor, Baruch Goldstein, 37, shoots and kills 29 Muslims who were at prayer. Then he is subdued with a fire extinguisher and beaten to death.

Feb 28  US fighter pilots down four Serbian fighter aircraft flying in the prohibited zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Mar 4  Four men of Middle East origin are convicted for their roles in the World Trade Center bombing.

Mar 25  The UN Security Council has passed Resolution 897 redefining the UN mission in Somali, emphasizing peacemaking and reconstruction rather than coercion. President Clinton has withdrawn all US troops from Somalia - as he promised he would by March 31. Twenty-thousand UN troops remain.

Mar 31  North Korea is short on and has begun investing in nuclear power. The US and South Korea have agreed to the deployment of US Patriot missiles in South Korea as a defense againsst North Korea balllstic missiles.

Apr 5  The siege of Sarajevo begins its third year.

Apr 6  Some Hutu are opposed to peace accords ending a three-year civil war between the government and Tutsi-led rebels, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). Rwanda's Hutu President Juvénal Habyarimana is assassinated as his plane is landing at Rwanda's Kigali airport.

Apr 7  The Rwandan armed forces and a Hutu paramilitary group, the Interahamwe, begin killing Tutsis and moderate Hutus.

Apr 11  UN soldiers protecting 2,000 Tutsis at a school are ordered to withdraw to Kigali airport. The Tutsis left behind are slaughtered.

Apr 14  Belgium withdraws its troops from the UN peacekeeping force in Rwanda.

Apr 21  The UN reduces its troops in Rwanda by 90 percent, to 270. The International Red Cross estimates that those slaughtered now add to more than 100,000.

Apr 22  Former US President Richard Nixon dies in New York City.

Apr 27  In South Africa multiracial elections are held for the first time.

May 6  Paula Jones has waited three years to file a civil suit against President Clinton, accusing him of "sexually harassing and assaulting" her and defaming her with denials.

May 7  The UN Security Council agrees to send 5,500 troops to Rwanda to defend civilians. Deployment is delayed by disagreements between the US and UN over financing of the operation.

May 10  In South Africa, Nelson Mandela is inaugurated president.

May 16  The International Red Cross estimates that 500,000 Rwandans have been killed.

May 17  Malawi holds its first multi-party elections.

May 19  Despite repeated chiding from Western nations, North Korea continues to conduct nuclear research and to carry on with the uranium enrichment program. North Korea has threatened to go to war if sanctions are imposed by the international community, and the Clinton administration has received from North Korea a statement that sanctions would be equivalent to a declaration of war.

May 24  US Senator John McCain urges an increase in US forces and readiness to Korea.

Jun 17  Former president Jimmy Carter and his wife Rosalynn have responded to an invitation to visit North Korea. Press reports today, following Carter's meeting with Kim Il-sung, describe astonishment by the United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency at Kim's agreement to stop his nuclear research program.

Jun -   This month, young bankers from the offices of J.P. Morgan are meeting in Florida devising ways to make money beyond traditional commercial or investment banking. These are young men who will see themselves as exceptionally clever and capable in making money by bets in "derivative" markets and exceptionally sound in their grasp of macro-economics. It will lead to the economic collapse that will begin in December, 2007. (See Fool's Gold, which won Gillian Tett the Financial Book of the Year award in 2009.)

Jun 12  In the Los Angeles area, Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman are stabbed to death outside Simpson's home.

Jun 17  O.J. Simpson, football hero and actor, fails to turn himself into police as planned. Police approach a car with Simpson and a former teammate in the driver's seat. The friend yells to police to back off because Simpson has a gun to his own head. A 60-mile freeway journey with police close behind and helicopters overhead ends at Simpson's home, where he surrenders to police. O.J. is arrested and soon to be indicted for murder.

Jul 4  The Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) takes control of the Kigali airport and the southern town of Butare. Its leadership says it intends to form a government on the basis of the Arusha Accords.

Jul 8 Kim Il-sung dies of a heart attack. He is succeeded by his eldest son, Kim Jong-il. Kim Il-sung's body will be placed in a public mausoleum where his preserved and embalmed body will lie under a glass coffin for viewing purposes

Jul 13-14  Hutus fleeing the RPF flood into Zaire, creating a refugee crisis.

Jul 18  The Rwanda Patriotic Front announces that the war is over, declares a cease-fire and declares Pastor Bizimungu as president with Faustin Twagiramungu as prime minister.

Jul 18  In Buenos Aires a terrorist attack destroys a building housing several Jewish organizations, killing 85 and injuring many more. Members of Buenos Aires Provincial Police will be tried but found not guilty. The presiding judge will be impeached for irregularities regarding the case.

Jul 24  Newt Gingrich, Republican leader (whip) in the US House of Representatives, has organized his political party against passage of a Democratic Party effort at health reform. He says he hopes "to use the issue as a springboard to win Republican control of the House." He predicts that the Republicans will pick up thirty-four House seats in the November elections.

Jul 25  Israel and Jordan formally end the state of war that has existed between them since the founding of Israel in1948.

Aug 31  The Provisional Irish Republican Army announces its "complete cessation of military operations."

Aug 31  The last of Russian troops leave Estonia.

Sep 3  Russia and China agree to de-target their nuclear weapons against each other.

Sep 13  The Federal Assault Weapons Ban is signed into law by President Clinton. It prohibits certain kinds of semi-automatic "assault weapons" manufactured after this day to be sold to civilians. The ban is to expire in ten years.

Sep 19  US troops go ashore in Haiti, intending to restore to power Haiti's elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

Sep 28  In the US on the steps of the capital building, with flags waving and a band playing, Republican candidates for the upcoming congressional elections, including all but two incumbents, file past a table and sign a "Contract with America," a creation led by Newt Gingrich and the conservative think tank, the Heritage Foundation. The contract includes elimination of waste, fraud and abuse in Congress, term limits, tax cuts, a balanced budget and fixing social security among other things.

Oct 5  In Quebec a few days ago, members of the Solar Temple cult identified an infant as the anti-Christ described in the Bible. The infant was killed: stabbed repeatedly with a wooden stake. Today it is reported that bodies have been found in Quebec and in the cult's temples in Switzerland. It will be determined that some killed themselves with poison, some had bullet wounds and some were smothered.

Oct 21  An "Agreed Framework" is signed between the US and North Korea in Geneva, capping on-and-off bilateral negotiations which altogether has lasted for more than a year and a half. The objective of the agreement is the freezing and replacement of North Korea's indigenous nuclear power plant program with more nuclear proliferation resistant light water reactor power plants, and the step-by-step normalization of relations between the US and North Korea.

Nov 8  In the US, elections give Republicans control of both the House of Representatives and the Senate for the first time in 40 years. Republicans gained, and the Democrats lost, 54 seats in the House and 8 seats in the Senate. It is to be called the Republican Revolution. Analysts describe the Republican success as the result of perceptions that House leadership has been corrupt, dislike for President Clinton's support for health care reform and gun control measures and homosexuals in the military. Some Republicans consider Rush Limbaugh, popular radio talk show host, as instrumental in the Republican landslide.

Nov 8  In an election in Texas, George W. Bush defeats the incumbent governor, Ann Richards, 53 to 46 percent. Richards was supported by fellow Texan Ross Perot, but it is said that she was burdened by the unpopularity of President Clinton and her having vetoed a citizen concealed weapons bill. Bush was helped by the campaigning of his parents. The impact of a whispering campaign regarding Richards embracing lesbians and gay men is unknown.

Nov 13  In a referendum, Swedes choose to join their country to European Union.

Nov 13  The first passengers travel through the Channel Tunnel.

Dec 4  In the US, two Republican leaders, Senator Dole and Congressman Newt Gingrich, ridicule UN peacekeeping effort in Bosnia and call for a bombing campaign against Serbian troops in Bosnia. President Clinton's Secretary of State, Warren Christopher, describes their strategy as a prescription for a major ground war that would require thousands of American troops.

Dec 11  Russia's Boris Yeltsin sends troops and planes to Chechnya, a largely Muslim region. He hopes to crush what began in 1992 in Chechnya with a new constitution that included a declaration of independence.

Dec 12  Since 1972, Harvard University's Institute of Politics has been conducting issues briefings for new members of Congress. This year, Newt Gingrich is directing Republicans to an alternative: the Heritage Foundation. There, 73 Republican freshmen listen to Rush Limbaugh warn them about Washington's press corps. "You will never ever be their friends," he says. "They don't want to be your friends. Some female reporter will come up to one of you and start batting her eyes and ask you to go to lunch. And you'll think, 'Wow! I'm only a freshman. Cokie Roberts wants to take me to lunch. I've really made it!' "

Dec 19  Investigation of decades-old real estate dealings of Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates with the failed Whitewater Development Corporation begins. The prosecutor leading the investigation is Kenneth Starr, a judiciary committee's appointment as Special Counsel.

Dec 19  Civil unions for same sex couples has been created in Denmark and Israel, including equal employment benefits with opposite-sex couples. And today civil unions for same sex couples becomes law in Sweden.

Timeline: 1995

Jan 1  Austria, Finland and Sweden enter the European Union.

Jan 9  Valeriy Polyakov, Russian cosmonaut (male), completes 366 days in space, breaking a duration record.

Jan 17  A magnitude 7.3 earthquake near Kobe, Japan, kills 6,434 people.

Jan 31  President Clinton invokes emergency powers to extend a $20 billion loan to help Mexico avert financial collapse.

Feb 13  A UN tribunal on human rights violations in the Balkans charges twenty-one Bosnian Serb commanders with genocide and crimes against humanity.

Mar 1  In Moscow, a popular anti-corruption journalist and TV anchor, Vladislav Listyev, is assassinated, his assailant to forever remain a mystery.

Mar 1  In Santa Clara, California, Yahoo is founded.

Mar 3  The UN peacekeeping mission ends in Somalia.

Mar 20  In Tokyo, religious terrorists release sarin gas on five railway trains, killing 12 and injuring 5,510.

Apr 5  The US House of Representatives votes 246-188 to cut taxes for individuals and corporations. Speaker Gingrich says that the bill "helps to create jobs. It strengthens families. it does what we ought to be doing. And it's the last step in the Contract."

Apr 19  U.S Army veteran Timothy McVeigh is upset concerning the federal government's action against David Koresh and his Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas. In Oklahoma City he and an accomplice, Terry Nichols, set off a bomb that destroys the Murrah Federal Building, killing 168 people, including 8 federal marshals and 19 children.

May 11  More than 170 countries agree to extend the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty indefinitely and without conditions.

Jul 11  Dutch UN peacekeepers are pushed out of the way in the area around Srebrenica, in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bosnian Serbs round up and kill an estimated 8,000 Muslim men and boys, the largest mass murder in Europe since World War II.
Croatia's Ante Gotovina
Croatia's Ante Gotovina, to be tried for ethnic cleansing.

General Colin Powell
General Colin Powell

Jul 21-22  China tests four missiles aimed at targets 85 miles north of Taiwan.

Aug 3  At peace talks in Switzerland, Croatia appeals to Serbs within Croatia to reintegrate. The Serbs refuse, while Serbia's president, Slobodan Milosevic, is giving the Serbs in Croatia no support in response to their refusal to make peace.

Aug 4  Croatia claims its right to liberate its own territory. Croatia's military advances toward Serbs in the separatist Krajina area in Croatia. Before the force arrives, a 40-mile stream of some 300,000 Serb civilians and armed men flee. Three Croatian generals will be tried in 2008 by a UN war crimes tribunal for ethnic cleansing.

Aug 4  The Clinton Administration discloses intelligence information and opposes lifting economic sanctions against Iraq. President Clinton complains that the Hussein regime still kills opponents abroad and has developed vast stocks of germ warfare agents. At the United Nations, US representative Madelaine Albright lists the UN resolutions that Iraq is supposed to comply with in order for sanctions to be lifted.

Aug 9  Jerry Garcia, guitarist for The Grateful Dead, dies from an overdose of heroin.

Aug 28  A Bosnian Serb mortar shell kills 37 people and wounds 90 in a market place in Sarajevo.

Aug 30  The Serb mortar attack has moved people in Europe to support President Clinton's call for an air attack against Serb forces. NATO air strikes against the Bosnian Serbs around Sarajevo begin. Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Colin Powell, is opposed. He is for all out war or no war and has advised that air strikes will probably fail to deter Bosnian Serb aggression. Only troops on the ground, he claims, could do that.

Sep 20  NATO strikes have involved 400 aircraft from 15 nations. The air campaign has ended with Bosnian Serbs agreeing to a settlement.

Sep 23  President Clinton speaks to the nation via radio about the inability of the US to force peace on the warring parties in Bosnia. "Only they themselves can make it [peace]," he says. "That's why I have refused to let American ground troops become combatants in Bosnia."

Oct 3  A jury finds O.J. Simpson not guilty of the murder of his former wife and her friend.

Oct 20  The body of Jacabo Arbenz Guzmán is returned to Guatemala City for burial. He was overthrown <> by the Eisenhower administration in 1954 and driven into exile. He has been dead since 1971. More than 100,000 people gather at the cemetery and chant "Jacabo, Jacabo."

Oct 30  Quebec separatists narrowly lose a referendum for a mandate to negotiate independence from Canada.
Radovan Karadzic, psychiatrist
Radovan Karadzic, psychiatrist, poet, Bosnian
 Serb, wanted for ethnic cleansing.

Ratko Mladic. Chief
Ratko Mladic. Chief of Staff
of the Bosnian Serb Army

Nov 1  Russia, the US and others have applied pressure to bring together the Serbs, Croats and Bosnians to end the war in Bosnia. Negotiations begin in Dayton, Ohio.

Nov 4  In Tel Aviv, Yigal Amir, 25, a religious rightist opposed to peace efforts with the Palestinians, assassinates Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.

Nov 10  Iraq disarmament crisis: With help from Israel and Jordan, UN inspector Ritter intercepts 240 Russian gyroscopes and accelerometers on their way to Iraq from Russia.

Nov 10  In Nigeria, playwright and environmental activist Ken Saro-Wiwa, along with eight others from the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People, are hanged by government forces.

Nov 16  A United Nations tribunal charges Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic with genocide during the Bosnian War.

Nov 21  A peace agreement for Bosnia is reached.

Nov 28  US President Bill Clinton signs the National Highway Designation Act, which ends the federal 55 mph speed limit.

Dec 4  First NATO peacekeeping troops arrive in Sarajevo, including 700 US troops, an international force to number around 60,000.

Dec 14  The Dayton Agreement is signed in Paris, ending three and a half years of war in Bosnia.

Timeline: 1996

Jan 22  Pursuing his Whitewater investigation, Kenneth Starr subpoenas Hillary Clinton to determine whether she intentionally withheld subpoenaed billing records from the Rose Law Firm. This is the first time a wife of a sitting president has been subpoenaed. Shortly before Bill Clinton's election in 1992, the Clintons sold their interest in the Whitewater property in Arkansas to Jim McDougal for $1,000.

Jan 23  In his State of the Union Speech, President Clinton declares that "We have the lowest combined rates of unemployment and inflation in 27 years." He says that "The era of big government is over. But we cannot go back to the time when our citizens were left to fend for themselves."

Jan 29  In France, President Jacques Chirac declares a "definitive end" to France's nuclear testing.

Feb 8  The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is unhappy about its political wing, or party, Sinn Féin, not being included in settlement talks with Britian. A 17-month ceasefire ends with an IRA one-ton bomb explosion in London's Canary Wharf District, killing 2, injuring 39 and collapsing a six-story building.

Feb 13  The Communist Party of Nepal declares a "People's War."

Feb 15  In China, after lift-off, a satellite rocket crashes into a rural village. Deaths will be reported to number 500.

Feb 23  Saddam Hussein's brother-in-law, Hussein Kamel, has been lured back to Iraq from his defection to Jordan, where he cooperated with UN weapons inspectors. Saddam Hussein assured him that all would be forgiven. Kamel, his brother, father, sister and her children are murdered by Saddam's agents.

Mar 9  In Portugal, Jorge Sampaio, an agnostic socialist elected in January, takes office as president.

Mar 13  In Scotland an unemployed shopkeeper, Thomas Hamilton, walks into a grammar (primary) school, kills sixteen students and one teacher and then himself.

Mar 19  The city of Sarajevo is united again when city authorities take control of the last district held by Serbs.

Mar 23  Taiwan holds its first direct elections for president. A native Taiwanese, Lee Teng-hui, wins 54 percent of the vote and remains president.

Apr 3  The Whitewater trial is underway. Special Prosecutor Kenneth Starr has as a witness a former Arkansas judge, who has been sentenced to 28 months in prison and has been promised leniency for testifying against Jim and Susan McDougal, former friends of Bill and Hillary Clinton and the Arkansas governor, Jim Tucker, a democrat.

Apr 3  At a cabin in rural Montana, the FBI arrests the "Unabomber" Theodore Kaczynski. He has killed and injured people to publicize the erosion of human freedom that he claims has resulted from modern technology and large-scale organization.

Apr 10  President Clinton vetoes a bill that would have banned partial-birth abortion.

Apr 18  Amid heavy fighting in Lebanon between Israeli forces and Hezbollah, Israeli shelling kills more than 100 civilians, to be called the Qana Massacre. Israeli, UN and US officials accuse Hezbollah of using civilian refugees as human shields by opening fire from positions near the UN compound.

May 12  The UN has reported that with economic sanctions against Iraq, the deaths of Iraqi children has increased five-fold. Protests against the sanctions have increased. In a 1996 interview with 60 Minutes, UN Ambassador Madeleine Albright accuses Hussein of building 48 presidential palaces since the Gulf War, at a cost of $1.5 billion, and she speaks of Iraq importing goods such as "Italian marble, videos, perfume, leather jackets," rather than food and medicine. She dislikes people being duped by Saddam Hussein and blaming the United States and sanctions.

May 18  The US and Saudi Arabia have pressured Sudan to expel Osama bin Laden. He returns to Afghanistan, with his wives, children and followers.

May 20  Saddam Hussein accepts the UN's offer of food in exchange for his selling oil on the world market, a modification of the economic sanctions in place against Iraq.

May 20  The US Supreme Court rules that the state of Colorado cannot prevent a city, town or county from taking legislative, executive or judicial action to protect the rights of homosexuals.

May 23  Göran Kropp of Sweden reaches the Mount Everest summit alone without bottled oxygen or Sherpa support.

May 27  President Boris Yeltsin negotiates a ceasefire to the war that has been raging between Russians and Chechnyan rebels for seventeen months. A power sharing plan defines Chechnya as a sovereign state within the Russian Federation, giving Chechnya control over its finances and resources.

May 28  In the Whitewater case, David Hale has given false testimony. Jim and Susan McDougal (divorced in 1990) and Governor Tucker are found guilty and face prison terms for defrauding $3 million from two federally-backed financial institutions. Susan McDougal is to describe as false her former husband's testimony associating her with the alleged illegal transaction.

May 31  Israeli voters choose Likkud Party leader, Benjamin Netanyahu, as prime minister - the first time an Israeli prime minister is elected directly by the public rather than by the Knesset (parliament).

Jun 10  Peace talks begin in Northern Ireland without Sinn Féin.

Jun 11  A convoy of Chechen rebel leaders is blasted by remote control bombs while returning from negotiations with the Russians.

Jun 12  In the US, a panel of federal judges blocks a law against indecency on the internet. The panel claims that the law would infringe upon the free speech rights of adults.

Jun 13  In the state of Montana an 81-day long standoff between paramilitary anti-government "Freemen" and a federal government force ends. The group surrenders, foregoing their "oath to God" not to leave their
compound without their demands having been met.

Jun 15  An IRA bomb in a busy shopping area in Manchester, England, injures 200 people.

Jun 25  In Khobar, Saudi Arabia, terrorists explode a bomb aimed at killing foreign military personnel including members of the US Airforce in an eight-story housing complex. Alert security guards save many lives. Nineteen US servicemen and one Saudi are killed and 372 of many nationalities are wounded. The blast is felt 20 miles away. Claiming responsibility is Hezbollah Al-Hijaz (Party of God in the Hijaz).

Jul 3  In Russia, Boris Yeltsin wins 55 percent of the popular vote. His Communist opponent, Gennadi Zyuganov, wins 40 percent. Yeltsin becomes the first democratically elected head of state in Russia's 1,000-year history.

Jul 5
  The first successfully cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep, is born at the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland.

Aug 6  Chechen separatist, Shamil Basayev, leads 1,500 men and boys into the Chechen capital, Grozny, where the Russian army has had control since January, 1995.

Aug 15  The Republican Party nominates Bob Dole as their candidate for president.

Aug 15  Jim McDougal has turned against his former friend Bill Clinton and begins cooperating with Whitewater prosecutors. His sentencing date is delayed. He has told Susan McDougal that she should cooperate with
Kenneth Starr at the expense of the Clintons. "The Clintons," Jim has told her, "have done nothing for us." "If you'll just have sex with Bill Clinton," he tells Susan, "they'll give you anything you want."

Aug 19  At the Whitewater sentencing hearing, Governor Jim Tucker receives a sentence of two years house arrest. Susan McDougal, who had been described in court as only a minor player in the Whitewater criminal transaction, is sentenced to two years in federal prison. She is allowed forty days to get her affairs in order. An FBI agent hands her a subpoena to appear in two weeks before another Whitewater grand jury investigation concerning the Clintons.

Aug 19  Chechen separatists have routed the Russian army from Grozny.

Aug 20  In the US, the Green Party nominates Ralph Nader as its candidate for president. Nader tells the group that corporate America will be the target of his campaign and that he does not expect to win. "What we are doing," he says, "is building for the future."

Aug 22  Russia's General Aleksandr Lebed signs a cease fire agreement with the Chechen separatist leader Ashlan Maskhadov.

Aug 23  Osama bin Laden issues his "Declaration of Jihad" on Americans, what he calls the "Zionist-Crusaders alliance." 

Susan McDougal
Susan McDougal

Aug 28  In Britain, Prince Charles and Princess Diana formally divorce at the High Court of Justice.

Aug 31  Three divisions of Iraqi troops seize the Kurdish town of Arbil (or Irbil) near the border with Turkey, driving out hostile Kurdish troops. They hand it over to those Kurds allied with them: the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP).

Sep 3  In response to the Iraqi army entering a forbidden part of Iraq, the US launches Operation Desert Strike: coordinated cruise missile attacks against Iraqi air defense infrastructure. The operation will last a few weeks.

Sep 4  In Columbia, a guerrilla movement initiated by the Columbian Communist Party is still active. It broke with the Communist Party after becoming involved in the drug trade in the 1980s, but it still calls itself Marxist-Leninist. Its official name is the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. It attacks a military base, starting three weeks of fighting which will kill at least 130.

Sep 9  Susan McDougal goes to jail for contempt of court rather than testify in front of a grand jury. She did not trust Kenneth Starr and was afraid of being falsely convicted of perjury for contradicting someone's testimony. She is to spend the maximum possible sentence for civil contempt: 18 months. Eight months of it will be spent in solitary confinement, and she will be subjected to the annoying prosecutorial tactic of being transferred from jail to jail to jail.

Sep 12  The Taliban take control in Jalalabad. They now control 70 percent of Afghanistan.

Sep 24  At the UN, President Bill Clinton signs the Comprehensive Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty. The treaty bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. It is signed by 71 countries and requires both signatures and ratification by legislatures, in the US by the Senate, presently dominated by Republicans.

Sep 25  In Ireland, the last of the Magdalen Asylums is closed. These were places for women that the Roman Catholic Church considered "fallen."

Sep 27  The Taliban take control of the city of Kabul.

Nov 5  Pakistan's President, Farooq Leghari, removes Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto from office, describing her administration as incompetent, corrupt and defiant of constitutional restraints on executive power. Bhutto's husband, Asif Ali Zardari, has been accused of enriching himself from government contract kickbacks and is reported arrested while trying to flee the country.

Nov 5  President Clinton wins 49 percent of the vote to 41 for Dole and 8 percent for Ross Perot. Ralph Nader is fourth with 0.7 percent. The Prohibition Party candidate receives 1,293 votes. The Democrats gain 8 seats in the House of Representatives, which leaves them in the minority: 228 to 206. The Republicans pick up two seats in the Senate, where they remain the majority party.

Nov 7  New York Senator Alfonse D'Amato has been spearheading a Special Senate Whitewater Committee investigation, which issued a report critical of the Clintons. In New York, President Clinton won 59 percent of the vote, and exit polling indicated only a 34 percent approval rating for D'Amato. D'Amato will be up for re-election in 1998. He announces that he will not revive any Senate probes into the Whitewater affair.

Nov 14  Jeri Laber's "The Making of the Taliban" appears in the New York Review of Books. Laber writes of their orgins as orphans of the 1980s war in Afghanistan, taken to Pakistan and schooled in madrasahs, where they learned a strict interpretation of Sharia law.

Dec 25  Candidates opposed to President Milosevic won elections in 13 Serbian cities in November, but President Milosevic has refused to acknowledge their victory. In response, Belgrade has had large protest demonstrations. Violence erupts as Milosevic supporters are bussed into town from outside Belgrade.

Timeline: 1997

Madeleine Albright
Madeleine Albright

Jan 22  Madeleine Albright becomes the first female US Secretary of State. She has been a close friend of First Lady Hillary Clinton.

Feb 17  Nawaz Sharif, 47, of the Pakistan Muslim League, a conservative member of the wealthy establishment, has won an election with more than 90 percent of the votes, which is questioned by Benazir Bhutto's political party. Sharif becomes prime minister.

Mar 4  President Clinton bars federal funding for research on human cloning.

Mar 6  In Sri Lanka, Tamil Tigers overrun a military base and kill more than 200.

Mar 26  US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright says that even if Iraq complies with its "obligations concerning weapons of mass destruction," sanctions will not be lifted unless Iraq proves its peaceful intentions by "complying with all of the Security Council resolutions to which it is subjected." She says that "the evidence is overwhelming that Saddam Hussein's intentions will never be peaceful."

Apr 4  In Algeria a new constitution has inspired an upsurge in violence by Islamic extremists. In the dark early morning hours they massacre 52 of the 53 inhabitants of the village of Thalit and people in other villages.

Apr 22  In Algeria before dawn, Islamic militants kill 93 in the village Haouch Khemisti.

Apr 22  In Peru, government commandos storm a building, ending a 126-day hostage crisis. They kill all of the hostage takers, members of the Tupac Amaru, and rescue all of the 71 hostages.

Apr 23  In Algeria, Islamic militants kill 42 in the village Omaria. In the 3-hour attack there are mutilations, the burning of bodies and a pregnant women is cut open and her baby hacked apart.

May 12  President Yeltsin and the elected president of Chechnya, Aslan Maskhadov, sign a formal peace treaty.
Maskhodov and an always
Maskhodov and an always earnest
 and red-faced Yeltzin

May 16  In Zaire, the army of the Mobutu Sese Seko is collapsing as the rebel leader, Laurent Kabila, pushes from the eastern part of Zaire to the outskirts of the capital, Kinshasa. Mobuto, in power since 1965, had taken a name that meant "The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, goes from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake." He flees to Morocco. Kabila will replace the name Zaire with the Democratic Republic of Congo.

May 25  A military coup in Sierra Leone replaces President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah with Major Johnny Paul Koromah.

May 27  A lawsuit filed by Paula Jones in 1994, concerning an alleged incident in 1991, has reached the Supreme Court. The justices unanimously allow the lawsuit to proceed in the lower courts.

Jun 10  Mass killers are now killing each other. In his stronghold in northern Cambodia, Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot orders the killing of his defense chief, Son Sen, and eleven of Sen's family members.

Jun 11  The British House of Commons votes for a total ban on handguns.

Jul 1  Britain's 99-year lease on Hong Kong ends. It turns the region over to the People's Republic of China.

Jul 13  From Bolivia, the remains of Che Guevara and some of his comrades are returned for burial in Cuba. 

Princess Diana
Princess Diana

Jul 23  Slobodan Milosevic steps down as Serbia's president because he is allowed only two terms. He becomes Yugoslavia's third president since 1992.

Jul 27  In Algeria, guerrillas kill an estimated 50 people in the Si Zerrouk Massacre.

Aug 3  In Algeria, guerrillas kill from 40 to 76 villagers in the Oued El-Had and Mezouara Massacres.

Aug 20  In Algeria, guerrillas kill more than 60 people and kidnap 15 in the Souhane Massacre.

Aug 29  In Algeria, guerrillas kill more than 98 and possibly 400. It will be called the Rais Massacre.

Aug 31  In Paris, Diana, Princess of Wales, is pronounced dead following a car crash.

Sep 7  Mobuto Sese Seku dies in Morocco. His age was 66. He is reported to have been suffering from prostrate cancer.

Sep 19  In Algeria there is division among the Islamic militants. Islamic militants are said to be responsible for killing 53, mainly women and children, in the village of Guelb El-Kebi to punish the village for supporting rival Islamic militants - the AIG.

Sep 23  At night in Algeria, AIG guerrillas go from house to house for six hours, butchering an estimated 200 people before leaving unmolested.

Oct 12  In Algeria, guerrillas kill an estimated 43 people in the Sidi Daoud Massacre.

Oct 17  The remains of Che Guevara are laid to rest with full military honors in a mausoleum in the city of Santa Clara, Cuba, where he won a decisive battle 39 years before.

Oct 27  Stock markets around the world crash because of a global economic crisis scare. The Dow Jones Industrial Average follows suit and plummets 554.26, or 7.18%.

Oct 29  Iraq is moving to protect what it describes as its national sovereignty. It says it will begin shooting down Lockheed U-2 surveillance planes being used by the UN weapons inspectors.

Nov 11  Mary McAleese, a Roman Catholic born in Belfast, succeeds Mary Robinson as President of Ireland.

Nov 17  In Luxor, Egypt, six Islamic militants kill 62 people outside the Temple of Hatshepsut. Tourism in Egypt is about to decline.

Dec 3  In Ottawa, Canada, representatives from 121 countries sign a treaty prohibiting the manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel land mines. The United States, the People's Republic of China and Russia do not sign the treaty.

Dec 11 Nations meeting in Japan conclude the Kyoto Protocol Agreement, designed to reduce greenhouse gasses that cause climate change. Its strictures are to become effective on February 16, 2005.

Dec 24  In Algeria, guerrillas slaughter from 50 to 100 people in the village of Sid El-Antri.

Dec 30  In Algeria, guerrillas kill an estimated 400 people in four villages, to be known as the Wilaya of Relizane Massacres.

Timeline: 1998
Jan 1  Smoking is banned in all California bars and restaurants.

Jan 2  In Pakistan, the government of Nawaz Sharif files corruption charges against former prime minister Benazir Bhutto and her husband, Asif Ali Zardari.

Jan 11 In Algeria, more than 100 people die in the Sidi-Hamed Massacre. Thirty girls are reported kidnapped.

Jan 12  Nineteen European nations forbid human cloning.

Jan 16  Lawyers for Paula Jones want evidence of President Clinton's sexual misconduct with women other than their client. A Pentagon employee, Linda Tripp, meets with them. She has recorded telephone conversations between her and Monica S. Lewinsky telling of a sexual relationship between Lewinsky and Clinton while she worked as an intern at the White House.

Jan 16  Linda Tripp gives a taped statement to the Independent Council, Kenneth Starr. Starr contacts Attorney General Janet Reno and receives permission to broaden his investigation of President Clinton. He is interested in the possibility of Clinton having persuaded someone to commit perjury in the Jones case.

Jan 17  President Clinton gives a deposition in the Paula Jones lawsuit. He denies having had a sexual relationship with Lewinsky. An "internet journalist," Matt Drudge, reports the Lewinsky affair.

Jan 21  The Washington Post reports the Lewinsky affair.

Jan 23  President Clinton assures his Cabinet of his innocence. Betty Currie and other aides are subpoenaed to appear before a federal grand jury.

Jan 26  At a White House press conference, President Clinton says "I'm going to say this again: I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky."

Jan 27  Hillary Clinton appears on the Today Show and describes attacks against her husband as part of a "vast right-wing conspiracy."

Jan 29  The judge in the Paula Jones lawsuit rules that Monica Lewinsky is "not essential to the core issues" of the Jones case, and has ordered that all evidence related to Lewinsky be excluded from the Jones proceedings.

Jan 29  In Birmingham, Alabama, a bomb explodes at an abortion clinic, killing one and severely wounding another. Eric Rudolph is the suspect.

Feb 18  The Clinton administration is known to be planning a military strike to punish Iraq for violations of its peace agreements. At a Town Hall Meeting at Ohio State University, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, Defense Secretary William Cohen and National Security Adviser Sandy Berger are surprised by a prolonged hostile disruption that includes the chant "we don't want your racist war."

Feb 20  To prevent military action by the United States and Britain, President Saddam Hussein of Iraq negotiates an agreement deal with U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan. Weapons inspectors will be allowed to return to Baghdad.

Feb 23  Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa, declaring jihad against all Jews and Crusaders.

Feb 23  US diplomat Robert Gelbard describes the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) "without any question a terrorist group."

Mar 5-7  In Kosovo, Serb security forces have begun moving against so-called terrorists and massacre over 50 members of the Jashari family in the village of Prekaz. In the city of Prestina, ethnic Albanians (Kosovars) begin large protests.

Mar 7  Madeleine Albright declares "We are not going to stand by and watch the Serbian authorities do in Kosovo what they can no longer get away with doing in Bosnia."

Apr 10  Britain, Ireland and most of Northern Ireland political parties agree that the constitutional future of Northern Ireland should be determined by the majority vote of its citizens - known as the Belfast Agreement.

Mar 13  Arguing against the dismissal, Jones's attorneys file 700 pages of documents alleging that Clinton made advances toward several women and took part in a "vast enterprise to suppress evidence."

Apr 16  A federal district judge dismisses the lawsuit of Paula Jones. Jones announces that she will appeal and says: "I believe what Mr. Clinton did to me was wrong."

May 13 India announces completion of tests of five nuclear devices in the past three days.

May 14  In Indonesia, riots erupt against ethnic Chinese.

May 15  UN weapons inspectors learn that an Iraqi delegation has traveled to Bucharest to meet with scientists who can provide the country with missile guidance systems.

May 21  In Miami, five abortion clinics are attacked with butyric acid.

May 28  Pakistan tests nuclear devices, and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif declares Pakistan a ''nuclear power." This makes Pakistan the seventh nation reported to have nuclear weapons.

May 29  Dr. Ibrahim Rugova, Kosovars Albanian president and a professor of philosophy, meets with President Clinton, seeking support for the well being of Kosovo's ethnic Albanians.

May 31 In Kosovo, Serbs kill as many as 20 ethnic Albanians in retaliation for the death of a Serb policeman near Glogovac.
Jul 5  Japan launches a probe to Mars, joining the United States and Russia as an outer space-exploring nation.

Jul 10  The Diocese of Dallas agrees to pay $23.4 million to nine former altar boys who claim they were sexually abused by a former priest, Rudolph Kos.

Jul 17  At a conference in Rome, 120 countries vote to create a permanent International Criminal Court to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.

Jul 17  In Saint Petersburg, Russia, Nicholas II and his family are buried in St. Catherine Chapel.

Jul 28  Lawyers for Monica Lewinsky work out a full immunity agreement with Kenneth Starr.

Aug 5  Iraq suspends all cooperation with UN weapons inspectors.

Aug 7  US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya are bombed, killing 224 and injuring more than 4,500.

Aug 17  At the White House, President Clinton makes a statement on tape for a grand jury. He follows this with an admission to television cameras that he had "a relationship with Miss Lewinsky that was not appropriate. In fact, it was wrong. It constituted a critical lapse in judgment and a personal failure on my part for which I am solely and completely responsible. But I told the grand jury today and I say to you now that at no time did I ask anyone to lie, to hide or destroy evidence or to take any other unlawful action."

Aug 20  The US embassy bombings will soon be linked to Osama Bin Laden. The United States military launches cruise missile attacks against alleged al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical plant in Sudan in retaliation for the August 7 bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. The al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum is destroyed in the attack.

Aug 21  From Khartoum, denials are made concerning chemical weapons production at the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory.

Aug 21  The missile strikes of August 20 was a team effort that included pentagon and intelligent community strategists. But people are describing the missile strikes as motivated by President Clinton's desire to draw attention away from his scandal. They are inspired by a movie called "Wag the Dog" that happens to be playing at theaters. Jim Gibbons, Republican congressman from Nevada, is among them. He says, "Look at the movie 'Wag the Dog.' I think this has all the elements of that movie." (Quoted in the Ottawa Citizen.)

Aug 26  Scott Ritter resigns from the UN weapons inspection team. He criticizes the Clinton administration and the U.N. Security Council for not being vigorous enough about insisting that Iraq's weapons of mass destruction be destroyed.

Aug 31  North Korea reports that its first satellite has reached orbit, but evidence of it is not forthcoming.

Sep 2  A United Nations court finds Jean-Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of 9 counts of genocide. It is the first time that the law against genocide has been enforced.

Sep 7  Two Stanford University Ph.D. candidates, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, establish a company called Google.

Sep 9  Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr submits his report and 18 boxes of supporting documents to the US House of Representatives.

Sep 23  The UN Security Council, concerned about what they consider to be an excessive use of force by Serb forces in Kosovo and ethnic Albanian refugees, approves Resolution 1199, which condemns violence by both sides in the conflict and demands a cease-fire and negotiations.

Sep 26  More than a dozen Serb police are killed in fighting with the KLA, followed by Serb security forces killing 35 villagers, to be known as the Gornje Obrinje Massacre.

Oct 5  UN Secretary General Kofi Annan reports Serb (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) violations of Resolution 1199.

Oct 13  NATO has authorized air strikes against the Serbs in response to events in Kosovo. After more than a week of negotiations, US diplomat Richard Holbrooke secures the "October Agreement." It calls for Serbian compliance with UN Resolution 1199, a cease-fire, Serb troop withdrawals from Kosovo, elections in Kosovo, and some autonomy for Kosovo. President Milosevic agrees and the air strikes are called off.

Nov 4  The forced busing of students for the purpose of racial desegregation has been widely opposed across the nation since it began in the 1970s and 80s. Today in Seattle - known for its tolerance regarding race - the School Board ends race-based busing of students in middle and high schools as of the 1999-2000 school year. The School Board considers mandatory busing a failure. It didn't improve the academic performance of minorities who shouldered a disproportionate burden of busing. Parental involvement in cross-town schools did not increase and the financial costs of the program also hurt the district. Across the nation, forced busing inspired a rise in private schools and increased support for the conservative political position against too much government.

Nov 9  Britain abolishes the death penalty.

Nov 12  A member of the Clinton administration signs the Kyoto Protocol at the United Nations. India and China have not signed. The Clinton administration is aware of the difficulties in getting Senate ratification, and it says it will not ask for Senate ratification until "developing countries" agree to participate.

Nov 13  President Clinton gives Paula Jones the entire amount of her claim in exchange for her agreement to drop her case. The amount is $850,000. All but $151,000 of it will go to pay her legal expenses.

Nov 19  Armed with Kenneth Starr's papers, the US House of Representatives Judiciary Committee, led by Republicans, begins impeachment hearings against President Clinton.

Dec 8-9  In Algeria, guerrillas slaughter 81 in a manner that indicates extraordinary sadism, to be known as the Tadjena Massacre.

Dec 17  The US and Britain begin four days of limited air strikes against Iraq.

Dec 19  In a vote largely along party lines, the US House of Representatives impeaches President Clinton on charges of lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice. The case moves to a trial in the Senate.

Dec 21  In the UN Security Council, France, Germany and Russia call for the end of sanctions against Iraq and call for UN inspectors to be disbanded or their role to be recast. The US says it will veto any such proposal.

Dec 26  Iraq announces its intention to fire upon US and British warplanes that patrol the northern and southern "no-fly zones."

Timeline: 1999
Jan 15  In the village of Racak, in Kosovo, Serbs murder 45 unarmed ethnic Albanians.     Nemanja Jovanovic writes in July 2014: "Those Albanians weren't unarmed. They were militia without uniforms."  He gives explanation for his claim.

Jan 20  In China, government restrictions are applied on internet use, aimed especially at Internet cafes.

Feb 2  Hugo Chávez becomes President of Venezuela.

Feb 7  King Hussein of Jordan dies from cancer. His son, Abdullah II, inherits the throne.

Feb 15  In Kenya, the Turkish National Intelligence Agency, with assistance from US diplomacy and the CIA, capture the Kurdish rebel leader, Abdullah Ocalan.

Feb 16  Across Europe and in Australia, Kurds protesting the capture of Abullah Ocalan seize consulates, take hostages, set fires, fight police and threaten suicide, to no avail. Ocalan will remain in Turkish custody.

Feb 22  In Iraq, a moderate Shia, the Grand Ayatolah Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr and two of his sons are assassinated. An area in Baghdad will be named for him, and one of his sons, Muqtada al-Sadr, will replace him as a Shia leader.

Feb 23  White supremacist John William King is found guilty of kidnapping and killing African-American James Byrd Jr. by dragging him behind a truck for three kilometers.

Mar 12  Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic join NATO.

Mar 20  The violence in Kosovo has continued, and peace talks in France have collapsed. The President of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milosevic, launches a Serb offensive in Kosovo.

Mar 24-31  In Kosovo, Serb police knock on doors and tell people they must leave, to go where they want but just get out. Homes are set afire. A mass exodus of ethnic Albanians (Kosovars) begins, to be described as ethnic cleansing on a massive scale. In the coming week the long line of Kosovars will be attacked by thieves and rapists. Groups of Kosovars will be moving surreptitiously across mountain paths.

Mar 24  NATO launches air strikes against Yugoslavia (basically Serbia and its capital, Belgrade). It is the first time NATO has attacked a sovereign country.

Mar 25  Writes William Safire of the New York Times: "Senators Lugar and McCain have expressed reluctance to see us lurch into a combat commitment with no end in sight. He adds: "Henry Kissinger exhibits 'great unease' at NATO's decision to intervene."

Mar 26  A Michigan jury finds Dr. Jack Kevorkian guilty of second-degree murder for administering a lethal injection to a terminally ill man.

Mar 29  In the US, for the first time the Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 10,000 mark, at 10,006.78.

Apr 5  Two Libyans suspected of bringing down Pan Am flight 103 in 1988 are handed over to Scottish authorities for eventual trial in the Netherlands. The United Nations suspends sanctions against Libya.

Apr 9  In Niger, Col. Ibrahim Baré Maînassara, who took power through force and fraud in 1996, is assassinated. A military coup led by Maj. Daouda Malam Wanké establishes a transitional National Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution for a Fifth Republic.

Apr 27  In Algeria, President Liamine Zeroual, who has been opposed to participation in elections by parties that are Islamist, has been pressured by the army high command to step down. In new presidential elections, six of the seven candidates have withdrawn, alleging fraud. The candidate backed by the army, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, is elected with 74 percent of the votes. He is to be president at least into March 2008.

Apr 30  In London, David Copeland explodes his third nail bomb this month, aimed at ethnic minorities and gays. It kills three and wounds seventy.

May 3  The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 11,000 for the first time, at 11,014.70.

May 7  In Belgrade, three Chinese embassy workers are killed and 20 wounded when a NATO aircraft mistakenly bombs the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. In China claims will be made that it was intentional.

May 9  The Kargil war has begun as fewer than one thousand infiltrators from Pakistan move into India-ruled Kashmir territory.

May 24  From California to New York, small, but growing numbers of protesters are calling for an end to the bombing of Yugoslavia.
May 29  Cathy O'Dowd, a South African mountaineer, becomes the first woman to summit Mount Everest from both the north and south sides.

May 29  Nigeria terminates military rule, and the Nigerian Fourth Republic is established with Olusegun Obasanjo as president.

Jun 2  After decades of resistance, the King of Bhutan allows television transmissions to commence, coinciding with the King's Silver Jubilee (see Bhutan Broadcasting Service).

Jun 5  In Algeria, members of the Islamic Salvation Front had been denied an election victory in 1991. Its leaders had been jailed, and in 1993 its members took to the hills and joined guerrillas groups. Today the armed wing of the Islamic Salvation Front changes course. It agrees in principle to disband.

Jun 10  President Milosovic is convinced that Russia, despite its anti-NATO rhetoric, is not going to intervene to defend Serbia. He accepts conditions offered by a Finnish-Russian mediation team: a military presence in Kosovo headed by the UN, but incorporating NATO troops. NATO suspends air strikes.

Jun 31  In Illinois a white supremacist leader, Matthew Hale, 27, is denied a license to practice law.

Jul 2  In Illinois, Benjamin Nathaniel Smith, 21, a follower of Matthew Hale, begins a three-day killing spree, wounding six orthodox Jews in a drive by shooting and killing an African American former basketball coach as he is walking with his children.

Jul 4  In Bloomington Indiana, Smith kills a 26-year-old Korean doctoral student who is on his way to the Korean United Methodist Church. Following a highspeed chase with police Smith kills himself.

Jul 1-31  In Algeria the government begins releasing from prison Islamic militants not charged with murder.

Jul 11  India forces a retreat of Pakistani Army forces from Kargil and claims victory in that two-month conflict.

Aug 7  Since the peace agreement of 1997, Chechnya has remained economically devastated and suffering from lawlessness. The Islamic militant group, the Islamic International Brigrade, has arisen. They invade neighboring Dagestan, like Chenchnya a republic within the Russian Federation, to support those fighting for independence.

Aug 9  In Russia, President Yeltsin appoints Vladimir Putin prime minister.

Sep 16  In the past eight days apartment buildings have been bombed in major Russian cities, including Moscow. Almost 300 people have been killed.

Sep 23  In the Russian city of Ryazan, a bomb planted in an apartment building is found and defused. Chechens are blamed for the bombings. Yeltsin orders aircraft to bomb the capital of Chechnya: Grozny. The Second Chechen War begins.

Oct 1  Switzerland becomes the 47th nation to have signed and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty - which bans nuclear explosions in all environments for military or civilian purposes. China, Russia, Israel and the US have signed but not yet ratified the treaty. India and Pakistan have not signed.

Oct 4  Bolivia becomes the 48th nation to ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Oct 5  Mexico and Romania become the 49th and 50th nations to ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Oct 12  According to the United Nations, world population reaches six billion - up from four billion in 1974 and three billion in 1959.

Oct 12  Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif attempts to dismiss Army Chief General Pervez Musharraf. Senior Army generals refuse to accept the dismissal. Musharraf, who was in Sri Lanka, attempts to return in a commercial airliner. Sharif orders the Karachi airport to not allow the plane to land. The army takes over the airport. The plane lands and Musharraf takes control of the government. Sharif is no longer prime minister.

Oct 13  US Senate Republicans defeat ratification of the 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the first time an arms control treaty has been rejected by the Senate. Senator John Warner, chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, said the treaty would be gambling with the nation's nuclear deterrent capability.

Oct 31  The Roman Catholic Church and Lutherans sign the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, ending a doctrinal dispute over the nature of faith and salvation that arose during the split between Catholicism and Protestantism.

Nov 6  Australians vote to keep the monarch, presently Queen Elizabeth II, as their head of state.

Nov 12  In the US, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley act, also known as the Financial Services Modernization Act, overturns the 1933 Glass-Steagall banking act of 1933. It is deregulation signed into law by President Clinton. The Glass-Steagall Act prohibited a finance institution from acting as more than one kind of finance institution: investment bank, commercial bank or insurance company. Look back on today, some will claim that the new law laid the path to the banking crisis that unfolds in 2007.

Nov 20  The People's Republic of China launches the first spacecraft, Shenzhou One.

Nov 22  In Algeria, a moderate leader of the Islamic Salvation Front, Abdelkader Hachani, is assassinated in the waiting room of a dental clinic. This reduces President Bouteflika's hopes for national reconciliation.

Nov 25  Fishermen rescue a five-year-old boy clinging to an inner-tube three miles off the coast of Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He is Elián Gonzalez. His mother and eleven others fleeing Cuba had drowned.

Nov 28   Elián Gonzales has been released into the custody of an uncle in Miami. Elián's father, in Cuba, wants custody of his son and files a complaint with the United Nations.

November  Jesse Ventura, Govenor of Minnesota, in an interview in this month's issue of Playboy magazine, says, "Organized religion is a sham and a crutch for weak-minded people who need strength in numbers. It tells people to go out and stick their noses in other people's business."

Dec 7  President Clinton says that Russia will pay a heavy price for its military offensive in Chechnya.

Dec 9  Russia's president, Boris Yeltsin, is in Beijing, where he has won support for his renewed war against Chechens. He says, "Yesterday, Clinton permitted himself to put pressure on Russia. It seems he has for a minute, for a second, for half a minute, forgotten that Russia has a full arsenal of nuclear weapons. He has forgotten about that."

Dec 10  Relatives in Miami defy the wishes of Elián's father and send lawyers to request political asylum for Elián.

Dec 14  An Algerian, Ahmed Ressam, enters Washington state from Canada. Federal customs agents find explosives in the trunk of his car. He is arrested. It will be learned that he was planning to bomb Los Angeles International Airport on New Year's Eve, and nervous officials will cancel the New Year's celebration for Seattle.

Dec 20  Portugal turns over its colony Macau to the People's Republic of China.

Dec 22  In elections promised by the leaders of a military coup in May, the winner, a former army colonel, Mamadou Tandja, takes office as president. He will remain in office as of this writing in 2008.

Dec 29  In his home in England, former Beatle George Harrison is stabbed several times in the chest by an intruder who believes he is on a mission from God. Harrison survives but from now on will rarely be seen in public.

Dec 31  The US turns over complete administration of the Panama Canal to Panama, as stipulated in the 1977 Torrijos-Carter Treaty.

Dec 31  Yeltsin announces that he is resigning as Russia's president. This leaves leaves Vladimir Putin as "acting president."

Timeline: 2000

Jan 1  Millennium celebrations take place throughout the world while others believe the new millennium begins on January 1, 2001, or January 14 in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. And, of course, there is the Chinese New Year.

Jan 14  The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 11,722.98, its peak until late 2006.

Jan 23  Two grandmothers of Elián Gonzales arrive in the US from Cuba to seek Elian's return to Cuba. They meet with Attorney General Janet Reno, and Reno agrees that Elian belongs with his father.

Jan 28  Spain's Foreign Minister Abel Matutes calls for Elian's return to Cuba, stating that international law dictates the return.

Jan 31  Elián's grandmothers return to Cuba and are greeted as heroines.

Feb 16  Turkey ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban treaty.

Feb 28 The second satellite service, Globalstar, began commercial service on Monday, February 28, 2000.

Mar 2  Hans Blix assumes the position of Executive Chairman of the new UN weapons inspection organization, UNMOVIC.

Mar 10  In the US the NASDAQ stock exchange composite Index reaches an all-time high of 5,048. It is the peak of the "" bubble. In 2001 the NASDAQ will bottom at a little over 1000.

Mar 21  A US federal judge dismisses a petition for asylum for Elián by Elián's relatives living in the United States.
Vice President Al Gore
Vice President Al Gore.

A federal agent finds Elian 
A federal agent finds Elian held in a closet.
Stepmother, stepbrother, Elián
Stepmother, stepbrother, Elián and father.

Mar 21  The US Supreme Court rules that the government lacks authority to regulate tobacco as an addictive drug, throwing out the Clinton administration's main anti-smoking initiative.

Mar 26  In Russia, Vladimir Putin is elected President.

Mar 30  Vice President Al Gore says he supports legislation that would allow Elian to remain in the US while a lawsuit is resolved in family court. Some are disgusted by what appears to be pandering in anticipation of November's presidential election.

Apr 6  Having received US State Department approval for a visa, Elián's father, Juan Miguel Gonzalez, and other close relatives arrive in the US hoping to return to Cuba with his son.

Apr 7  Attorney General Janet Reno meets with Elian's father and tells him that US officials will give him his son.

Apr 12  Attorney General Reno meets with Elian's relatives in Miami and orders them to surrender Elián to his father.

Apr 14  A video is released of a coached Elian saying that he wants to stay in the United States. Years later Elián is to describe his Miami relatives as "telling me bad things" about my father.

Apr 17  Morocco ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Apr 21  Crowds have been surrounding the home where Elián lives with his uncle. Elián's relatives have refused to allow Elián to be reunited with his father. Some describe the conflict over Elian as between totalitarianism and freedom. One says that Elian must be kept free otherwise it would be a slap in the face of the Founding Fathers.

Apr 22  In a predawn raid, armed US federal agents seize Elián and a few hours later unite him with his father.

Apr 23  In the US, vociferous denunciations of President Clinton erupt, describing his administration as using Gestapo tactics.

Apr 25  The State of Vermont legalizes civil unions for same-sex couples.

Apr 28  Richard Baumhammers begins a two hour racially-motivated shooting spree in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, leaving five dead and one paralyzed.

May 7  Vladimir Putin takes office as President of the Russian Federation.

May 12  Pakistan's supreme court orders General Musharraf, officially the prime minister since taking power last year, to hold elections by October 2002.

June 13  Kim Dae Jung becomes the first South Korean president to journey to North Korea.

June 21  A law preventing the promotion of homosexuality is repealed by Scotland's parliament.

June 28  Elián Gonzalez returns to Cuba with his father, stepmother and half brother to a jubilant reception.

Jun 26  Iceland and Portugal ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Jun 30  Russia ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The US Senate is not ready to ratify.

Jul 2  Vicente Fox is elected President of Mexico, ending 71 years of rule by the PRI (Partito Revolucionario Institucional).

Jul 25  At Camp David for two weeks as guests of President Clinton, Israel's Prime Minister Ehud Barak and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat bargain. Barak offers the Palestinians control of 95 percent of the West Bank, the removal of 40,000 Jewish settlers. He is adamant about Jerusalem remaining Israel's capital and holding on to at least 20 percent of East Jerusalem. Arafat wants, but does not get, all of the West Bank and all of East Jerusalem and Palestinian refugees to be able to return to live in what is now Israel. Arafat walks away from the agreement. He mentions being killed by his constituents if he had agreed.

Jul 30  In Venezuela, Hugo Chávez is re-elected president with 59 percent of the vote.

Governor George W. Bush
Governor George W. Bush.

Aug 3  The Republican National Convention nominates George W. Bush for president and Dick Cheney for vice president. He says "Together we will renew America's purpose." Speaking of tax policy he says, "The surplus is not the government's money. The surplus is the people's money."

Aug 10  President Chávez visits Iraq. Iraqi media hails the visit as a breakthrough that weakens Iraq's isolation.

Aug 17  The Democratic National Convention nominates Al Gore for president and Joe Lieberman for vice president. Al Gore: "Let's invest in health care, education, a secure retirement and middle-class tax cuts." I'm happy that the stock market has boomed and so many businesses and new enterprises have done well. "

Sep 8  Albania joins the World Trade Organization.

Sep 13  The Los Angeles Times describes presidential candidate George Bush as promising to proceed with caution before getting the US involved beyond its borders.

Sep13  Belarus ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Sep 18  United Arab Emerats ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Presidential candidate Al Gore is supporting the ratification of the treaty. Candidate George Bush is not.

Sep 28  In Jerusalem, Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount protected by a several-hundred-strong Israeli police force. As Sharon and his party leave, Palestinians throw stones. Israeli soldiers go to the defense of those being stoned. More than thirty people are injured, mostly Israeli soldiers.

Sep 29  The violence escalates between Palestinian stone throwers and Israeli police protecting Israeli worshippers at the Western Wall.

Sep 30  During a confrontation between Israeli soldiers and Palestinians firing rifles, a father and his 12 year-old son are trapped in the crossfire. The two are hit by bullets and the boy dies, captured by a French cameraman, to be broadcast worldwide. The Second Intafada, called the Al-Aqsa Intifada, has begun.

Oct 5  In Serbia, Slobodan Milosevic has failed to recognize the results of the first round of an election cycle. Massive protests have risen against him. Military leaders fail to back Milosevic, allowing a coup against him. Milosevic is forced from his office as President of Macedonia.

Oct 10  President Clinton signs a bill extending normal trade status to China. He says it will "extend our nation's unprecedented economic growth ... [and] reaffirm our own global leadership for peace and prosperity." The bill has been opposed by labor, human rights and conservative groups.

Nov 7  In US presidential elections, Al Gore wins the popular vote but the vote is close in Florida, where a win by Bush will give him the electoral votes he needs to win.

Nov 8  In the vote counting in Florida, Bush's margin of victory has dwindled to about 500 votes, narrow enough to trigger a mandatory recount.

Dec 10  The Saudi royal family spares Pakistan's former prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, from going to prison. Instead Sharif is exiled to Saudi Arabia.

Dec 11  The Florida Supreme Court rules in favor of a recount of ballots.

Dec 12  The US Supreme court rules 7-2 supporting a Republican challenge that Florida Supreme Court's scheme for recounting ballots is unconstitutional, and the Supreme Court rules 5-4 to end the Florida recount.
George Bush becomes the official winner in Florida and the nation.

Dec 31  Political violence in Algeria through the year is reported has having killed 2,500 civilians and 480 soldiers and guards.

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