20 10 th. Decade
Jan 12 The UN has authorized its
members to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait if those forces are still
there after January 15. The US president, George Herbert Walker Bush
has worked to be a part of a broad coalition of nations and seeks
congressional approval to use military force "against Iraq pursuant to
United Nations Security Council Resolution 678." In the House of
Representatives, Democrats vote no 179 to 86. In the Senate, the
Democrats vote no 45 to 10. An overwhelming vote yes by Republicans
makes passage possible.
Jan 13 The Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev has sent Soviet
troops against Lithuanian efforts at independence. The troops assault
the Vilnius TV tower and kill 14 unarmed civilians. The pro-Soviet
National Salvation Committee in Lithuania accuses Lithuanian
nationalists of preparing to "unleash direct military actions" and
"pogroms" against pro-Moscow Russians and other residents.
Jan 15 The United Nations' deadline for the withdrawal of
Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the
start of Operation Desert Storm.
Jan 16-17 In Baghdad, the night quiet is broken by dogs
barking. Then comes continuous fireworks created by airstrikes,
broadcast without commercial interruptions on CNN.
Jan 17 Iraq fires 8 Scud missiles into Israel, breaking
glass, injuring seven people and scaring many more.
Feb 18 The Provisional Irish Republican Army explodes bombs
at Paddington station and Victoria station in London, killing one man
and wounding forty.
Feb 23 In Thailand the prime minister and formal general,
Chatichai Choonhavan, has allowed one faction of the military to get
rich on government contracts. A rival military faction overthrows the
prime minister in a bloodless coup.
Feb 24 Ground forces begin their move out of Saudi Arabia
against Iraq's occupation of Kuwait.
Feb 25 An Iraqi Scud missile hits an American military
barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killing 29 and injuring 99 US
soldiers. In Kuwait, Iraqis are setting fire to oil facilities.
Feb 26 Iraq's frontline troops are melting away and
surrendering in droves. Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of
Iraqi troops from Kuwait.
Feb 27 A column of tanks, armored vehicles, trucks and looted
cars driving north into Iraq is attacked by air. Every vehicle is
destroyed and no one is seen as having survived.
Feb 28 President Bush is moved by the sight of the "Highway
of Death." He asks his military advisor, General Colin Powell, "Why not
end it now?" Powell, Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney and the US
commander in Iraq, General Schwarzkopf, agree that it is time to end
the fighting. Hussein's elite Republican Guards are fleeing from the
south northward toward Baghdad.
Mar 3 Iraq accepts UN conditions for a permanent cease fire.
Allied military commanders and Iraqi military commanders meet at a
captured Iraqi airbase, at Safwan, to arrange terms of a formal
cease-fire. General Schwarzkopf assures the Iraqis that the boundary on
his map marking the area occupied by his coalition forces is temporary.
The Iraqis claim they need their helicopters to transport wounded
soldiers and other tasks and ask if they could fly armed helicopters
across that line. Schwarzkopf says yes. Later he is to say that he had
Mar 6 Regarding reports of rebellions against the Hussein
regime, US State Department spokesman Richard Boucher says: "We don't
think that outside powers should be interfering in the internal affairs
Mar 6 An exultant President Bush tells a cheering joint session of
Congress that "aggression is defeated. The war is over."
Mar 15 Four Los Angeles police officers are indicted for the
videotaped March 3 beating of motorist Rodney King during an arrest.
Mar 16 A speech by Saddam Hussein is broadcast in which he
promises to allow multi-party democracy.
Mar 16 Hussein is crushing a rebellion in southern Iraq,
using helicopter gunships and troops in areas occupied by US soldiers.
Mar 19 Iran radio reports that the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
(not to be confused with Khomeini) believes that the Hussein Government
cannot endure for long "because of the arms that have fallen into the
hands of the people."
Mar 20 An Iranian press agency reports that Kurdish rebels
say they now control the city of Kirkuk, a major oil production center
and Iraq's fourth-largest city.
Mar 29 Lee Atwater dies of a brain tumor at the age of 40. In
1988 he led the campaign that won the presidency for George H. W. Bush.
Wikipedia would write that Atwater was criticized for his "unethical
and dirty tricks" but was "widely regarded as a brilliant political
operative who delivered victory for his candidates." It would be said
on PBS's Frontline that had he continued operating for Bush, Bill
Clinton would not have won the presidency in 1992.
Mar 31 Albania has its first multi-party elections for seats
in parliament. Communists hold on to 160 of the 250 seats, but the head
of the Communist Party, Ramiz Alia, loses in his parliamentary district
to a young geologist representing the newly formed Democratic Party.
Apr 2 In the UN Security Council, France fails to persuade
members to adopt a resolution to provide protection for the Kurds.
China, the Soviet Union and the United States are opposed, claiming
that it would create a precedent for involvement in a sovereign
country's internal matters.
Apr 3 A month long rebellion against Saddam Hussein by Kurds
is coming to an end as Kurdish rebels flee to their mountains. A Baath
Party newspaper claims that the rebellion will be "stamped out within
Apr 5 Saddam Hussein's regime announces "the complete
crushing of acts of sedition, sabotage, and rioting in all towns of
Iraq." Thousands of civilians are reported to have been killed.
Hussein's security forces are applying a fear strategy for control.
They have been arriving in the wake of armored assaults and executing
people at random and rounding up thousands of others.
Apr 10 The Bush administration demands that Iraq cease all
military activity north of the 36th parallel - a line south of Mosul
but excluding the oil area of Kirkuk. It warns Iraq that it will use
force if there is military interference in international relief efforts
for the Kurds.
Apr 17 Armed forces of the United States and other countries
move into northern Iraq, declaring that they will coordinate relief
supplies and set up camps to secure the safety of Kurdish refugees.
Apr 18 Iraq declares some of its chemical weapons and
materials to the UN, as required by Resolution 687. Iraq claims that it
does not have a biological weapons program.
May 14 Jiang Qing, or Madam Mao, 77, has been released from
prison because of her throat cancer. She commits suicide by hanging
herself in the bathroom of a hospital.
May 21 Rajiv Gandhi (46), grandson of Nehru and son of Indira
Gandhi, former prime minister, is assassinated while campaigning as the
Congress Party leader during parliamentary elections. His assassin is a
female suicide bomber for Sri Lanka's Tamils (who are 90 percent
Hindu). The attack is believed to have been revenge for his having
ordered Indian troops to intervene in Sri Lanka's civil war.
May 25 An article in the New York Times describes Iran's
government as supplying Shiite rebels and Kurdish dissidents in Iraq
with more weapons, supplies and moral support.
May 29 In Nepal, the first elections in thirty years were
held earlier in the month - long opposed by the country's landed and
feudal elite. The Nepali Congress party has won bare majority. Various
Communist parties make a strong showing. A Nepali Congress Party
government is installed with G.P. Koirala as prime minister.
Jun 12 In the Republic of Russia - still a part of the Soviet
Union - Boris Yeltsin wins 57 percent of the vote for president,
defeating a candidate preferred by the Soviet Union's president,
Jun 17 In South Africa, President de Klerk is still
negotiating with Nelson Mandela's African National Congress. The South
African Parliament repeals the Population Registration Act, which has
required racial classification of all South Africans at birth. The
repeal convinces numerous countries to end their boycott against South
Jun 25 With the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and
dissatisfaction with the Serb majority domination, Croatia and Slovenia
declare their independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of
Jun 26 Yugoslavia's government does not recognize Croatian and
Slovenian independence. Units of Yugoslavia's federal troops fail to
dislodge Slovenian militias occupying border posts.
Jun 28 Iraq soldiers fire warning shots at a U.N. inspection
team attempting to intercept Iraqi vehicles they believe might be
carrying nuclear related equipment.
Jun 30 The Yugoslav Army issues an ultimatum to Slovenia,
saying it will take "decisive military action" unless Slovenia gives up
control of its border.
Jul 1 At a meeting in Praque, Warsaw Pact representatives
dissolve the organization.
Jul 6 Croatia has a large ethnic minority, Serbs, eleven
percent of Croatia's population, and they have been rebelling against
the idea of Croatian independence. Yugoslav army tanks and troops
deploy in Croatia, ostensibly to keep peace between Croats and Serbs,
but violence between Croats and Serbs continues, while Croatia's
government agrees to postpone independence.
Aug 1 Croatia has drawn up a peace plan offering its Serb
minority key concessions, including home rule and control over local
police. Some Serbs in Croatia will reject the offer, wanting instead
their neighborhoods unified with a greater Serbia.
Aug 3 Croatia's military has suffered another defeat, with
reports today that as many as 80 police officers and national guardsmen
were killed in an unsuccessful attempt to hold three strategic towns in
Aug 19 In the Soviet Union a coup attempt begins with
President Gorbachev put under house arrest.
Aug 20 Estonia declares independence from the Soviet Union.
Aug 21 Latvia declares independence from the Soviet Union.
Aug 23 In Moscow, Yeltsin has called for a general strike to
resist the coup against Gorbachev. Huge crowds and some tank commanders
support Yeltsin. The coup collapses.
Aug 24 President Gorbachev resigns as General Secretary of
the Communist Party.
Aug 24 Ukraine proclaims independence from the Soviet Union.
Aug 25 Belarus declares independence.
Aug 27 Moldova declares independence.
Aug 27 The Supreme Soviet suspends all Communist Party
Aug 31 Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan declare independence.
Sep 1 Serbians have an Eastern Orthodox religious heritage
and a history of victimhood at the hands of Muslims and Roman
Catholics. In Yugoslavia, President Milosevic of Serbia, the largest
republic in Yugoslavia, announces that Serbs are surrounded by enemies.
To thunderous applause he says, "If we must fight, then my God we will
fight, and I hope they will not be so crazy as to fight against us.
Because if we don't know how to work well or to do business, at least
we know how to fight well."
Sep 6 The Soviet Union recognizes the independence of the
Baltic States. The city that since 1924 has been called Leningrad
reverts to its original name: Saint Petersburg.
Sep 8 In a referendum, Macedonians vote in favor of
independence from Yugoslavia.
Sep 30 For four days Iraqi soldiers have refused to allow UN
weapons inspectors to leave a site without the inspectors turning over
documents they have confiscated. The UN Security Council threatens
enforcement actions. Iraq permits the inspectors to leave with the
Sep 30 Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is removed
from power by a bloody military coup led by Lieutenant General Raoul
Oct 5 Croatia has been subject to mortar and air attacks. Croatia's
President Tudjman calls all Croats to mobilize to defend against
Oct 7 Bombs planted in Croatia's capital destroy government
rooms but fail to kill government leaders.
Oct 15 In the US Senate, contentious hearings on the
nomination of Clarence Thomas for a seat on the Supreme court have
ended. The Senate votes 52 to 48 to confirm.
Oct 29 Yugoslav warplanes attack positions across Croatia's
eastern panhandle. European Community foreign ministers threatened to
impose economic sanctions on Serbia, Yugoslavia's dominant republic, if
it does not accept its peace plan for Yugoslavia.
Nov 1 In an interview for Croatian television, Britain's
former prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, criticizes Western
governments for not recognizing the right of Croats and Slovenians to
independence and for failing to help the Croats with the arms they have
needed to defend themselves from Serbian-led Yugoslav army attacks.
Nov 14 In connection with the downing of the Pan Am Flight
103, US and British authorities announce indictments against two Libyan
Dec 1 In a referendum, Ukrainians vote overwhelmingly for
Dec 4 In Beirut, the American journalist Terry Anderson is
released after seven years as a prisoner of terrorists.
Dec 13 North and South Korea sign a non-aggression and
cooperation agreement, to become effective February 19, 1992. The Joint
Declaration calls for bilateral nuclear inspections to verify the
denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. It states that the two sides
"shall not test, manufacture, produce, receive, possess, store, deploy
or use nuclear weapons," and that they "shall not possess nuclear
reprocessing and uranium enrichment facilities." North Korea's has
benefitted from help from the Soviet Union regarding nuclear
developments, but the Soviet Union no longer exists and Russia is not
providing North Korea with the help it once received.
Dec 16 The 12-nation European Community unanimously agrees to
recognize Croatia and Slovenia by January 15. President Bush disagrees
with this decision, saying that it is "fraught with danger."
Dec 24 The president of the Russian Republic, Boris Yeltsin,
has met in secret with the leaders of the Ukraine and Byelorussian
republics and agreed to leave the Soviet Union and form a Commonwealth
of Independent States.
Dec 25 At the United Nations, the Russian Federation takes
the seat that had belonged to the Soviet Union.
Dec 26 The Supreme Soviet meets and formally dissolves the
Soviet Union. The Soviet Union ceases to exist. Millions of ethnic
Russians find themselves in independent states other than Russia.
Jan 2 In Russia, President Yeltsin follows the advice of an
American economist, Jeffrey Sachs, and institutes "shock therapy
<http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch33-9.htm>" toward the
creation of a free market economy. He will allow prices to rise to
three to ten times previous levels on nearly all consumer products,
while there will be no concomitant rise in wages.
Jan 13 Japan's government apologizes for the old empire
having forced Korean women into sexual slavery.
Jan 15 Slovenia and Croatia are recognized as independent by
the 12-nation European Community.
Jan 16 El Salvador's conservative government and rebel FMLN
leaders have concluded an agreement that ends eleven years of civil war.
Feb 3 The recycling of trash begins in Portland, Oregon.
Feb 7 The Treaty of Maastricht (in the Netherlands) moves
what had been the European Community toward what will now be the
European Union. The treaty forms a basis for cooperation in foreign and
defense policy, judicial and internal affairs and the creation of an
economic and monetary union, including a common currency. A bumpy
ratification by member states follows.
Feb 12 Mongolia's constitution is ratified, marking the
official beginning of the republic's multi-party political system.
Feb 21 The UN Security Council resolves to send a
peacekeeping force to Yugoslavia.
Feb 25-6 Armenians have been warring in a dispute over
territory with Azerbaijani. The Armenians are largely Christian, the
Azerbaijani largely Shia . An Armenian force kills 613 Azerbaijani
civilians in the town of Khojaly. The Armenians will complain that the
Azerbaijani did not allow the civilians to leave the area of battle and
that Azerbaijani soldiers intermingled with civilians. Others will
claim that this is no excuse.
Feb 26 In Ireland a Supreme Court ruling allows a 14-year-old
rape victim to travel to England to have an abortion.
Mar 9 The People's Republic of China ratifies the Nuclear
Mar 17 A suicide car-bomb goes off in the Israeli Embassy in
Buenos Aires, killing 29 and injuring 242. Islamic Jihad claims
Apr 6 The Assembly of the Socialist Republic of
Bosnia-Herzegovina proclaims its independence from Yugoslavia.
Apr 8 The US recognizes the independence of Croatia, Slovenia
and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The European Community joins in recognizing the
independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina. In rural Bosnia-Herzegovina
Christian Serb forces are fighting local Muslims, and Serbian troops
have begun besieging Bosnia-Herzegovina's main city, Sarajevo. What
will be called the Bosnian War has begun.
Apr 26 A jury has found the Los Angeles police officers
accused of excessive force against Rodney King not guilty.
May 2 Troops from the 7th Infantry Division and 1st Marine
Division arrive in Los Angeles after four days of rioting. It will be
estimated that approximately 3,600 fires have been set and 1,100
buildings destroyed, between 50 and 60 people killed and as many as
2,000 people injured. Much looting has occurred. Stores owned by
Korean-Americans and other Asians have been targeted. Stores owned by
whites and blacks have been destroyed. Street gangs have found
opportunity to settle old scores.
May 12 The International Herald Tribune reports economic
trouble in Russia: The output of goods has fallen "by an estimated 18
percent" and the "entrepreneurs being spawned in Russia today are
mainly black marketers or corrupt officials who have stolen state
property... The economic outlook is bleak for all except hustlers and
National Debt as a percentage of Gross Domestic
Product, an issue in
the US presidential race.
Jun 1 Japan's stockmarket index, the Nikkai 225, has fallen
nearly 60 percent from its high of nearly 40,000 on December 29, 1989,
to around 16,000. (It would be down to 7,568 in 2009.) Companies, banks
and securities companies, loaded with cash, have created an investment
bubble that has broken. Land prices in major cities have been falling
since early 1990. Japan's economc growth has been zero since 1991, down
from 7 percent in the 1980s.
Jun 19 President Bush and Bill Clinton have won primary
elections for the presidential nomination of their respective political
parties. A poll lists a still undeclared independent, Ross Perot, as
beating President Bush, 39 to 31 percent, with Bill Clinton finishing
third at 25 percent. Perot has been expressing his desire to see the
budget deficit put under control and the tax system reformed.
Jul 16 At the Democratic National Convention, Bill Clinton,
45, is nominated for US President. Tennessee Senator Al Gore is his
vice-presidential running mate.
Aug 19 To protect Shiites in southern Iraq, the US, Britain
and France agree on a plan to shoot down Iraqi military aircraft that
enter a zone that begins just south of Baghdad.
Aug 20 At the Republican National Convention, President
George H.W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle are chosen again to lead
Sep 18 Undaunted by Perot's withdrawal from the race for
president, his supporters get his name on the ballot in all 50 states.
Sep 23 A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb destroys
forensic laboratories in Belfast.
Sep 24 The Kentucky Supreme Court rules that laws
criminalizing same-sex sodomy are unconstitutional and predicts that
other states will agree.
Oct 1 Ross Perot re-enters the race for the presidency.
Oct 9 In Peekskill, New York, a 13-kilogram (29-pound)
meteorite destroys a Chevy Impala parked in a family's driveway.
Oct 31 Pope John Paul II apologizes and lifts the
Inquisition's edict against Galileo Galilei.
Nov 3 Bill Clinton wins the presidential election with 43
percent of the vote. George H.W. Bush gets 37.4 percent and Ross Perot
18.9 percent. Many others divide 4.7 percent of the vote, including
Harold Stassen on his
9th run. The Democrats will control both the House of Representatives
and the Senate.
Nov 11 The Church of England votes to allow women to become
Dec 3 UN Security Council unanimously passes Resolution 794,
to send peacekeepers to Somalia to establish order and make possible
Dec 4 President Bush announces Operation Restore Hope: troops
to Somalia under the aegis of the United Nations.
Dec 6 Thousands of Hindu militants destroy the mosque Babri
Masjid, which they believe was built upon a Hindu temple and where Rama
of the Ramayana was born.
Dec 9 In India, waves of shootings, stabbing and arson occur
as Muslims respond to the destruction of the mosque Babri Masjid.
Dec 9 A UN force, prepared for stealth and combat, lands in
an early morning darkness on the shore by the city of Mogadishu,
greeted by international media and lighting for cameras. The US troops
are joined by soldiers from Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Canada,
Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, New
Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Tunisia,
Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and Zimbabwe.
Dec 27 Russian military and intelligence installations remain
in the now independent Baltic states, and most of the people in these
states are unhappy about it. Unhappy too are the thousands of Russian
troops experiencing what they consider petty harassments and
Jan 1 Czechoslovakia divides into the Czech Republic and
Jan 5 The Bush administration announces that Iraq has moved
surface-to-air-missiles into the southern part of the country - the
no-fly zone - that is patrolled by United States and allied warplanes.
Jan 7 In Ghana, Jerry Rawlings is inaugurated President,
after having switched from military rule to winning an election
described by international observers as free and fair.
Jan 13 An international arms control agreement is signed that prohibits
the development, production, stockpiling and usse of chemical weapons.
Almost all UN member states sign the agreement. It is to become
effective 29 April 1997. Five states will not sign the treaty: Angola,
North Korea, Egypt, South Sudan, and Syria.
Jan 14 A deadline issued by the United States to Iraq to
remove anti-aircraft missiles has passed. And Iraq has announced that
it will no longer allow weapons inspectors to be flown into Iraqi
territory in United Nations aircraft. US, French and British aircraft
bomb missile sites in southern Iraq.
Jan 19 Iraq decides to allow UN weapons inspectors to enter
Iraq aboard UN aircraft.
Jan 20 William Jefferson Clinton becomes the 42nd President
of the United States.
twin towers of the World
Trade Center, New York City.
Jan 21 The Clinton administration announces that it will
continue the Bush administration's policy of pre-empting attacks on
American pilots in Iraq.
Jan 29 President Clinton announces his plan to lift the ban
on gays in the military.
Feb 22 The UN Security Council passes Resolution 808,
establishing an international tribunal to prosecute violations of
international law in Yugoslavia.
Feb 26 Men connected to Osama bin Laden's network of
activists drive a van heavily laden with a bomb into the parking area
under the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. They
walk away. The truck explodes. They planned to topple one tower onto
the other amid a cloud of cyanide gas. It does not work, but six people
die and 1,042 are injured. Firefighters learn that they have inadequate
Feb 28 US Cargo planes from Germany drop food, medicine and
other supplies to besieged Muslim towns in eastern Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Feb 28 In Texas, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
agents raid a compound with a warrant to arrest on firearms violations
the inhabitants' leader, David Koresh - who claims to be the Final
Prophet with a right to many wives as young as eleven. A firefight
erupts. Four agents and 5 followers of Koresh die. The federal agents
retreat. The FBI will take over and keep the compound surrounded while
trying to talk the occupants into surrendering.
Mar 12 In the city of Bombay several bombs kill 257 and
injure hundreds more. The motive will eventually be judged as revenge
for Hindus destroying the Babri Masjid mosque in northern India. See
December 6, 1992.
Mar 12 North Korea, still led by Kim Il-sung, refuses to
allow inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
access to nuclear sites, and responding to IAEA instistance it
announces its plan to withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.
Apr 8 The Republic of Macedonia is admitted to the United
Apr 13 President Clinton reports that NATO air action
including US airplanes are enforcing UN ban on unauthorized (Serbian)
military flights over Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Apr 16 Niger's first democratically elected president takes
office. With freedom of the press, several newspapers will come into
Apr 19 Concluding 51 days of waiting for David Koresh to
surrender, the FBI receives approval from Attorney General Janet Reno
to move against his compound militarily. Fire erupts inside the
compound, and gunshots are heard from within the compound. Koresh and
75 others die, including 21 children. Some cult members outside the
compound expect Koresh to be resurrected in 1996.
Apr 30 The World Wide Web is developed at the European
Organization for Nuclear Research, a little northwest of Geneva,
May 1 In Sri Lanka, a Tamil suicide bomber assassinates
President Ranasinghe Premadasa.
May 24 After thirty years of war to free itself from attacks
from Ethiopia, and after a UN sponsored referendum, Eritrea wins
recognition of its independence.
May 28 The UN gains two new members: Eritrea and Monaco.
May 31 In Israel, openly homosexual men and women have begun
serving in the military.
Jun 2 The FBI, CIA and others in the Department of Justice
have concluded that during his visit to Kuwait back in mid-April the
former president, George Bush, was likely the target of an
assassination attempt that originated with the Iraqi government.
Jun 5 In Mogadishu, Somalia, 24 Pakistani members of the UN
force are killed in a firefight with people who, it will be reported,
are outraged over a rumor that UN troops were planning to occupy the
radio station controlled by Gen. Mohammed Farah Aidid.
first elected president, Hutu
intellectual, Melchior Ndadaye.
Jun 12-16 US and UN troops attack targets associated with
Jun 27 In response to evidence of the attempted assassination
against the former president, George Bush, Bill Clinton orders a cruise
missile attack on Iraqi intelligence headquarters in the Al-Mansur
District of Baghdad.
Jul 2 In Turkey a mob calling for death to infidels sets fire
to the hotel where Satanic Verses translator and author Aziz Nesin was
attending a cultural festival. Nesin escapes but 37 others die.
Jul 10 In Burundi, a progressive intellectual, Melchior
Ndadaye, has won 65 percent of the vote for the presidency - a vote,
certified as free and fair by international observers. He is a Hutu,
replacing what had been a Tutsi dominated government, in a country more
than 75 percent Hutu but with a Tutsi dominated military. A coup
against Ndadaye has failed and he takes power, becoming Burundi's first
Hutu president and its first democratically elected president.
Jul 20 Deputy White House counsel Vince Foster is found dead
with a 38 caliber pistol and the kind of damage to his head that
results from a shot fired inside the mouth.
Jul 27 Microsoft begins manufacturing Windows NT operating
Aug 8 Clinton signs into law an increase in income
tax rate for the highest earners from 35 percent (set by Bush the
Elder) to 39 percent. Taxes on corporations are set at 35 percent. The
tax on transportation fuels is raised 4.3 cents per gallon. The bill is
called the Deficit Reduction Act.
Aug 11 The Justice Department discloses the text of a note
left in Vince Foster's briefcase, which reads: "I made mistakes from
ignorance, inexperience and overwork ... I did not knowingly violate
any law or standard of conduct ... I was not meant for the job or the
spotlight of public life in Washington. Here ruining people is
considered sport." Money is forthcoming from critics of the Clintons to
investigate and publish whether Hillary Clinton is involved in Vince
Aug 30 Russia withdraws the last of its troops from Lithuania.
Aug 31 The siege of Sarajevo by Serb forces continues. Amid
the shelling and sniper fire, Susan Sontag is stagingWaiting for Godot.
Sep 13 PLO and Israeli leaders have already worked out an
agreement in Oslo, Norway. In Washington D.C., in the presence of
President Clinton, PLO leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli prime minister,
Yitzhak Rabin, sign the Oslo Peace Accords and shake hands. Agreed to
is the withdrawal of Israeli forces from parts of the Gaza Strip and
West Bank and in those areas the right of Palestinians to
self-government through the creation of a Palestinian Authority.
Sep 17 Russian troops leave Poland.
Sep19 In Poland discontent with market reforms and the
increase in unemployment following the collapse of Communism gives
Communists a boost in parliamentary elections. Political power is going
to a coalition of left-wing parties that intends to slow the pace of
privatization and economic reform.
Sep 22 In Moscow, President Yeltsin has reacted to
parliament's move to repeal special powers it had given him. Involved
is Yeltsin's support of shock therapy transition to a free enterprise
economy - not altogether popular. Public opinion and democracy were
opposed. Yeltsin yesterday ordered parliament disbanded and elections
for a new legislative body in December. His order violates the Russian
Constitution of 1978. Parliament moves to oust Yeltsin from power.
Sep 24 The Cambodian monarchy is restored, with Norodom
Sihanouk as king.
Sep 28 President Yeltsin is surrounding parliament with
hundreds of troops, concertina wire, water trucks, and mounted police.
Oct 2 Encouraged by the Oslo Accords, delegates from 43
nations promise the Palestinian Authority $2 billion in aid over the
next five years. The US pledges $500 million. US Secretary of State
Warren Christopher speaks of demonstrating the "tangible benefits of
peace" and says "we must do so quickly if the advocates of peace are to
be strengthened and the enemies of peace are to be isolated and
Oct 3 In Mogadishu, a battle between US forces and local
militia kills 18 US Rangers and 500 Somalis. One of the dead US
soldiers is seen on television being dragged through the streets.
Oct 4 President Clinton orders more than 200 troops, tanks,
armored personnel carriers and gunships to Somalia.
Oct 4 Tens days of street fighting in Moscow ends with a
reported 187 persons killed and 437 wounded. Yeltsin's illegal and
anti-democratic power grab is portrayed as opposition to Communist
revanchism. It will have the support of the Clinton administration.
Oct 5 A Palestinian driving a car packed with explosives
attacks an Israeli commuter bus outside the Israeli Army headquarters
in the West Bank.
Oct 5 In Moscow, military and security forces clear
parliament by force, ending the effort to remove Yeltsin from power.
Yeltsin bans leftist and nationalist parties and newspapers that had
Oct 6 In an address to the Russian nation, Yeltsin calls on regional
councils that had opposed him to disband - the overwhelming majority of
the regional councils.
Oct 6 Rejecting a plea from President Clinton, China has just
exploded a nuclear weapon in its western desert. Clinton responds to
the opinion that if other nations resume testing the US will need to
also, and he orders preparations for a nuclear test in 1994.
Oct 8 President Clinton says he is doubling the size of the
US ground forces in Somalia to lay a foundation for stability there. He
promises to remove all forces within six months. He adds: "Let us
demonstrate to the world, as generations of Americans have done before
us, that when Americans take on a challenge, they do the job right."
Oct 12 The Central Council of the Palestine Liberation
Organization ratifies the peace accord with Israel. Yasir Arafat is
elected to be head of the Palestinian National Authority by a vote of
78 to 0, with 4 abstentions.
Oct 15 In the US Senate, Arizona's John McCain calsl for a
"prompt and orderly" withdrawal from Somalia. It is supported by some
Democrats and Republicans but defeated.
Oct 20 In Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto's political party has won
a plurality in recent elections for seats in parliament. Today she
became prime minister again, returning to the office from which she was
banished in 1990.
Oct 21 A military coup in Burundi led by the Tutsi includes
the murder of President Ndadaye. Another civil war between the Hutu and
Nov 7 President Clinton on Meet the Press says, “North Korea
cannot be allowed to develop a nuclear bomb.”
Nov 11 In Sri Lanka, the on-again, off-again civil war since
1983 is on again with the Battle of Pooneryn, begun by Tamil
guerrillas. They seek separation and independence.
Nov 14 In Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's candidate
for president, Farooq Leghari, a member of her political party, the
PPP, wins in the voting in the two houses of parliament. In three years
he will dismiss Bhutto on charges of corruption.
Nov 17 President Clinton has been arguing for NAFTA, and the
US House of Representatives passes NAFTA legislation.
Nov 28 The London Observer reveals a channel of
communications exists between the IRA and the British government,
despite government denials.
Dec 30 Israel and the Vatican establish diplomatic relations.
Jan 1 In Mexico the Zapatistas declare war against the
Mexican government, take hold of five municipalities in the state of
Chiapas and announce plans to march towards Mexico City.
Jan 1 Rudy Giuliani becomes Mayor of New York City.
Jan 6 Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's national police
surround the Bhutto family mansion and clash with supporters of her
mother, Nusrat Bhutto.
Jan 6 Nancy Kerrigan, US skating champion, is clubbed on the
knee in a conspiracy involving skating rival Tonya Harding.
Jan 14 Prime Minister Bhutto responds to angry charges from
her mother, saying that her mother does it "to damage me and pave the
way for the son that she feels should be, in her own words, the heir."
Jan 14 Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin sign the Kremlin
Accords, which end the aiming of nuclear missiles at each other and
provide for the dismantling of the nuclear arsenal in Ukraine.
Jan 25 President Clinton delivers his first State of the
Union address, calling for health care reform, a ban on assault weapons
and welfare reform. He boasts that his administration has "replaced
drift and deadlock with renewal and reform."
Feb 3 The US lifts its trade embargo against Vietnam.
Feb 25 In the West Bank, an Israeli medical doctor, Baruch
Goldstein, 37, shoots and kills 29 Muslims who were at prayer. Then he
is subdued with a fire extinguisher and beaten to death.
Feb 28 US fighter pilots down four Serbian fighter aircraft
flying in the prohibited zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Mar 4 Four men of Middle East origin are convicted for their
roles in the World Trade Center bombing.
Mar 25 The UN Security Council has passed Resolution 897
redefining the UN mission in Somali, emphasizing peacemaking and
reconstruction rather than coercion. President Clinton has withdrawn
all US troops from Somalia - as he promised he would by March 31.
Twenty-thousand UN troops remain.
Mar 31 North Korea is short on and has begun investing in
nuclear power. The US and South Korea have agreed to the deployment of
US Patriot missiles in South Korea as a defense againsst North Korea
Apr 5 The siege of Sarajevo begins its third year.
Apr 6 Some Hutu are opposed to peace accords ending a
three-year civil war between the government and Tutsi-led rebels, the
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). Rwanda's Hutu President Juvénal
Habyarimana is assassinated as his plane is landing at Rwanda's Kigali
Apr 7 The Rwandan armed forces and a Hutu paramilitary group,
the Interahamwe, begin killing Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
Apr 11 UN soldiers protecting 2,000 Tutsis at a school are
ordered to withdraw to Kigali airport. The Tutsis left behind are
Apr 14 Belgium withdraws its troops from the UN peacekeeping
force in Rwanda.
Apr 21 The UN reduces its troops in Rwanda by 90 percent, to
270. The International Red Cross estimates that those slaughtered now
add to more than 100,000.
Apr 22 Former US President Richard Nixon dies in New York
Apr 27 In South Africa multiracial elections are held for the
May 6 Paula Jones has waited three years to file a civil suit
against President Clinton, accusing him of "sexually harassing and
assaulting" her and defaming her with denials.
May 7 The UN Security Council agrees to send 5,500 troops to
Rwanda to defend civilians. Deployment is delayed by disagreements
between the US and UN over financing of the operation.
May 10 In South Africa, Nelson Mandela is inaugurated
May 16 The International Red Cross estimates that 500,000
Rwandans have been killed.
May 17 Malawi holds its first multi-party elections.
May 19 Despite repeated chiding from Western nations, North
Korea continues to conduct nuclear research and to carry on with the
uranium enrichment program. North Korea has threatened to go to war if
sanctions are imposed by the international community, and the Clinton
administration has received from North Korea a statement that sanctions
would be equivalent to a declaration of war.
May 24 US Senator John McCain urges an increase in US forces
and readiness to Korea.
Jun 17 Former president Jimmy Carter and his wife Rosalynn
have responded to an invitation to visit North Korea. Press reports
today, following Carter's meeting with Kim Il-sung, describe
astonishment by the United States and the International Atomic Energy
Agency at Kim's agreement to stop his nuclear research program.
Jun - This month, young bankers from the offices of
J.P. Morgan are meeting in Florida devising ways to make money beyond
traditional commercial or investment banking. These are young men who
will see themselves as exceptionally clever and capable in making money
by bets in "derivative" markets and exceptionally sound in their grasp
of macro-economics. It will lead to the economic collapse that will
begin in December, 2007. (See Fool's Gold, which won Gillian Tett the
Financial Book of the Year award in 2009.)
Jun 12 In the Los Angeles area, Nicole Brown Simpson and
Ronald Goldman are stabbed to death outside Simpson's home.
Jun 17 O.J. Simpson, football hero and actor, fails to turn
himself into police as planned. Police approach a car with Simpson and
a former teammate in the driver's seat. The friend yells to police to
back off because Simpson has a gun to his own head. A 60-mile freeway
journey with police close behind and helicopters overhead ends at
Simpson's home, where he surrenders to police. O.J. is arrested and
soon to be indicted for murder.
Jul 4 The Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) takes
control of the Kigali airport and the southern town of Butare. Its
leadership says it intends to form a government on the basis of the
Jul 8 Kim Il-sung dies of a heart attack. He is succeeded by his eldest
son, Kim Jong-il. Kim Il-sung's body will be placed in a public
mausoleum where his preserved and embalmed body will lie under a glass
coffin for viewing purposes
Jul 13-14 Hutus fleeing the RPF flood into Zaire, creating a
Jul 18 The Rwanda Patriotic Front announces that the war is
over, declares a cease-fire and declares Pastor Bizimungu as president
with Faustin Twagiramungu as prime minister.
Jul 18 In Buenos Aires a terrorist attack destroys a building
housing several Jewish organizations, killing 85 and injuring many
more. Members of Buenos Aires Provincial Police will be tried but found
not guilty. The presiding judge will be impeached for irregularities
regarding the case.
Jul 24 Newt Gingrich, Republican leader (whip) in the US
House of Representatives, has organized his political party against
passage of a Democratic Party effort at health reform. He says he hopes
"to use the issue as a springboard to win Republican control of the
House." He predicts that the Republicans will pick up thirty-four House
seats in the November elections.
Jul 25 Israel and Jordan formally end the state of war that
has existed between them since the founding of Israel in1948.
Aug 31 The Provisional Irish Republican Army announces its
"complete cessation of military operations."
Aug 31 The last of Russian troops leave Estonia.
Sep 3 Russia and China agree to de-target their nuclear
weapons against each other.
Sep 13 The Federal Assault Weapons Ban is signed into law by
President Clinton. It prohibits certain kinds of semi-automatic
"assault weapons" manufactured after this day to be sold to civilians.
The ban is to expire in ten years.
Sep 19 US troops go ashore in Haiti, intending to restore to
power Haiti's elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
Sep 28 In the US on the steps of the capital building, with
flags waving and a band playing, Republican candidates for the upcoming
congressional elections, including all but two incumbents, file past a
table and sign a "Contract with America," a creation led by Newt
Gingrich and the conservative think tank, the Heritage Foundation. The
contract includes elimination of waste, fraud and abuse in Congress,
term limits, tax cuts, a balanced budget and fixing social security
among other things.
Oct 5 In Quebec a few days ago, members of the Solar Temple
cult identified an infant as the anti-Christ described in the Bible.
The infant was killed: stabbed repeatedly with a wooden stake. Today it
is reported that bodies have been found in Quebec and in the cult's
temples in Switzerland. It will be determined that some killed
themselves with poison, some had bullet wounds and some were smothered.
Oct 21 An "Agreed Framework" is signed between the US and
North Korea in Geneva, capping on-and-off bilateral negotiations which
altogether has lasted for more than a year and a half. The objective of
the agreement is the freezing and replacement of North Korea's
indigenous nuclear power plant program with more nuclear proliferation
resistant light water reactor power plants, and the step-by-step
normalization of relations between the US and North Korea.
Nov 8 In the US, elections give Republicans control of both
the House of Representatives and the Senate for the first time in 40
years. Republicans gained, and the Democrats lost, 54 seats in the
House and 8 seats in the Senate. It is to be called the Republican
Revolution. Analysts describe the Republican success as the result of
perceptions that House leadership has been corrupt, dislike for
President Clinton's support for health care reform and gun control
measures and homosexuals in the military. Some Republicans consider
Rush Limbaugh, popular radio talk show host, as instrumental in the
Nov 8 In an election in Texas, George W. Bush defeats the
incumbent governor, Ann Richards, 53 to 46 percent. Richards was
supported by fellow Texan Ross Perot, but it is said that she was
burdened by the unpopularity of President Clinton and her having vetoed
a citizen concealed weapons bill. Bush was helped by the campaigning of
his parents. The impact of a whispering campaign regarding Richards
embracing lesbians and gay men is unknown.
Nov 13 In a referendum, Swedes choose to join their country
to European Union.
Nov 13 The first passengers travel through the Channel Tunnel.
Dec 4 In the US, two Republican leaders, Senator Dole and
Congressman Newt Gingrich, ridicule UN peacekeeping effort in Bosnia
and call for a bombing campaign against Serbian troops in Bosnia.
President Clinton's Secretary of State, Warren Christopher, describes
their strategy as a prescription for a major ground war that would
require thousands of American troops.
Dec 11 Russia's Boris Yeltsin sends troops and planes to
Chechnya, a largely Muslim region. He hopes to crush what began in 1992
in Chechnya with a new constitution that included a declaration of
Dec 12 Since 1972, Harvard University's Institute of Politics
has been conducting issues briefings for new members of Congress. This
year, Newt Gingrich is directing Republicans to an alternative: the
Heritage Foundation. There, 73 Republican freshmen listen to Rush
Limbaugh warn them about Washington's press corps. "You will never ever
be their friends," he says. "They don't want to be your friends. Some
female reporter will come up to one of you and start batting her eyes
and ask you to go to lunch. And you'll think, 'Wow! I'm only a
freshman. Cokie Roberts wants to take me to lunch. I've really made
Dec 19 Investigation of decades-old real estate dealings of
Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates with the failed
Whitewater Development Corporation begins. The prosecutor leading the
investigation is Kenneth Starr, a judiciary committee's appointment as
Dec 19 Civil unions for same sex couples has been created in
Denmark and Israel, including equal employment benefits with
opposite-sex couples. And today civil unions for same sex couples
becomes law in Sweden.
Jan 1 Austria, Finland and Sweden enter the European Union.
Jan 9 Valeriy Polyakov, Russian cosmonaut (male), completes
366 days in space, breaking a duration record.
Jan 17 A magnitude 7.3 earthquake near Kobe, Japan, kills
Jan 31 President Clinton invokes emergency powers to extend a
$20 billion loan to help Mexico avert financial collapse.
Feb 13 A UN tribunal on human rights violations in the
Balkans charges twenty-one Bosnian Serb commanders with genocide and
crimes against humanity.
Mar 1 In Moscow, a popular anti-corruption journalist and TV
anchor, Vladislav Listyev, is assassinated, his assailant to forever
remain a mystery.
Mar 1 In Santa Clara, California, Yahoo is founded.
Mar 3 The UN peacekeeping mission ends in Somalia.
Mar 20 In Tokyo, religious terrorists release sarin gas on
five railway trains, killing 12 and injuring 5,510.
Apr 5 The US House of Representatives votes 246-188 to cut
taxes for individuals and corporations. Speaker Gingrich says that the
bill "helps to create jobs. It strengthens families. it does what we
ought to be doing. And it's the last step in the Contract."
Apr 19 U.S Army veteran Timothy McVeigh is upset concerning
the federal government's action against David Koresh and his Branch
Davidians in Waco, Texas. In Oklahoma City he and an accomplice, Terry
Nichols, set off a bomb that destroys the Murrah Federal Building,
killing 168 people, including 8 federal marshals and 19 children.
May 11 More than 170 countries agree to extend the Nuclear
Nonproliferation Treaty indefinitely and without conditions.
Jul 11 Dutch UN peacekeepers are pushed out of the way in the
area around Srebrenica, in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bosnian Serbs round up
and kill an estimated 8,000 Muslim men and boys, the largest mass
murder in Europe since World War II.
Ante Gotovina, to be tried for ethnic cleansing.
Jul 21-22 China tests four
missiles aimed at targets 85 miles north of Taiwan.
Aug 3 At peace talks in Switzerland, Croatia appeals to Serbs
within Croatia to reintegrate. The Serbs refuse, while Serbia's
president, Slobodan Milosevic, is giving the Serbs in Croatia no
support in response to their refusal to make peace.
Aug 4 Croatia claims its right to liberate its own territory.
Croatia's military advances toward Serbs in the separatist Krajina area
in Croatia. Before the force arrives, a 40-mile stream of some 300,000
Serb civilians and armed men flee. Three Croatian generals will be
tried in 2008 by a UN war crimes tribunal for ethnic cleansing.
Aug 4 The Clinton Administration discloses intelligence
information and opposes lifting economic sanctions against Iraq.
President Clinton complains that the Hussein regime still kills
opponents abroad and has developed vast stocks of germ warfare agents.
At the United Nations, US representative Madelaine Albright lists the
UN resolutions that Iraq is supposed to comply with in order for
sanctions to be lifted.
Aug 9 Jerry Garcia, guitarist for The Grateful Dead, dies
from an overdose of heroin.
Aug 28 A Bosnian Serb mortar shell kills 37 people and wounds
90 in a market place in Sarajevo.
Aug 30 The Serb mortar attack has moved people in Europe to
support President Clinton's call for an air attack against Serb forces.
NATO air strikes against the Bosnian Serbs around Sarajevo begin.
Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Colin Powell, is opposed.
He is for all out war or no war and has advised that air strikes will
probably fail to deter Bosnian Serb aggression. Only troops on the
ground, he claims, could do that.
Sep 20 NATO strikes have involved 400 aircraft from 15
nations. The air campaign has ended with Bosnian Serbs agreeing to a
Sep 23 President Clinton speaks to the nation via radio about
the inability of the US to force peace on the warring parties in
Bosnia. "Only they themselves can make it [peace]," he says. "That's
why I have refused to let American ground troops become combatants in
Oct 3 A jury finds O.J. Simpson not guilty of the murder of
his former wife and her friend.
Oct 20 The body of Jacabo Arbenz Guzmán is returned to
Guatemala City for burial. He was overthrown
<http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch24guat5.html> by the
Eisenhower administration in 1954 and driven into exile. He has been
dead since 1971. More than 100,000 people gather at the cemetery and
chant "Jacabo, Jacabo."
Oct 30 Quebec separatists narrowly lose a referendum for a
mandate to negotiate independence from Canada.
Karadzic, psychiatrist, poet, Bosnian
Serb, wanted for ethnic cleansing.
Mladic. Chief of Staff
of the Bosnian Serb Army
Nov 1 Russia, the US and others have applied pressure to
bring together the Serbs, Croats and Bosnians to end the war in Bosnia.
Negotiations begin in Dayton, Ohio.
Nov 4 In Tel Aviv, Yigal Amir, 25, a religious rightist
opposed to peace efforts with the Palestinians, assassinates Israeli
Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
Nov 10 Iraq disarmament crisis: With help from Israel and
Jordan, UN inspector Ritter intercepts 240 Russian gyroscopes and
accelerometers on their way to Iraq from Russia.
Nov 10 In Nigeria, playwright and environmental activist Ken
Saro-Wiwa, along with eight others from the Movement for the Survival
of the Ogoni People, are hanged by government forces.
Nov 16 A United Nations tribunal charges Radovan Karadzic and
Ratko Mladic with genocide during the Bosnian War.
Nov 21 A peace agreement for Bosnia is reached.
Nov 28 US President Bill Clinton signs the National Highway
Designation Act, which ends the federal 55 mph speed limit.
Dec 4 First NATO peacekeeping troops arrive in Sarajevo,
including 700 US troops, an international force to number around 60,000.
Dec 14 The Dayton Agreement is signed in Paris, ending three
and a half years of war in Bosnia.
Jan 22 Pursuing his Whitewater investigation, Kenneth Starr
subpoenas Hillary Clinton to determine whether she intentionally
withheld subpoenaed billing records from the Rose Law Firm. This is the
first time a wife of a sitting president has been subpoenaed. Shortly
before Bill Clinton's election in 1992, the Clintons sold their
interest in the Whitewater property in Arkansas to Jim McDougal for
Jan 23 In his State of the Union Speech, President Clinton
declares that "We have the lowest combined rates of unemployment and
inflation in 27 years." He says that "The era of big government is
over. But we cannot go back to the time when our citizens were left to
fend for themselves."
Jan 29 In France, President Jacques Chirac declares a
"definitive end" to France's nuclear testing.
Feb 8 The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is unhappy about its
political wing, or party, Sinn Féin, not being included in settlement
talks with Britian. A 17-month ceasefire ends with an IRA one-ton bomb
explosion in London's Canary Wharf District, killing 2, injuring 39 and
collapsing a six-story building.
Feb 13 The Communist Party of Nepal declares a "People's War."
Feb 15 In China, after lift-off, a satellite rocket crashes
into a rural village. Deaths will be reported to number 500.
Feb 23 Saddam Hussein's brother-in-law, Hussein Kamel, has
been lured back to Iraq from his defection to Jordan, where he
cooperated with UN weapons inspectors. Saddam Hussein assured him that
all would be forgiven. Kamel, his brother, father, sister and her
children are murdered by Saddam's agents.
Mar 9 In Portugal, Jorge Sampaio, an agnostic socialist
elected in January, takes office as president.
Mar 13 In Scotland an unemployed shopkeeper, Thomas Hamilton,
walks into a grammar (primary) school, kills sixteen students and one
teacher and then himself.
Mar 19 The city of Sarajevo is united again when city
authorities take control of the last district held by Serbs.
Mar 23 Taiwan holds its first direct elections for president.
A native Taiwanese, Lee Teng-hui, wins 54 percent of the vote and
Apr 3 The Whitewater trial is underway. Special Prosecutor
Kenneth Starr has as a witness a former Arkansas judge, who has been
sentenced to 28 months in prison and has been promised leniency for
testifying against Jim and Susan McDougal, former friends of Bill and
Hillary Clinton and the Arkansas governor, Jim Tucker, a democrat.
Apr 3 At a cabin in rural Montana, the FBI arrests the
"Unabomber" Theodore Kaczynski. He has killed and injured people to
publicize the erosion of human freedom that he claims has resulted from
modern technology and large-scale organization.
Apr 10 President Clinton vetoes a bill that would have banned
Apr 18 Amid heavy fighting in Lebanon between Israeli forces
and Hezbollah, Israeli shelling kills more than 100 civilians, to be
called the Qana Massacre. Israeli, UN and US officials accuse Hezbollah
of using civilian refugees as human shields by opening fire from
positions near the UN compound.
May 12 The UN has reported that with economic sanctions
against Iraq, the deaths of Iraqi children has increased five-fold.
Protests against the sanctions have increased. In a 1996 interview with
60 Minutes, UN Ambassador Madeleine Albright accuses Hussein of
building 48 presidential palaces since the Gulf War, at a cost of $1.5
billion, and she speaks of Iraq importing goods such as "Italian
marble, videos, perfume, leather jackets," rather than food and
medicine. She dislikes people being duped by Saddam Hussein and blaming
the United States and sanctions.
May 18 The US and Saudi Arabia have pressured Sudan to expel
Osama bin Laden. He returns to Afghanistan, with his wives, children
May 20 Saddam Hussein accepts the UN's offer of food in
exchange for his selling oil on the world market, a modification of the
economic sanctions in place against Iraq.
May 20 The US Supreme Court rules that the state of Colorado
cannot prevent a city, town or county from taking legislative,
executive or judicial action to protect the rights of homosexuals.
May 23 Göran Kropp of Sweden reaches the Mount Everest summit
alone without bottled oxygen or Sherpa support.
May 27 President Boris Yeltsin negotiates a ceasefire to the
war that has been raging between Russians and Chechnyan rebels for
seventeen months. A power sharing plan defines Chechnya as a sovereign
state within the Russian Federation, giving Chechnya control over its
finances and resources.
May 28 In the Whitewater case, David Hale has given false
testimony. Jim and Susan McDougal (divorced in 1990) and Governor
Tucker are found guilty and face prison terms for defrauding $3 million
from two federally-backed financial institutions. Susan McDougal is to
describe as false her former husband's testimony associating her with
the alleged illegal transaction.
May 31 Israeli voters choose Likkud Party leader, Benjamin
Netanyahu, as prime minister - the first time an Israeli prime minister
is elected directly by the public rather than by the Knesset
Jun 10 Peace talks begin in Northern Ireland without Sinn
Jun 11 A convoy of Chechen rebel leaders is blasted by remote
control bombs while returning from negotiations with the Russians.
Jun 12 In the US, a panel of federal judges blocks a law
against indecency on the internet. The panel claims that the law would
infringe upon the free speech rights of adults.
Jun 13 In the state of Montana an 81-day long standoff
between paramilitary anti-government "Freemen" and a federal government
force ends. The group surrenders, foregoing their "oath to God" not to
compound without their demands having been met.
Jun 15 An IRA bomb in a busy shopping area in Manchester,
England, injures 200 people.
Jun 25 In Khobar, Saudi Arabia, terrorists explode a bomb
aimed at killing foreign military personnel including members of the US
Airforce in an eight-story housing complex. Alert security guards save
many lives. Nineteen US servicemen and one Saudi are killed and 372 of
many nationalities are wounded. The blast is felt 20 miles away.
Claiming responsibility is Hezbollah Al-Hijaz (Party of God in the
Jul 3 In Russia, Boris Yeltsin wins 55 percent of the popular
vote. His Communist opponent, Gennadi Zyuganov, wins 40 percent.
Yeltsin becomes the first democratically elected head of state in
Russia's 1,000-year history.
Jul 5 The first successfully cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep,
is born at the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland.
Aug 6 Chechen separatist, Shamil Basayev, leads 1,500 men and
boys into the Chechen capital, Grozny, where the Russian army has had
control since January, 1995.
Aug 15 The Republican Party nominates Bob Dole as their
candidate for president.
Aug 15 Jim McDougal has turned against his former friend Bill
Clinton and begins cooperating with Whitewater prosecutors. His
sentencing date is delayed. He has told Susan McDougal that she should
Kenneth Starr at the expense of the Clintons. "The Clintons," Jim has
told her, "have done nothing for us." "If you'll just have sex with
Bill Clinton," he tells Susan, "they'll give you anything you want."
Aug 19 At the Whitewater sentencing hearing, Governor Jim
Tucker receives a sentence of two years house arrest. Susan McDougal,
who had been described in court as only a minor player in the
Whitewater criminal transaction, is sentenced to two years in federal
prison. She is allowed forty days to get her affairs in order. An FBI
agent hands her a subpoena to appear in two weeks before another
Whitewater grand jury investigation concerning the Clintons.
Aug 19 Chechen separatists have routed the Russian army from
Aug 20 In the US, the Green Party nominates Ralph Nader as
its candidate for president. Nader tells the group that corporate
America will be the target of his campaign and that he does not expect
to win. "What we are doing," he says, "is building for the future."
Aug 22 Russia's General Aleksandr Lebed signs a cease fire
agreement with the Chechen separatist leader Ashlan Maskhadov.
Aug 23 Osama bin Laden issues his "Declaration of Jihad" on
Americans, what he calls the "Zionist-Crusaders alliance."
Aug 28 In Britain, Prince Charles and Princess Diana formally
divorce at the High Court of Justice.
Aug 31 Three divisions of Iraqi troops seize the Kurdish town
of Arbil (or Irbil) near the border with Turkey, driving out hostile
Kurdish troops. They hand it over to those Kurds allied with them: the
Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP).
Sep 3 In response to the Iraqi army entering a forbidden part
of Iraq, the US launches Operation Desert Strike: coordinated cruise
missile attacks against Iraqi air defense infrastructure. The operation
will last a few weeks.
Sep 4 In Columbia, a guerrilla movement initiated by the
Columbian Communist Party is still active. It broke with the Communist
Party after becoming involved in the drug trade in the 1980s, but it
still calls itself Marxist-Leninist. Its official name is the
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. It attacks a military base,
starting three weeks of fighting which will kill at least 130.
Sep 9 Susan McDougal goes to jail for contempt of court
rather than testify in front of a grand jury. She did not trust Kenneth
Starr and was afraid of being falsely convicted of perjury for
contradicting someone's testimony. She is to spend the maximum possible
sentence for civil contempt: 18 months. Eight months of it will be
spent in solitary confinement, and she will be subjected to the
annoying prosecutorial tactic of being transferred from jail to jail to
Sep 12 The Taliban take control in Jalalabad. They now
control 70 percent of Afghanistan.
Sep 24 At the UN, President Bill Clinton signs the
Comprehensive Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty. The treaty bans all nuclear
explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. It
is signed by 71 countries and requires both signatures and ratification
by legislatures, in the US by the Senate, presently dominated by
Sep 25 In Ireland, the last of the Magdalen Asylums is
closed. These were places for women that the Roman Catholic Church
Sep 27 The Taliban take control of the city of Kabul.
Nov 5 Pakistan's President, Farooq Leghari, removes Prime
Minister Benazir Bhutto from office, describing her administration as
incompetent, corrupt and defiant of constitutional restraints on
executive power. Bhutto's husband, Asif Ali Zardari, has been accused
of enriching himself from government contract kickbacks and is reported
arrested while trying to flee the country.
Nov 5 President Clinton wins 49 percent of the vote to 41 for
Dole and 8 percent for Ross Perot. Ralph Nader is fourth with 0.7
percent. The Prohibition Party candidate receives 1,293 votes. The
Democrats gain 8 seats in the House of Representatives, which leaves
them in the minority: 228 to 206. The Republicans pick up two seats in
the Senate, where they remain the majority party.
Nov 7 New York Senator Alfonse D'Amato has been spearheading
a Special Senate Whitewater Committee investigation, which issued a
report critical of the Clintons. In New York, President Clinton won 59
percent of the vote, and exit polling indicated only a 34 percent
approval rating for D'Amato. D'Amato will be up for re-election in
1998. He announces that he will not revive any Senate probes into the
Nov 14 Jeri Laber's "The Making of the Taliban" appears in
the New York Review of Books. Laber writes of their orgins as orphans
of the 1980s war in Afghanistan, taken to Pakistan and schooled in
madrasahs, where they learned a strict interpretation of Sharia law.
Dec 25 Candidates opposed to President Milosevic won
elections in 13 Serbian cities in November, but President Milosevic has
refused to acknowledge their victory. In response, Belgrade has had
large protest demonstrations. Violence erupts as Milosevic supporters
are bussed into town from outside Belgrade.
Jan 22 Madeleine Albright becomes the first female US
Secretary of State. She has been a close friend of First Lady Hillary
Feb 17 Nawaz Sharif, 47, of the Pakistan Muslim League, a
conservative member of the wealthy establishment, has won an election
with more than 90 percent of the votes, which is questioned by Benazir
Bhutto's political party. Sharif becomes prime minister.
Mar 4 President Clinton bars federal funding for research on
Mar 6 In Sri Lanka, Tamil Tigers overrun a military base and
kill more than 200.
Mar 26 US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright says that
even if Iraq complies with its "obligations concerning weapons of mass
destruction," sanctions will not be lifted unless Iraq proves its
peaceful intentions by "complying with all of the Security Council
resolutions to which it is subjected." She says that "the evidence is
overwhelming that Saddam Hussein's intentions will never be peaceful."
Apr 4 In Algeria a new constitution has inspired an upsurge
in violence by Islamic extremists. In the dark early morning hours they
massacre 52 of the 53 inhabitants of the village of Thalit and people
in other villages.
Apr 22 In Algeria before dawn, Islamic militants kill 93 in
the village Haouch Khemisti.
Apr 22 In Peru, government commandos storm a building, ending
a 126-day hostage crisis. They kill all of the hostage takers, members
of the Tupac Amaru, and rescue all of the 71 hostages.
Apr 23 In Algeria, Islamic militants kill 42 in the village
Omaria. In the 3-hour attack there are mutilations, the burning of
bodies and a pregnant women is cut open and her baby hacked apart.
May 12 President Yeltsin and the elected president of
Chechnya, Aslan Maskhadov, sign a formal peace treaty.
Maskhodov and an always earnest
and red-faced Yeltzin
May 16 In Zaire, the army of the Mobutu Sese Seko is
collapsing as the rebel leader, Laurent Kabila, pushes from the eastern
part of Zaire to the outskirts of the capital, Kinshasa. Mobuto, in
power since 1965, had taken a name that meant "The all-powerful warrior
who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, goes from
conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake." He flees to Morocco.
Kabila will replace the name Zaire with the Democratic Republic of
May 25 A military coup in Sierra Leone replaces President
Ahmad Tejan Kabbah with Major Johnny Paul Koromah.
May 27 A lawsuit filed by Paula Jones in 1994, concerning an
alleged incident in 1991, has reached the Supreme Court. The justices
unanimously allow the lawsuit to proceed in the lower courts.
Jun 10 Mass killers are now killing each other. In his
stronghold in northern Cambodia, Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot orders the
killing of his defense chief, Son Sen, and eleven of Sen's family
Jun 11 The British House of Commons votes for a total ban on
Jul 1 Britain's 99-year lease on Hong Kong ends. It turns the
region over to the People's Republic of China.
Jul 13 From Bolivia, the remains of Che Guevara and some of
his comrades are returned for burial in Cuba.
Jul 23 Slobodan Milosevic steps down as Serbia's president
because he is allowed only two terms. He becomes Yugoslavia's third
president since 1992.
Jul 27 In Algeria, guerrillas kill an estimated 50 people in
the Si Zerrouk Massacre.
Aug 3 In Algeria, guerrillas kill from 40 to 76 villagers in
the Oued El-Had and Mezouara Massacres.
Aug 20 In Algeria, guerrillas kill more than 60 people and
kidnap 15 in the Souhane Massacre.
Aug 29 In Algeria, guerrillas kill more than 98 and possibly
400. It will be called the Rais Massacre.
Aug 31 In Paris, Diana, Princess of Wales, is pronounced dead
following a car crash.
Sep 7 Mobuto Sese Seku dies in Morocco. His age was 66. He is
reported to have been suffering from prostrate cancer.
Sep 19 In Algeria there is division among the Islamic
militants. Islamic militants are said to be responsible for killing 53,
mainly women and children, in the village of Guelb El-Kebi to punish
the village for supporting rival Islamic militants - the AIG.
Sep 23 At night in Algeria, AIG guerrillas go from house to
house for six hours, butchering an estimated 200 people before leaving
Oct 12 In Algeria, guerrillas kill an estimated 43 people in
the Sidi Daoud Massacre.
Oct 17 The remains of Che Guevara are laid to rest with full
military honors in a mausoleum in the city of Santa Clara, Cuba, where
he won a decisive battle 39 years before.
Oct 27 Stock markets around the world crash because of a
global economic crisis scare. The Dow Jones Industrial Average follows
suit and plummets 554.26, or 7.18%.
Oct 29 Iraq is moving to protect what it describes as its
national sovereignty. It says it will begin shooting down Lockheed U-2
surveillance planes being used by the UN weapons inspectors.
Nov 11 Mary McAleese, a Roman Catholic born in Belfast,
succeeds Mary Robinson as President of Ireland.
Nov 17 In Luxor, Egypt, six Islamic militants kill 62 people
outside the Temple of Hatshepsut. Tourism in Egypt is about to decline.
Dec 3 In Ottawa, Canada, representatives from 121 countries
sign a treaty prohibiting the manufacture and deployment of
anti-personnel land mines. The United States, the People's Republic of
China and Russia do not sign the treaty.
Dec 11 Nations meeting in Japan conclude the Kyoto Protocol Agreement,
designed to reduce greenhouse gasses that cause climate change. Its
strictures are to become effective on February 16, 2005.
Dec 24 In Algeria, guerrillas slaughter from 50 to 100 people
in the village of Sid El-Antri.
Dec 30 In Algeria, guerrillas kill an estimated 400 people in
four villages, to be known as the Wilaya of Relizane Massacres.
Jan 1 Smoking is banned in all California bars and
Jan 2 In Pakistan, the government of Nawaz Sharif files
corruption charges against former prime minister Benazir Bhutto and her
husband, Asif Ali Zardari.
Jan 11 In Algeria, more than 100 people die in the Sidi-Hamed Massacre.
Thirty girls are reported kidnapped.
Jan 12 Nineteen European nations forbid human cloning.
Jan 16 Lawyers for Paula Jones want evidence of President
Clinton's sexual misconduct with women other than their client. A
Pentagon employee, Linda Tripp, meets with them. She has recorded
telephone conversations between her and Monica S. Lewinsky telling of a
sexual relationship between Lewinsky and Clinton while she worked as an
intern at the White House.
Jan 16 Linda Tripp gives a taped statement to the Independent
Council, Kenneth Starr. Starr contacts Attorney General Janet Reno and
receives permission to broaden his investigation of President Clinton.
He is interested in the possibility of Clinton having persuaded someone
to commit perjury in the Jones case.
Jan 17 President Clinton gives a deposition in the Paula
Jones lawsuit. He denies having had a sexual relationship with
Lewinsky. An "internet journalist," Matt Drudge, reports the Lewinsky
Jan 21 The Washington Post reports the Lewinsky affair.
Jan 23 President Clinton assures his Cabinet of his
innocence. Betty Currie and other aides are subpoenaed to appear before
a federal grand jury.
Jan 26 At a White House press conference, President Clinton
says "I'm going to say this again: I did not have sexual relations with
that woman, Miss Lewinsky."
Jan 27 Hillary Clinton appears on the Today Show and
describes attacks against her husband as part of a "vast right-wing
Jan 29 The judge in the Paula Jones lawsuit rules that Monica
Lewinsky is "not essential to the core issues" of the Jones case, and
has ordered that all evidence related to Lewinsky be excluded from the
Jan 29 In Birmingham, Alabama, a bomb explodes at an abortion
clinic, killing one and severely wounding another. Eric Rudolph is the
Feb 18 The Clinton administration is known to be planning a
military strike to punish Iraq for violations of its peace agreements.
At a Town Hall Meeting at Ohio State University, Secretary of State
Madeleine Albright, Defense Secretary William Cohen and National
Security Adviser Sandy Berger are surprised by a prolonged hostile
disruption that includes the chant "we don't want your racist war."
Feb 20 To prevent military action by the United States and
Britain, President Saddam Hussein of Iraq negotiates an agreement deal
with U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan. Weapons inspectors will be
allowed to return to Baghdad.
Feb 23 Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa, declaring jihad
against all Jews and Crusaders.
Feb 23 US diplomat Robert Gelbard describes the Kosovo
Liberation Army (KLA) "without any question a terrorist group."
Mar 5-7 In Kosovo, Serb security forces have begun moving
against so-called terrorists and massacre over 50 members of the
Jashari family in the village of Prekaz. In the city of Prestina,
ethnic Albanians (Kosovars) begin large protests.
Mar 7 Madeleine Albright declares "We are not going to stand
by and watch the Serbian authorities do in Kosovo what they can no
longer get away with doing in Bosnia."
Apr 10 Britain, Ireland and most of Northern Ireland
political parties agree that the constitutional future of Northern
Ireland should be determined by the majority vote of its citizens -
known as the Belfast Agreement.
Mar 13 Arguing against the dismissal, Jones's attorneys file
700 pages of documents alleging that Clinton made advances toward
several women and took part in a "vast enterprise to suppress evidence."
Apr 16 A federal district judge dismisses the lawsuit of
Paula Jones. Jones announces that she will appeal and says: "I believe
what Mr. Clinton did to me was wrong."
May 13 India announces completion of tests of five nuclear devices in
the past three days.
May 14 In Indonesia, riots erupt against ethnic Chinese.
May 15 UN weapons inspectors learn that an Iraqi delegation
has traveled to Bucharest to meet with scientists who can provide the
country with missile guidance systems.
May 21 In Miami, five abortion clinics are attacked with
May 28 Pakistan tests nuclear devices, and Prime Minister
Nawaz Sharif declares Pakistan a ''nuclear power." This makes Pakistan
the seventh nation reported to have nuclear weapons.
May 29 Dr. Ibrahim Rugova, Kosovars Albanian president and a
professor of philosophy, meets with President Clinton, seeking support
for the well being of Kosovo's ethnic Albanians.
May 31 In Kosovo, Serbs kill as many as 20 ethnic Albanians
in retaliation for the death of a Serb policeman near Glogovac.
Jul 5 Japan launches a probe to Mars, joining the United
States and Russia as an outer space-exploring nation.
Jul 10 The Diocese of Dallas agrees to pay $23.4 million to
nine former altar boys who claim they were sexually abused by a former
priest, Rudolph Kos.
Jul 17 At a conference in Rome, 120 countries vote to create
a permanent International Criminal Court to prosecute individuals for
genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of
Jul 17 In Saint Petersburg, Russia, Nicholas II and his
family are buried in St. Catherine Chapel.
Jul 28 Lawyers for Monica Lewinsky work out a full immunity
agreement with Kenneth Starr.
Aug 5 Iraq suspends all cooperation with UN weapons
Aug 7 US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya are bombed, killing
224 and injuring more than 4,500.
Aug 17 At the White House, President Clinton makes a
statement on tape for a grand jury. He follows this with an admission
to television cameras that he had "a relationship with Miss Lewinsky
that was not appropriate. In fact, it was wrong. It constituted a
critical lapse in judgment and a personal failure on my part for which
I am solely and completely responsible. But I told the grand jury today
and I say to you now that at no time did I ask anyone to lie, to hide
or destroy evidence or to take any other unlawful action."
Aug 20 The US embassy bombings will soon be linked to Osama
Bin Laden. The United States military launches cruise missile attacks
against alleged al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical
plant in Sudan in retaliation for the August 7 bombings of American
embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. The al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in
Khartoum is destroyed in the attack.
Aug 21 From Khartoum, denials are made concerning chemical
weapons production at the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory.
Aug 21 The missile strikes of August 20 was a team effort
that included pentagon and intelligent community strategists. But
people are describing the missile strikes as motivated by President
Clinton's desire to draw attention away from his scandal. They are
inspired by a movie called "Wag the Dog" that happens to be playing at
theaters. Jim Gibbons, Republican congressman from Nevada, is among
them. He says, "Look at the movie 'Wag the Dog.' I think this has all
the elements of that movie." (Quoted in the Ottawa Citizen.)
Aug 26 Scott Ritter resigns from the UN weapons inspection
team. He criticizes the Clinton administration and the U.N. Security
Council for not being vigorous enough about insisting that Iraq's
weapons of mass destruction be destroyed.
Aug 31 North Korea reports that its first satellite has
reached orbit, but evidence of it is not forthcoming.
Sep 2 A United Nations court finds Jean-Paul Akayesu, the
former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of 9 counts of genocide.
It is the first time that the law against genocide has been enforced.
Sep 7 Two Stanford University Ph.D. candidates, Larry Page
and Sergey Brin, establish a company called Google.
Sep 9 Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr submits his report
and 18 boxes of supporting documents to the US House of Representatives.
Sep 23 The UN Security Council, concerned about what they
consider to be an excessive use of force by Serb forces in Kosovo and
ethnic Albanian refugees, approves Resolution 1199, which condemns
violence by both sides in the conflict and demands a cease-fire and
Sep 26 More than a dozen Serb police are killed in fighting
with the KLA, followed by Serb security forces killing 35 villagers, to
be known as the Gornje Obrinje Massacre.
Oct 5 UN Secretary General Kofi Annan reports Serb (Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia) violations of Resolution 1199.
Oct 13 NATO has authorized air strikes against the Serbs in
response to events in Kosovo. After more than a week of negotiations,
US diplomat Richard Holbrooke secures the "October Agreement." It calls
for Serbian compliance with UN Resolution 1199, a cease-fire, Serb
troop withdrawals from Kosovo, elections in Kosovo, and some autonomy
for Kosovo. President Milosevic agrees and the air strikes are called
Nov 4 The forced busing of students for the purpose of racial
desegregation has been widely opposed across the nation since it began
in the 1970s and 80s. Today in Seattle - known for its tolerance
regarding race - the School Board ends race-based busing of students in
middle and high schools as of the 1999-2000 school year. The School
Board considers mandatory busing a failure. It didn't improve the
academic performance of minorities who shouldered a disproportionate
burden of busing. Parental involvement in cross-town schools did not
increase and the financial costs of the program also hurt the district.
Across the nation, forced busing inspired a rise in private schools and
increased support for the conservative political position against too
Nov 9 Britain abolishes the death penalty.
Nov 12 A member of the Clinton administration signs the Kyoto
Protocol at the United Nations. India and China have not signed. The
Clinton administration is aware of the difficulties in getting Senate
ratification, and it says it will not ask for Senate ratification until
"developing countries" agree to participate.
Nov 13 President Clinton gives Paula Jones the entire amount
of her claim in exchange for her agreement to drop her case. The amount
is $850,000. All but $151,000 of it will go to pay her legal expenses.
Nov 19 Armed with Kenneth Starr's papers, the US House of
Representatives Judiciary Committee, led by Republicans, begins
impeachment hearings against President Clinton.
Dec 8-9 In Algeria, guerrillas slaughter 81 in a manner that
indicates extraordinary sadism, to be known as the Tadjena Massacre.
Dec 17 The US and Britain begin four days of limited air
strikes against Iraq.
Dec 19 In a vote largely along party lines, the US House of
Representatives impeaches President Clinton on charges of lying under
oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice. The case moves to
a trial in the Senate.
Dec 21 In the UN Security Council, France, Germany and Russia
call for the end of sanctions against Iraq and call for UN inspectors
to be disbanded or their role to be recast. The US says it will veto
any such proposal.
Dec 26 Iraq announces its intention to fire upon US and
British warplanes that patrol the northern and southern "no-fly zones."
Jan 15 In the village of Racak, in Kosovo, Serbs murder 45
unarmed ethnic Albanians.
Nemanja Jovanovic writes in July 2014: "Those Albanians weren't
unarmed. They were militia without uniforms." He gives
explanation for his claim.
Jan 20 In China, government restrictions are applied on
internet use, aimed especially at Internet cafes.
Feb 2 Hugo Chávez becomes President of Venezuela.
Feb 7 King Hussein of Jordan dies from cancer. His son,
Abdullah II, inherits the throne.
Feb 15 In Kenya, the Turkish National Intelligence Agency,
with assistance from US diplomacy and the CIA, capture the Kurdish
rebel leader, Abdullah Ocalan.
Feb 16 Across Europe and in Australia, Kurds protesting the
capture of Abullah Ocalan seize consulates, take hostages, set fires,
fight police and threaten suicide, to no avail. Ocalan will remain in
Feb 22 In Iraq, a moderate Shia, the Grand Ayatolah Mohammad
Sadeq al-Sadr and two of his sons are assassinated. An area in Baghdad
will be named for him, and one of his sons, Muqtada al-Sadr, will
replace him as a Shia leader.
Feb 23 White supremacist John William King is found guilty of
kidnapping and killing African-American James Byrd Jr. by dragging him
behind a truck for three kilometers.
Mar 12 Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic join NATO.
Mar 20 The violence in Kosovo has continued, and peace talks
in France have collapsed. The President of Yugoslavia, Slobodan
Milosevic, launches a Serb offensive in Kosovo.
Mar 24-31 In Kosovo, Serb police knock on doors and tell
people they must leave, to go where they want but just get out. Homes
are set afire. A mass exodus of ethnic Albanians (Kosovars) begins, to
be described as ethnic cleansing on a massive scale. In the coming week
the long line of Kosovars will be attacked by thieves and rapists.
Groups of Kosovars will be moving surreptitiously across mountain paths.
Mar 24 NATO launches air strikes against Yugoslavia
(basically Serbia and its capital, Belgrade). It is the first time NATO
has attacked a sovereign country.
Mar 25 Writes William Safire of the New York Times: "Senators
Lugar and McCain have expressed reluctance to see us lurch into a
combat commitment with no end in sight. He adds: "Henry Kissinger
exhibits 'great unease' at NATO's decision to intervene."
Mar 26 A Michigan jury finds Dr. Jack Kevorkian guilty of
second-degree murder for administering a lethal injection to a
terminally ill man.
Mar 29 In the US, for the first time the Dow Jones Industrial
Average closes above the 10,000 mark, at 10,006.78.
Apr 5 Two Libyans suspected of bringing down Pan Am flight
103 in 1988 are handed over to Scottish authorities for eventual trial
in the Netherlands. The United Nations suspends sanctions against Libya.
Apr 9 In Niger, Col. Ibrahim Baré Maînassara, who took power
through force and fraud in 1996, is assassinated. A military coup led
by Maj. Daouda Malam Wanké establishes a transitional National
Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution for a
Apr 27 In Algeria, President Liamine Zeroual, who has been
opposed to participation in elections by parties that are Islamist, has
been pressured by the army high command to step down. In new
presidential elections, six of the seven candidates have withdrawn,
alleging fraud. The candidate backed by the army, Abdelaziz Bouteflika,
is elected with 74 percent of the votes. He is to be president at least
into March 2008.
Apr 30 In London, David Copeland explodes his third nail bomb
this month, aimed at ethnic minorities and gays. It kills three and
May 3 The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 11,000
for the first time, at 11,014.70.
May 7 In Belgrade, three Chinese embassy workers are killed
and 20 wounded when a NATO aircraft mistakenly bombs the Chinese
Embassy in Belgrade. In China claims will be made that it was
May 9 The Kargil war has begun as fewer than one thousand
infiltrators from Pakistan move into India-ruled Kashmir territory.
May 24 From California to New York, small, but growing
numbers of protesters are calling for an end to the bombing of
May 29 Cathy O'Dowd, a South African mountaineer, becomes the
first woman to summit Mount Everest from both the north and south sides.
May 29 Nigeria terminates military rule, and the Nigerian
Fourth Republic is established with Olusegun Obasanjo as president.
Jun 2 After decades of resistance, the King of Bhutan allows
television transmissions to commence, coinciding with the King's Silver
Jubilee (see Bhutan Broadcasting Service).
Jun 5 In Algeria, members of the Islamic Salvation Front had
been denied an election victory in 1991. Its leaders had been jailed,
and in 1993 its members took to the hills and joined guerrillas groups.
Today the armed wing of the Islamic Salvation Front changes course. It
agrees in principle to disband.
Jun 10 President Milosovic is convinced that Russia, despite
its anti-NATO rhetoric, is not going to intervene to defend Serbia. He
accepts conditions offered by a Finnish-Russian mediation team: a
military presence in Kosovo headed by the UN, but incorporating NATO
troops. NATO suspends air strikes.
Jun 31 In Illinois a white supremacist leader, Matthew Hale,
27, is denied a license to practice law.
Jul 2 In Illinois, Benjamin Nathaniel Smith, 21, a follower
of Matthew Hale, begins a three-day killing spree, wounding six
orthodox Jews in a drive by shooting and killing an African American
former basketball coach as he is walking with his children.
Jul 4 In Bloomington Indiana, Smith kills a 26-year-old
Korean doctoral student who is on his way to the Korean United
Methodist Church. Following a highspeed chase with police Smith kills
Jul 1-31 In Algeria the government begins releasing from
prison Islamic militants not charged with murder.
Jul 11 India forces a retreat of Pakistani Army forces from
Kargil and claims victory in that two-month conflict.
Aug 7 Since the peace agreement of 1997, Chechnya has
remained economically devastated and suffering from lawlessness. The
Islamic militant group, the Islamic International Brigrade, has arisen.
They invade neighboring Dagestan, like Chenchnya a republic within the
Russian Federation, to support those fighting for independence.
Aug 9 In Russia, President Yeltsin appoints Vladimir Putin
Sep 16 In the past eight days apartment buildings have been
bombed in major Russian cities, including Moscow. Almost 300 people
have been killed.
Sep 23 In the Russian city of Ryazan, a bomb planted in an
apartment building is found and defused. Chechens are blamed for the
bombings. Yeltsin orders aircraft to bomb the capital of Chechnya:
Grozny. The Second Chechen War begins.
Oct 1 Switzerland becomes the 47th nation to have signed and
ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty - which bans nuclear
explosions in all environments for military or civilian purposes.
China, Russia, Israel and the US have signed but not yet ratified the
treaty. India and Pakistan have not signed.
Oct 4 Bolivia becomes the 48th nation to ratify the
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.
Oct 5 Mexico and Romania become the 49th and 50th nations to
ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.
Oct 12 According to the United Nations, world population
reaches six billion - up from four billion in 1974 and three billion in
Oct 12 Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif attempts to
dismiss Army Chief General Pervez Musharraf. Senior Army generals
refuse to accept the dismissal. Musharraf, who was in Sri Lanka,
attempts to return in a commercial airliner. Sharif orders the Karachi
airport to not allow the plane to land. The army takes over the
airport. The plane lands and Musharraf takes control of the government.
Sharif is no longer prime minister.
Oct 13 US Senate Republicans defeat ratification of the 1996
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the first time an arms control
treaty has been rejected by the Senate. Senator John Warner, chairman
of the Senate Armed Services Committee, said the treaty would be
gambling with the nation's nuclear deterrent capability.
Oct 31 The Roman Catholic Church and Lutherans sign the Joint
Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, ending a doctrinal
dispute over the nature of faith and salvation that arose during the
split between Catholicism and Protestantism.
Nov 6 Australians vote to keep the monarch, presently Queen
Elizabeth II, as their head of state.
Nov 12 In the US, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley act, also known as
the Financial Services Modernization Act, overturns the 1933
Glass-Steagall banking act of 1933. It is deregulation signed into law
by President Clinton. The Glass-Steagall Act prohibited a finance
institution from acting as more than one kind of finance institution:
investment bank, commercial bank or insurance company. Look back on
today, some will claim that the new law laid the path to the banking
crisis that unfolds in 2007.
Nov 20 The People's Republic of China launches the first
spacecraft, Shenzhou One.
Nov 22 In Algeria, a moderate leader of the Islamic Salvation
Front, Abdelkader Hachani, is assassinated in the waiting room of a
dental clinic. This reduces President Bouteflika's hopes for national
Nov 25 Fishermen rescue a five-year-old boy clinging to an
inner-tube three miles off the coast of Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He is
Elián Gonzalez. His mother and eleven others fleeing Cuba had drowned.
Nov 28 Elián Gonzales has been released into the
custody of an uncle in Miami. Elián's father, in Cuba, wants custody of
his son and files a complaint with the United Nations.
November Jesse Ventura, Govenor of Minnesota, in an interview
in this month's issue of Playboy magazine, says, "Organized religion is
a sham and a crutch for weak-minded people who need strength in
numbers. It tells people to go out and stick their noses in other
Dec 7 President Clinton says that Russia will pay a heavy
price for its military offensive in Chechnya.
Dec 9 Russia's president, Boris Yeltsin, is in Beijing, where
he has won support for his renewed war against Chechens. He says,
"Yesterday, Clinton permitted himself to put pressure on Russia. It
seems he has for a minute, for a second, for half a minute, forgotten
that Russia has a full arsenal of nuclear weapons. He has forgotten
Dec 10 Relatives in Miami defy the wishes of Elián's father
and send lawyers to request political asylum for Elián.
Dec 14 An Algerian, Ahmed Ressam, enters Washington state
from Canada. Federal customs agents find explosives in the trunk of his
car. He is arrested. It will be learned that he was planning to bomb
Los Angeles International Airport on New Year's Eve, and nervous
officials will cancel the New Year's celebration for Seattle.
Dec 20 Portugal turns over its colony Macau to the People's
Republic of China.
Dec 22 In elections promised by the leaders of a military
coup in May, the winner, a former army colonel, Mamadou Tandja, takes
office as president. He will remain in office as of this writing in
Dec 29 In his home in England, former Beatle George Harrison
is stabbed several times in the chest by an intruder who believes he is
on a mission from God. Harrison survives but from now on will rarely be
seen in public.
Dec 31 The US turns over complete administration of the
Panama Canal to Panama, as stipulated in the 1977 Torrijos-Carter
Dec 31 Yeltsin announces that he is resigning as Russia's
president. This leaves leaves Vladimir Putin as "acting president."
Jan 1 Millennium celebrations take place throughout the world
while others believe the new millennium begins on January 1, 2001, or
January 14 in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. And, of course,
there is the Chinese New Year.
Jan 14 The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 11,722.98,
its peak until late 2006.
Jan 23 Two grandmothers of Elián Gonzales arrive in the US
from Cuba to seek Elian's return to Cuba. They meet with Attorney
General Janet Reno, and Reno agrees that Elian belongs with his father.
Jan 28 Spain's Foreign Minister Abel Matutes calls for
Elian's return to Cuba, stating that international law dictates the
Jan 31 Elián's grandmothers return to Cuba and are greeted as
Feb 16 Turkey ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban
Feb 28 The second satellite service, Globalstar, began commercial service on Monday, February 28, 2000.
Mar 2 Hans Blix assumes the position of Executive Chairman of
the new UN weapons inspection organization, UNMOVIC.
Mar 10 In the US the NASDAQ stock exchange composite Index
reaches an all-time high of 5,048. It is the peak of the "dot.com"
bubble. In 2001 the NASDAQ will bottom at a little over 1000.
Mar 21 A US federal judge dismisses a petition for asylum for
Elián by Elián's relatives living in the United States.
Vice President Al Gore.
A federal agent finds Elian held in a
Stepmother, stepbrother, Elián and father.
Mar 21 The US Supreme Court rules that the government lacks
authority to regulate tobacco as an addictive drug, throwing out the
Clinton administration's main anti-smoking initiative.
Mar 26 In Russia, Vladimir Putin is elected President.
Mar 30 Vice President Al Gore says he supports legislation
that would allow Elian to remain in the US while a lawsuit is resolved
in family court. Some are disgusted by what appears to be pandering in
anticipation of November's presidential election.
Apr 6 Having received US State Department approval for a
visa, Elián's father, Juan Miguel Gonzalez, and other close relatives
arrive in the US hoping to return to Cuba with his son.
Apr 7 Attorney General Janet Reno meets with Elian's father
and tells him that US officials will give him his son.
Apr 12 Attorney General Reno meets with Elian's relatives in
Miami and orders them to surrender Elián to his father.
Apr 14 A video is released of a coached Elian saying that he
wants to stay in the United States. Years later Elián is to describe
his Miami relatives as "telling me bad things" about my father.
Apr 17 Morocco ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban
Apr 21 Crowds have been surrounding the home where Elián
lives with his uncle. Elián's relatives have refused to allow Elián to
be reunited with his father. Some describe the conflict over Elian as
between totalitarianism and freedom. One says that Elian must be kept
free otherwise it would be a slap in the face of the Founding Fathers.
Apr 22 In a predawn raid, armed US federal agents seize Elián
and a few hours later unite him with his father.
Apr 23 In the US, vociferous denunciations of President
Clinton erupt, describing his administration as using Gestapo tactics.
Apr 25 The State of Vermont legalizes civil unions for
Apr 28 Richard Baumhammers begins a two hour
racially-motivated shooting spree in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, leaving
five dead and one paralyzed.
May 7 Vladimir Putin takes office as President of the Russian
May 12 Pakistan's supreme court orders General Musharraf,
officially the prime minister since taking power last year, to hold
elections by October 2002.
June 13 Kim Dae Jung becomes the first South Korean president
to journey to North Korea.
June 21 A law preventing the promotion of homosexuality is
repealed by Scotland's parliament.
June 28 Elián Gonzalez returns to Cuba with his father,
stepmother and half brother to a jubilant reception.
Jun 26 Iceland and Portugal ratify the Comprehensive
Jun 30 Russia ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban
Treaty. The US Senate is not ready to ratify.
Jul 2 Vicente Fox is elected President of Mexico, ending 71
years of rule by the PRI (Partito Revolucionario Institucional).
Jul 25 At Camp David for two weeks as guests of President
Clinton, Israel's Prime Minister Ehud Barak and PLO Chairman Yasser
Arafat bargain. Barak offers the Palestinians control of 95 percent of
the West Bank, the removal of 40,000 Jewish settlers. He is adamant
about Jerusalem remaining Israel's capital and holding on to at least
20 percent of East Jerusalem. Arafat wants, but does not get, all of
the West Bank and all of East Jerusalem and Palestinian refugees to be
able to return to live in what is now Israel. Arafat walks away from
the agreement. He mentions being killed by his constituents if he had
Jul 30 In Venezuela, Hugo Chávez is re-elected president with
59 percent of the vote.
George W. Bush.
Aug 3 The Republican National Convention nominates George W.
Bush for president and Dick Cheney for vice president. He says
"Together we will renew America's purpose." Speaking of tax policy he
says, "The surplus is not the government's money. The surplus is the
Aug 10 President Chávez visits Iraq. Iraqi media hails the
visit as a breakthrough that weakens Iraq's isolation.
Aug 17 The Democratic National Convention nominates Al Gore
for president and Joe Lieberman for vice president. Al Gore: "Let's
invest in health care, education, a secure retirement and middle-class
tax cuts." I'm happy that the stock market has boomed and so many
businesses and new enterprises have done well. "
Sep 8 Albania joins the World Trade Organization.
Sep 13 The Los Angeles Times describes presidential candidate
George Bush as promising to proceed with caution before getting the US
involved beyond its borders.
Sep13 Belarus ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban
Sep 18 United Arab Emerats ratifies the Comprehensive
Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Presidential candidate Al Gore is supporting
the ratification of the treaty. Candidate George Bush is not.
Sep 28 In Jerusalem, Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon
visits the Temple Mount protected by a several-hundred-strong Israeli
police force. As Sharon and his party leave, Palestinians throw stones.
Israeli soldiers go to the defense of those being stoned. More than
thirty people are injured, mostly Israeli soldiers.
Sep 29 The violence escalates between Palestinian stone
throwers and Israeli police protecting Israeli worshippers at the
Sep 30 During a confrontation between Israeli soldiers and
Palestinians firing rifles, a father and his 12 year-old son are
trapped in the crossfire. The two are hit by bullets and the boy dies,
captured by a French cameraman, to be broadcast worldwide. The Second
Intafada, called the Al-Aqsa Intifada, has begun.
Oct 5 In Serbia, Slobodan Milosevic has failed to recognize
the results of the first round of an election cycle. Massive protests
have risen against him. Military leaders fail to back Milosevic,
allowing a coup against him. Milosevic is forced from his office as
President of Macedonia.
Oct 10 President Clinton signs a bill extending normal trade
status to China. He says it will "extend our nation's unprecedented
economic growth ... [and] reaffirm our own global leadership for peace
and prosperity." The bill has been opposed by labor, human rights and
Nov 7 In US presidential elections, Al Gore wins the popular
vote but the vote is close in Florida, where a win by Bush will give
him the electoral votes he needs to win.
Nov 8 In the vote counting in Florida, Bush's margin of
victory has dwindled to about 500 votes, narrow enough to trigger a
Dec 10 The Saudi royal family spares Pakistan's former prime
minister, Nawaz Sharif, from going to prison. Instead Sharif is exiled
to Saudi Arabia.
Dec 11 The Florida Supreme Court rules in favor of a recount
Dec 12 The US Supreme court rules 7-2 supporting a Republican
challenge that Florida Supreme Court's scheme for recounting ballots is
unconstitutional, and the Supreme Court rules 5-4 to end the Florida
George Bush becomes the official winner in Florida and the nation.
Dec 31 Political violence in Algeria through the year is
reported has having killed 2,500 civilians and 480 soldiers and guards.
Educational videos offered
Welcome to Our World of
a modern open area for learning
and understanding the mysteries
of the plant world!
Our Herbaceous Plants
Video package is a
2 disc. 3 hour set, packed full of information.
Plants Video package is sold
separately or as part of a
package is a
3 disc. 3 hour explaining the medical
compounds derived from plants
Pharmaceutical Plants Video package is
sold separately or as part of a
The Poisonous Plants
Video package is a
2 disc. 2-hour collection exzaming the
Poisonous compounds in and from plants
Poisonous Plants Video package is
sold separately or as part of a