Pharmaceutical Plants

Have Been Around For Years!

Missing Image File

Bottom of page

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Welcome to Our World of Plants, a modern open area for learning and understanding the mysteries of the plant world, A place of powerful, videos and articles that lend to understanding plants and their history of use in our world so you get the knowledge to help you in your endeavors, when you want it.

Plants make many chemical compounds for biological functions, including defense against insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals Over 12,000 active compounds are known to science; some 20 to 25 percent of the drugs used in modern medicine use such chemicals derived from plants. These chemicals work on the human body in exactly the same way as pharmaceutical drugs so herbal medicines can be beneficial and have harmful side effects just like conventional drugs. However, since a single plant may contain many substances, the effects of taking a plant as medicine can be complex. Further, the chemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many medicinal plants remains unknown, and the possible benefits and safety of many such plants have not been tested.

Medicinal plants are widely used in non-industrialized societies, not least because they are far cheaper than modern medicines. The annual global export value of pharmaceutical plants in 2012 was over 2.2 billion dollars U S. In many countries there is little regulation of traditional medicine, but the World Health Organization is coordinating a network to encourage safe and rational usage. Medicinal plants face both general threats such as climate change and habitat loss, and the specific threat of over-collection to meet market demand. In This video we will attempt to list the more important Pharmaceutical drugs made from plants. simply for general information and do not intend for it to be used for medical purposes

Morning Sun

A sample of the 2 hr. video of Pharmaceutical Plants, 

there uses and the Medicine made from them


A sample of the 2 hr. videos Of Pharmaceutical Plants, 

there uses and the Medicine made from them


Pharmaceutical Plant Cover face Pharmaceutical Plant Cover face Pharmaceutical Plante Pharmaceutical Plant Cover face

3 disc pacage $29.00 Plus S and H

Three Pack Here you will find many pages and document as well as Images for your use royalty few we often run specials on software and video on Disc. For your convenience

Below are some brief descriptions of many pharmaceutical plants

Bottom of page

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Acetyldigoxin.

a-Acetyldigoxin is a cardiac glycoside. It is an acetyl derivative of digoxin and an isomer of ß-acetyldigoxin. Its positive cardioinotropic effect starts after 3 to 4 hours and maximizes after 6 to 8 hours. With a Biological half-life 40 hours. It is prescribed for congestive chronic cardiac failure class II, III and IV.. it is a Cardiotonic A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. Acetyldigoxin like many other cardiac glycoside can be derived from the Digitalis lanata, also known as (Grecian foxglove, woolly foxglove) Digitalis lanata is a species of foxglove. It gets its name due to the texture of the leaves. Digitalis lanata, like some other foxglove species, is highly toxic in all parts of the plant,. Given the average percentage of digoxin and digitoxin in the plant to be less than 2%, nearly 2 thousand Pounds would have to be consumed by a 200lbs adult to die

Adoniside.

Adoniside. is a C (23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS. A Cardiotonic, A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. Derived from Adonis vernalis, known variously as pheasant's eye, spring pheasant's eye, yellow pheasant's eye and false hellebore, is a perennial flowering plant in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. It is found in dry meadows and steppes in Eurasia. Isolated populations are found from Spain in the west across Central Europe with fine examples in Valais , Switzerland, and southern Europe , reaching southern Sweden in the north and Abruzzo in the south, with its main area of distribution being the Pannonian Basin and the West Siberian Plain . In contrast to most other European Adonis species, the flowers appear in springtime, and are up to 80 milimeters in diameter, with up to 20 bright yellow petals . The plant is poisonous, containing cardiostimulant compounds, such as adonidin and aconitic acid. In addition, it is often used as an ornamental plant

Aescin,

or escin is a mixture of saponins with anti-inflammatory , vasoconstrictor and vasoprotective effects found in Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut). Aescin is the main active compound in horse chestnut, and is responsible for most of its medicinal properties Aescin Is a antiinflammatory, which refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling. Aesculus hippocastanum. also known as (horse chestnut). is a species of flowering plant in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae. It is a large deciduous, synoecious tree, commonly known as horse-chestnut or conker tree. , Is Now Threatened as it's Population is decreasing), The Ruby red horsechestnut will grow in full sun or light shade and prefers moist, well-drained, acid soils but grows in slightly alkaline soil. a large tree, growing to about 39 metres (128 ft) tall with a domed crown of stout branches; on old trees the outer branches often pendulous with curled-up tips. The leaves are opposite and palmately compound, with 5 to 7 leaflets; each leaflet is 13 to 30 Centimeters long, making the whole leaf up to 60 Centimeters across, with a 7 to 20 Centimeters petiole. The leaf scars left on twigs after the leaves have fallen have a distinctive horseshoe shape, complete with seven "nails".

Aesculetin.

Aesculetin is a derivative of coumarin. It is a natural lactone that derives from the intramolecular cyclization of a cinnamic acid derivative. It's Appearance is white or light yellow powder, Aesculetin is a Antidysentery. dysentery being, a disease characterized by severe diarrhea with passage of mucus and blood and usually caused by infection. Aesculetin, is extracted from the Frazinus rhychophylla, also known as (Ash), Fraxinus rhynchophylla is one of the last of the ashes to break leaf in spring, usually avoiding the late frost damage that affects so many other ash species. Autumn colour comes early, which is a further indication of its suitability to the Finnish climate and brief growing season. Autumn colour varies between provenances and individuals from a dull orange-brown to a brilliant wine-red.

Agrimophol.

Agrimophol. Mycobacterial tuberculosis (Mtb) is able to preserve its intrabacterial pH (pHIB) near neutrality in the acidic phagosomes of immunologically activated macrophages and to cause lethal pathology in immunocompetent mice. it is a Anthelmintic. Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. From the plant Agrimonia supatoria. Agrimonia eupatoria is a species of agrimony that is often referred to as common agrimony, church steeples or sticklewort. The whole plant is dark green with numerous soft hairs. The soft hairs aid in the plant's seed pods sticking to any animal or person coming in contact with the plant. The flower spikes have a spicy odor like apricots. In the Language of Flowers Agrimony means thankfulness or gratitude.

Ajmalicine

Ajmalicine, also known as d-yohimbine or raubasine, is an antihypertensive drug used in the treatment of high blood pressure. . A Treatment for circulatory disorders, Treatments vary widely and can include lifestyle changes, medications, surgery, stents, pacemakers, and ablation. From the Plant Rauvolfia sepentina. Rauvolfia serpentina, Indian snakeroot or devil pepper is a species of flower in the family Apocynaceae. Rauvolfia is a perennial undershrub widely distributed in India in the sub- Himalayan tracts up to 1 thousand metres as well as the lower ranges of the Eastern and Western Ghats and in the Andamans. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and East Asia.

Allantoin.

Allantoin, is a chemical compound with formula C4, H6, N4, O3,. It is also called 5-ureidohydantoin or glyoxyldiureide. It is a diureide of glyoxylic acid. Allantoin is a major metabolic intermediate in most organisms including animals, plants and bacteria. It is produced from uric acid, which is a degradation product of purine nucleobases, by urate oxidase (or uricase. Allantoin was first isolated in 18 hundred by the Italian physician Michele Francesco Buniva (17 61 to 18 34) and the French chemist Louis Nicolas Vauquelin , who mistakenly believed it to be present in the amniotic fluid . In 18 21, the French chemist Jean Louis Lassaigne found it in the fluid of the allantois ; he called it "l'acide allantoique". In 18 37, the German chemists Friedrich Wöhler and Justus Liebig synthesized it from uric acid and renamed it "allantoïn. Allantoin is a Vulnerary a medicine used in the healing of wounds.. Allantoin helps to soften and protect while actively soothing skin. It also stimulates cell regeneration promoting healthy skin. It can be found in plants, like comfrey and horse chestnut, and in the urine of most mammals. The type that is most commonly used in cosmetics and skincare products though derives from urea and glyoxylic acid

Allyl isothiocyanate.

Allyl isothiocyanate is the organosulfur compound with the formula CH2 CH CH2 NCS. This colorless oil is responsible for the pungent taste of mustard, radish, horseradish, and wasabi. A Rubefacient. A rubefacient is a substance for topical application that produces redness of the skin. e.g. by causing dilation of the capillaries and an increase in blood circulation. From the Brassica nigra (black mustard) Brassica nigra is an annual plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice., A Higher classification of Brassica, it Ranks as a Species Black mustard is one of several, Brassica species that are used as winter cover crops.

Anabesine

Anabesine,is a pyridine and piperidine alkaloid found in the Tree Tobacco plant, a close relative of the common tobacco plant. It is a structural isomer of, and chemically similar to, nicotine. It's principal industrial use is as an insecticide. as a Skeletal muscle relaxant. A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. It may be used to alleviate symptoms such as muscle spasms, pain, and hyperreflexia It is drived from the Anabasis, Anabasis is a genus of the subfamily Salsoloideae in the family Amaranthaceae. It is distributed in southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia. Anabasis aphylla is a perennial plant with much-branched stems that become more or less woody and usually persist, plus green, annual stems that usually die back in winter. It can grow from 20 - 75cm tall The plant is harvsted from the wild on a commercial basis for the extraction of the alkaloid anabasine,

Andrographolide,

Andrographolide is a labdane diterpenoid that has been isolated from the stem and leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Andrographolide is an extremely bitter substance. Treatment for baccillary dysentery. Antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole, and iodoquinol, are commonly used to treat dysentery caused by amoebiasis. Antibiotics like ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, or azithromycin are used to treat the organisms causing bacillary dysentery Obtained from Andrographis paniculata. aka. (Green chiretta) Andrographis paniculata is an annual herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae, native to India and Sri Lanka. It is widely cultivated in Southern and Southeastern Asia, where it has been traditionally used to treat infections and some diseases. Mostly the leaves and roots were used for medicinal purposes. The whole plant is also used in some cases

Anisodamine

Anisodamine, also known as 7 ß-hydroxyhyoscyamine, is an anticholinergic and a1 adrenergic receptor antagonist used in the treatment of acute circulatory shock in China under the Mandarin, A Anticholinergic, An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system. obtained from Anisodus tanguticus. Anisodus tanguticus is a species of flowering plant in the family Solanaceae which includes many important agricultural plants. It is mostly found growing in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Anisodine.

Anisodine also known as daturamine and a-hydroxyscopolamine, is an antispasmodic and anticholinergic drug used in the treatment of acute circulatory shock in China. Anisodine is a Anticholinergic, An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system. it is obtained from Anisodus tanguticus. Anisodus tanguticus is a species of flowering plant in the family Solanaceae which includes many important agricultural plants. It is mostly found growing in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Arecoline,

Arecoline is a nicotinic acid-based alkaloid found in the areca nut, the fruit of the areca palm. It is an odourless oily liquid. Arecoline is a base , and its conjugate acid has a pKa 6.8. pKa was introduced as an index to express the acidity of weak acids, Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic solvents and water, but extractable from water by ether in presence of dissolved salts. Being basic, arecoline forms salts with acids. The salts are crystalline, but usually deliquescent: the hydrochloride, arecoline HCl, forms needles, with a melting point of 158 °C; the hydrobromide, arecoline HBr, forms slender prisms, with a melting point of 177–179 °C from hot alcohol ; the aurichloride, arecoline H Au C l4, is an oil, but the platinichloride, arecoline2 H2 Pt C l6, with a melting point . 176 °C, crystallizes from water in orange-red rhombohedrons. The methiodide forms glancing prisms, with a melting point 173-174 °C. Arecoline, is a Anthelmintic. Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. Areca catechu also known as (betel nut palm) is a species of palm which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. In many Asian cultures, the areca nut is chewed along with betel leaf to obtain a stimulating effect. Arecoline is the primary active ingredient responsible for the central nervous system effects of the areca nut. Arecoline has been compared to nicotine ; however, nicotine acts primarily on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor . Arecoline is known to be a partial agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine M1, M2, M3 receptors and M4, which is believed to be the primary cause of its parasympathetic effects (such as pupillary constriction, bronchial constriction, etc

Asiaticoside

Asiaticoside, a highly polyphenolic compound, is one of the major triterpene glycosides in Centella asiatica or (CA). CA is an extremely important medicinal herb used in Java and other Indonesian islands, China , and other Asian countries , and is also becoming popular in Western countries . Asiaticoside retains inherent properties to combat oxidative species, which are frequently observed in patients with, A D associated memory impairments, CA increases intelligence and memory. Asiaticoside also has been reported to protect against A Beta induced neurotoxicity . More importantly, asiaticoside has been patented as a dementia-treating agent and cognitive enhancer . However, the mechanisms of action of asiaticoside have remained largely unknown. It is obtained from Centella asiatica also known as (gotu cola), commonly known as centella, Asiatic pennywort or Indian pennywort or Gotu kola, is a herbaceous, frost-tender perennial plant. It is native to wetlands in Asia. Centella grows in tropical swampy areas. The stems are slender, creeping stolons. green to reddish-green in color, connecting plants to each other. It has long-stalked, green, rounded apices which have smooth texture with palmately netted veins. The leaves are borne on pericladial petioles, around 2 centimeters (0.79 inches). The rootstock consists of rhizomes growing vertically down. They are creamish in color and covered with root hairs

Atropine.

Atropine. a Involuntary nervous system blocker It can treat heart rhythm problems, stomach or bowel problems, and certain types of poisoning when injected. It can also decrease saliva before surgery and dilate the pupils before an eye exam. A Anticholinergic, An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system. it is obtained for the Atropa belladonna, which is commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplant. It is native to Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia

B

Benzyl benzoate,

Benzyl benzoate is sold under the brand name Scabanca among others, is a medication and insect repellent. As a medication it is used to treat scabies and lice. For scabies either permethrin or malathion is typically preferred. A Scabicide is A medication used to treat scabies. Although they were the most effective treatment, medications such as the lindane solution Kwell contain benzene, and are no longer recommended for use. it is obtained from Several plants the top 9 plants with measured amounts of Benzyl-benzoate are

Cinnamomum verum cinnamon found in Leaf, Essent Oil, Leaf, Root Bark, Stem Bark, Essential Oil, Bark, max 840,000 ppm
Cinnamomum aromaticum cassia, cassia-bark, Chinese cinnamon, Chinese-cassia found in Lea ,f max 22,500 ppm
Dianthus caryophyllus, border carnation, carnation, clove pink, divine-flower, gilly-flower found in the Flower , max 1,160 ppm
Jasminum officinale common jasmine, jasmine, jessamine, poet's jasmine, summer jasmine, white jasmine found in Flower, max 247 ppm
Hyacinthus orientalis hyacinth found in Flower ,max 138 ppm
Peumus boldus found in Leaf , max 100 ppm
Telosma cordata Chinese-violet, fragrant telosma found in Flower ,max 47 ppm
Sideritis scardica found in Shoot ,max 36 ppm
Lonicera japonica gold-and-silver-flower, Japanese honeysuckle, found in Flower


Berberine,

Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Formula C20 H18 NO4+. ATreatment for bacillary dysentery Antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole* and iodoquinol, are commonly used to treat dysentery caused by amoebiasis. Antibiotics like ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, or azithromycin are used to treat the organisms causing bacillary dysentery. obtained from the Berberis vulgaris, also known as common barberry, European barberry or simply barberry, is a shrub in the genus Berberis. It produces edible but sharply acidic berries, which people in many countries eat as a tart and refreshing fruit

Bergenin,

Bergenin, alias cuscutin, is trihydroxybenzoic acid glycoside. It is the C-glycoside of 4-O-methyl gallic acid. It possesses an O-demethylated derivative called norbergenin, Formula C14 H16 O9 . A Antitussive, Antitussives help your cough by deterring your cough reflex. Antitussive is sometimes used in combination with an expectorant that helps to thin mucus. Antitussive drug names include dextromethorphan and codeine. obtained from the, Ardisia japonica, known as marlberry, is a species of Ardisia native to eastern Asia, in eastern China, Japan and Korea

etulinic acid.

is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid which has antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as a more recently discovered potential as an anticancer agent, by inhibition of topoisomerase. In 19 95, betulinic acid was reported as a selective inhibitor of human melanoma. Then it was demonstrated to induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo in model systems. At one time, it was undergoing drug development with assistance from the Rapid Access to Intervention Development program of the National Cancer Institute. Also, betulinic acid was found active in vitro against neuroectodermal (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma and malignant brain tumors. Betulinic acid is a Anticancerous agent, Natural Products as Anticancerous Therapeutic Molecules with Special Reference to Enzymatic Targets Topoisomerase, COX, LOX and Aromatase. Betulinic acid is obtained from Betula alba (the common birch). Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch or East Asian white birch, The silver birch is a medium-sized deciduous tree that owes its common name to the white peeling bark on the trunk. The twigs .... The rejected name Betula alba L. also applied in part to B. pendula, though also to B. pubescens.

Borneol,

Borneol, is a bicyclic organic compound and a terpene derivative. The hydroxyl group in this compound is placed in an endo position. There are two different enantiomers of borneol. Both d--borneol and l--borneol are found in nature, It is a Antipyretic, analgesic, & antiinflammatory. The most common antipyretics in the United States are ibuprofen and aspirin, which are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (N SAIDs) used primarily as analgesics, (pain relievers), but which also have antipyretic properties; and acetaminophen (paracetamol), an analgesic with weak anti-inflammatory properties. it is obtained from Several plants. The medicinal agent borneol (bingpian) refers to the resin obtained from Dryobalanops aromatica, or from Blumea balsamifera. Both plants are rich in the natural chemical constituent borneol (also known as borneol camphor). Synthetic borneol, obtained by simple chemical transformation of camphor and turpentine oil, is sometimes used in China as a substitute for the natural product. In recent years, new sources of natural borneol have been discovered, mainly certain species of Cinnamonum tree or (cinnamon tree).

Bromelain

Bromelain is an enzyme found in pineapple juice and in the pineapple stem. People use it for medicine. Bromelain is used for reducing swelling (inflammation), especially of the nose and sinuses, after surgery or injury. A Antiinflammatory & proteolytic. Proteolytic Enzymes Reduce Inflammation and Boost Immunity. Proteolytic enzymes digest protein by aiding in the digestion process, breaking it down into amino acids. ... A great example is papaya, which contains the proteolytic enzyme papain, a popular meat tenderizer. Obtained from the Ananas comosus or (pineapple). The pineapple is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family.

C

Caffeine

Caffeine, used to treat fatigue and migraines found in Coffee beans, tea leaves, coco pods, kola nuts and garana . A central nervous system stimulant. Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system, stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (A D H D) and narcolepsy. Amphetamine was discovered in 18 87 and exists as two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. often obtained from Camellia sinensis (tea, also coffee, cocoa and other plants) Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrub or small tree whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea.

Camphor

Camphor is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma. It is a terpenoid with the chemical Formula C 10 H 16 O, a Melting point of 347°F (175°C) , with a Boiling point of 408.2°F (209°C) , it is Soluble in Water. Camphor is a Rubefacient. A rubefacient is a substance for topical application that produces redness of the skin. by causing dilation of the capillaries and an increase in blood circulation. The health benefits of camphor essential oil include its properties as a stimulant, antispasmodic, antiseptic, decongestant, anesthetic, sedative and nervous pacifier. It also acts an antineuralgic, anti-inflammatory, disinfectant, and an insecticide. It is found in the wood of the camphor laurel or (Cinnamomum camphora ),often called (camphor tree). a large evergreen that grows up to 20-30 meters tall. The leaves have a glossy, waxy appearance and smell of camphor when crushed. In spring, it produces bright green foliage with masses of small white flowers found in Asia (particularly in Sumatra and Borneo islands, Indonesia ) and also of the unrelated kapur tree , a tall timber tree from the same region. It also occurs in some other related trees in the laurel family , notably Ocotea usambarensis . The oil in rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis ), in the mint family, contains 10 to 20% camphor, while camphorweed (Heterotheca ) only contains some 5%. Camphor can also be synthetically produced from oil of turpentine . It is used for its scent, as an ingredient in cooking (mainly in India ), as an embalming fluid , for medicinal purposes, and in religious ceremonies. A major source of camphor in Asia is camphor basil (the parent of African blue basil ).

Camptothecin.

Camptothecin, is a cytotoxic quinoline alkaloid which inhibits the D N A enzyme topoisomerase I. It was discovered in 19 66 by M. E. Wall and M. C. Wani in systematic screening of natural products for anticancer drugs. Formula: C 20 H 16 N 2 O 4, Melting point: 275 to 277 °C (527 to 531 °F), It is a Anticancerous. A Natural Products as Anticancerous, are Therapeutic Molecules with Special Reference to Enzymatic Targets Topoisomerase, COX, LOX and Aromatase. it is Derived from Camptotheca acuminata, Camptotheca is a genus of medium-sized deciduous trees growing to 20 metres (66 ft) tall, ... There are two species: Camptotheca acuminata Decne. Camptotheca lowreyana S Y Li, The bark and stems of C. acuminata contain the alkaloid camptothecin.

atechin(+) -

Catechin(+) - , Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, (Flavan-3-ols are derivatives of flavans that use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-ol skeleton). a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. It is a plant secondary metabolite. It belongs to the group of flavan-3-ols, part of the chemical family of flavonoids. Hemostatic Hemostasis or haemostasis is a process which causes bleeding to stop, meaning to keep blood within a damaged blood vessel (the opposite of hemostasis is hemorrhage). It is the first stage of wound healing. This involves coagulation, blood changing from a liquid to a gel. it is obtained from Potentilla fragarioides, Potentilla fragarioides is a member of the Rosaceae family that is native to China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, and Russia.

Chymopapain Proteolytic.

Chymopapain Proteolytic Chymopapain (E C 3 4 22 6, chymopapain A, chymopapain B, chymopapain S, brand name Chymodiactin) is a proteolytic enzyme isolated from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya). It is a medication used to treat herniated lower lumbar discs in the spine. Chymopapain injections are normally given under local, rather than general, anaesthesia. The dose for a single intervertebral disc is 2 to 4 nanokatals, with a maximum dose per patient of 8 nanokatals. The procedure is referred to as chemonucleolysis. A Marcozyme, Marcozyme is a proteolytic enzyme used for inflammation and inflammatory exudative diseases. obtained from Carica papaya or (papaya) The papaya, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae. Its origin is in the tropics of the Americas, perhaps from southern Mexico and neighboring Central America

Cissampeline

Cissampeline, cissampareine among many others Roots yield pelosin or cissampeline, (identical to berberine), and another alkaloid, serperine. Plant yields isoquinoline alkaloids; tetrandrine, the most documented of 38 alkaloids. it is a Skeletal muscle relaxant, A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. It may be used to alleviate symptoms such as muscle spasms, pain, and hyperreflexia. Derived from the Cissampelos pareira or (velvet leaf) Cissampelos pareira is a species of flowering plant in the family Menispermaceae,

Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or as a solution injected into a vein. Formula: C 17, H 21, N, O 4, The Addiction liability is High, with a Biological half-life of 1 hour, the Duration of action is 5 to 90 minutes. A Local anaesthetic. A local anesthetic is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. when it is used on specific nerve pathways, paralysis also can be achieved. it is obtained from Erythroxylum coca or (coca plant) Erythroxylum coca is one of two species of cultivated coca.,

Codeine

Codeine, is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug a (N SAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 20 16 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. It is a Analgesic & a antitussive, Analgesics are medicines that are used to relieve pain, (provide analgesia). They are also known as painkillers. Technically, the term analgesic refers to a Antitussives which are medicines that suppress coughing, also known as cough suppressants. Antitussives are thought to work by inhibiting a coordinating region. obtained form Papaver somniferum a (poppy), Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae. It is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are derived and is a valuable ornamental plant, grown in gardens

Colchiceine amide

Colchiceine amide, A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever. Other names Colchicine, (R)-Isomer; Colchicine, (+-)-Isomer Antitumor agent Angiogenesis inhibitors, D N A intercalators and cross-linkers, D N A synthesis inhibitors, D N A - R N A transcription regulators, enzyme inhibitors, gene regulation, it is obtained from the Colchicum autumnale, commonly known as autumn crocus, meadow saffron or naked lady, is an autumn-blooming flowering plant that resembles the true crocuses, but is a member of the Colchicaceae plant.

Colchicine

Colchicine, It can treat and prevent gout attacks. It can also treat familial Mediterranean fever, popular Brands are Colcrys and Mitigare, Availability is by Prescription. During Pregnancy you should Consult a doctor , Alcohol Interactions can occur, it's Drug class is a Microtubule polymerization inhibitor. A Antitumor & antigout agent. is used in:preventing or inhibiting the formation or growth of tumors, Gout is a common metabolic disorder caused by high body uric acid levels, and marked by episodic deposition of uric acid crystals in joints, (acute gouty arthritis), and other tissues such as the kidney (urate nephropathy or nephrolithiasis). It is obtained from Colchicum autumnale, commonly known as autumn crocus, meadow saffron or naked lady, is an autumn-blooming flowering plant that resembles the true crocuses, but is a member of the Colchicaceae plant

Convallatoxin is a glycoside extracted from Convallaria majalis Formula C 29 H 42 O 10 , With a Boiling point of 1,395°F (757.3°C) , It is a Cardiotonic, A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. It is obtained extracted from Convallaria majalis, commonly known as (lily-of-the-valley), Lily of the valley, is a sweetly scented, highly poisonous woodland flowering plant that is native throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere in Asia, and Europe.

Curcumin.

Curcumin is a bright yellow chemical produced by some plants. It is the principal curcuminoid of turmeric, a member of the ginger family. It is sold as an herbal supplement, cosmetics ingredient, food flavoring, and food coloring. Formula C 21 H 20 O 6 , with a Melting point of 361.4°F (183°C) , Appearance is Bright yellow-orange powder. it is a Choleretic, Choleretics are substances that increase the volume of secretion of bile from the liver as well as the amount of solids secreted. It is Obtained from the Curcuma longa commonly known as (turmeric). Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is native to Southeast Asia, and requires temperatures between 20 and 30 °C and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive.

Cynarin

Cynarin, Cynarine is a hydroxycinnamic acid and a biologically active chemical constituent of artichoke. Chemically, it is an ester formed from quinic acid and two units of caffeic acid. It inhibits taste receptors, making water seem sweet. The Chemical formula C 25 H 24 O 12 , It is a Choleretic. Choleretics are substances that increase the volume of secretion of bile from the liver as well as the amount of solids secreted. It is Obtained from the Cynara scolymus, commonly known as (artichoke). The globe artichoke is a variety of a species of thistle cultivated as a food. The edible portion of the plant consists of the flower buds before the flowers come into bloom

D

Danthron.

Dantron, also known as chrysazin or 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, is an organic substance, formally derived from anthraquinone by the replacement of two hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl groups. It is used in some countries as a stimulant laxative. Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements. They are used to treat and or prevent constipation. Laxatives vary as to how they work and the side effects they may have. It is Obtained from the Cassia species Cassia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, and the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. Species are known commonly as cassias. Cassia is also the English common name of some species in the genus Cinnamomum of the family Lauraceae.

Demecolcine

Demecolcine, also known as Colcemid, is a drug used in chemotherapy. It is closely related to the natural alkaloid colchicine with the replacement of the acetyl group on the amino moiety with methyl, but it is less toxic. It is a Antitumor agent used for:preventing or inhibiting the formation or growth of tumors it is A anticancer.& antitumor agents. extracted from the Colchicum autumnale commonly known as (autumn crocus), meadow saffron or naked lady, is an autumn-blooming flowering plant that resembles the true crocuses, but is a member of the Colchicaceae plant family.

Deserpidine

Deserpidine is an antihypertensive drug related to reserpine which occurs naturally in Rauvolfia spp. Formula : C 32 H 38 N 2 O 8 , It is a Antihypertensive & a tranquilizer. Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension. Tranquilizer, as a term, was brought into existence by F.F Yonkman in (19 53), It is extracted from the Rauvolfia canescens. which is in Oxy ELITE Pro, the #1 fat burner on the market, is one of the emerging ingredients when it comes to weight loss. Rauvolfia canescens, also known as Rauwolfia canescens or snake root plant, is a small shrub that reaches up to 1 meter in height.

Deslanoside

Deslanoside, is a cardiac glycoside, a type of drug that can be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. It is found in the leaves of Digitalis lanata, (often called woolly foxglove or Grecian foxglove. It is a Cardiotonic, A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. Digitalis lanata is a species of foxglove. It gets its name due to the texture of the leaves. Digitalis lanata, like some other foxglove species, is highly toxic in all parts of the plant.

Digitalin

Digitalin, A white crystalline glycoside, C 36 H 56 O 14, that is obtained from the seeds of the common foxglove. it is One of several mixtures of digitalis glycosides that are extracted from the leaves or seeds of the common foxglove. a drug containing the active constituents of digitalis. it is A Cardiotonic. A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. It is extracted from the Digitalis purpurea commonly known as (purple foxglove). Digitalis purpurea is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family Scrophulariaceae, native to and widespread throughout most of temperate Europe. It is also naturalised in parts of North America and some other temperate regions

Digitoxin.

Digitoxin is a cardiac glycoside. It is a phytosteroid and is similar in structure and effects to digoxin. Unlike digoxin, it is eliminated via the liver, so could be used in patients with poor or erratic kidney function. It is a Cardiotonic. A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. It is found in the Digitalis purpurea commonly known as (purple foxglove) Digitalis purpurea is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family Scrophulariaceae, native to and widespread throughout most of temperate Europe. It is also naturalised in parts of North America and some other temperate regions

Digoxin

Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions. Most frequently it is used for atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and heart failure. Digoxin is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. Common side effects include breast enlargement with other side effects generally due to an excessive dose. These side effects may include loss of appetite, nausea, trouble seeing, confusion, and an irregular heartbeat. It is a Cardiotonic. A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. It is extracted from the Digitalis purpurea commonly known as (purple or common foxglove). Digitalis purpurea is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family Scrophulariaceae, native to and widespread throughout most of temperate Europe. It is also naturalised in parts of North America and some other temperate regions. Digitalis Purpurea, is an eye-catching biennial or short-lived perennial, which forms tall spires, rising from a basal rosette

Dopa-L or L-DOPA

Dopa-L or L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, & some animals and plants. Some animals and humans make it via biosynthesis from the amino acid L-tyrosine. Formula C 9 H 11 N O 4 Bioavailability is30%, Biological half-life is 0.75-1.5 hours, Metabolism is Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase it is a Anti-parkinsonism. An antiparkinson medication is a type of drug which is intended to treat and relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is extracted from the Mucuna species. (nescafe, cowage, & velvetbean). Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume native to Africa and tropical Asia and widely naturalized and cultivated. cowage is A leguminous climbing plant , the spiculae of Mucuna pruriens are sometimes used as a mechanical vermifuge, an agent that destroys or expels parasitic worms.

E

Emetine

Emetine, is a drug used as both an anti-protozoal and to induce vomiting. It is produced from the ipecac root. It takes its name from its emetic properties. It Is Amoebicide & A emetic. An amebicide (or amoebicide) is an agent used in the treatment of amoebozoa infections, called amoebiasis. emetic, a medicine or other substance that causes vomiting. It is found in the Cephaelis ipecacuanha. Carapichea ipecacuanha is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family. It is native to Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, and Brazil. Its common name, ipecacuanha, is derived from the Tupi ipega'kwãi, or "road-side sick-making plant".

Ephedrin, An Involuntary nervous system stimulant. It can treat low blood pressure caused by other medications. It can also improve breathing. Ephedrine Sulfate Injection, U S P is indicated in the treatment of allergic disorders, such as bronchial asthma. The drug has long been used as a pressor agent, particularly during spinal anesthesia when hypotension frequently occurs. it is a Sympathomimetic, & antihistamine. Sympathomimetic drugs are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system. Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies. Antihistamines can give relief when a person has nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives because of pollen, dust mites, or animal allergy, Antihistamines can pose problems for the male prostate . It is extracted from the Ephedra sinica also commonly known as (ephedra, ma huang). Ephedra sinica is a Chinese native joint fir, found from Mongolia into China from 25 hundred feet to Five thousand feet elevation, growing on sun-drenched, sandy mountain slopes. Ephedra sinica doesn't have leaves, instead it only produces rigid, narrow, evergreen blue-green branches making an ever-widening mat...

Ephedrine. An Involuntary nervous system stimulant. It can treat low blood pressure caused by other medications. It can also improve breathing. Ephedrine Sulfate Injection, U S P is indicated in the treatment of allergic disorders, such as bronchial asthma. The drug has long been used as a pressor agent, particularly during spinal anesthesia when hypotension frequently occurs. it is a Sympathomimetic, & antihistamine. Sympathomimetic drugs are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system. Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies. Antihistamines can give relief when a person has nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives because of pollen, dust mites, or animal allergy, Antihistamines can pose problems for the male prostate . It is extracted from the Ephedra sinica also commonly known as (ephedra, ma huang). Ephedra sinica is a Chinese native joint fir, found from Mongolia into China from 25 hundred feet to Five thousand feet elevation, growing on sun-drenched, sandy mountain slopes. Ephedra sinica doesn't have leaves, instead it only produces rigid, narrow, evergreen blue-green branches making an ever-widening mat...

Etoposide

Etoposide,sold under the brand name Etopophos among others, is a chemotherapy medication used for the treatments of a number of types of cancer. it is a Antitumor agent & Angiogenesis inhibitors, D N A intercalators and cross-linkers, D N A synthesis inhibitors, D N A-R N A transcription regulators, enzyme inhibitors, gene regulation, It is extracted from the Podophyllum peltatum commonly known as, Podophyllum peltatum L, Mayapple, Indian apple, Wild mandrake, Pomme de mai, Podophylle pelt. The Mayapple is unique in that It has only 2 leaves and 1 flower, which grows in the axil of the leaves. The large, twin, umbrella-like leaves of mayapple are showy and conspicuous. They remain closed as the stem lengthens, unfolding 6-8 inches across when the plant has reached its 1 to 1 & 1/2 ft. height. The solitary, nodding, white to rose-colored flower grows in the axil of the leaves and has 6-9 waxy white petals, with many stamens. The nodding fruit is a large, fleshy, lemon-shaped berry.

G

Galantamine

Galantamine, also known as (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is used for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and various other memory impairments, in particular those of vascular origin. It is an alkaloid that has been isolated from the bulbs and flowers of Galanthus caucasicus commonly known as (Caucasian snowdrop), Galanthus woronowii, (Voronov's snowdrop), and some other members of the family Amaryllidaceae such as Narcissus (daffodil), Leucojum aestivum (snowflake), and Lycoris including Lycoris radiata (red spider lily). It can also be produced synthetically. it is a Cholinesterase inhibitor & An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated A C h E I) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is found in the Lycoris squamigera also commonly known as (magic lily, resurrection lily, naked lady) Lycoris squamigera (resurrection lily) is a plant in the amaryllis family, Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Amaryllidoideae. It is also sometimes referred to as naked ladies. It is believed to have originated in Japan or China, perhaps a hybrid between Lycoris straminea and Lycoris incarnata. It is now cultivated as an ornamental in many places, and naturalized in Korea.

Gitalin

Gitalin, a mixture of digitalis glycosides used as a cardiotonic in congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias Arrhythmia. Called also amorphous gitalin. It is a Cardiotonic, A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. It is found in Digitalis purpurea also known as (purple or common foxglove) Digitalis purpurea is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family Scrophulariaceae, native to and widespread throughout most of temperate Europe. It is also naturalised in parts of North America and some other temperate regions

Glasiovine

Glasiovine, is a Antidepressant, Octea glaziovii. Glycyrrhizin, Sweetener, treatment for Addison's disease, Glycyrrhiza glabra. Gossypol, & Male contraceptive. Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, It is found in Octea glaziovii, Ocotea is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the family Lauraceae. Many are evergreen trees with lauroid leaves. There are 324 species currently accepted within the genus, distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas (around 300 species) including the Caribbean and West Indies, but also with some species in Africa, Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands. One species (O. foetens) is native to the Macaronesia (in Canary Islands and Madeira).

Glaucine

Glaucine, An alkaloid with a very complex molecule structure. It can be considered a phenethylamine, an alkaloid, and an opioid. But overall, it is a psychedelic, and a mild, relatively sedating one. With its incredible tolerance. Glaucine is an alkaloid found in several different plant species in the Papaveraceae family such as Glaucium flavum, Glaucium oxylobum and Corydalis yanhusuo, and in other plants like Croton lechleri in the family Euphorbiaceae. it is a Antitussive. Antitussives help your cough by deterring your cough reflex. Antitussive is sometimes used in combination with an expectorant that helps to thin mucus. Antitussive drug names include dextromethorphan and codeine. It is also found in the Glaucium flavum also known as, (yellow hornpoppy, horned poppy, sea poppy) Glaucium flavum is a summer flowering plant in the Papaveraceae family, which is native to Northern Africa, Macronesia, temperate zones in Western Asia and the Caucasus, as well as Europe

Glycyrrhizin

Glycyrrhizin, (or glycyrrhizic acid or glycyrrhizinic acid) is the chief sweet-tasting constituent of Glycyrrhiza glabra also known as (liquorice) root. Structurally it is a saponin and has been used as an emulsifier and gel-forming agent in foodstuff and cosmetics. Sweetener, treatment for Addison's disease Artificial sweeteners are low-calorie or calorie-free chemical substances that are used instead of sugar to sweeten foods and drinks. They are found in thousands of products, from drinks, desserts and ready meals, to cakes, chewing gum and toothpaste. All treatment for Addison's disease involves hormone replacement therapy to correct the levels of steroid hormones your body isn't producing. Some options for treatment include: Oral corticosteroids. Hydrocortisone (Cortef), prednisone or cortisone acetate may be used to replace cortisol. It is extracted from the Glycyrrhiza glabra also known as (licorice). Liquorice or licorice LIK-rish, LIK-ris is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. The liquorice plant is a herbaceous perennial legume native to southern Europe and parts of Asia, such as India

Gossypol

Gossypol, is a natural phenol derived from the cotton plant. Gossypol is a phenolic aldehyde that permeates cells and acts as an inhibitor for several dehydrogenase enzymes. It is a yellow pigment. and Male contraceptive. Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male physiology. The most common kinds of male contraception include condoms, withdrawal or pulling out, outercourse, and vasectomy. In domestic animals, castration is commonly used for contraception. Other forms of male contraception are in various stages of research and development. These include methods like RISUG or VasalGel (which has completed a small phase II clinical trial in humans in India) and ultrasound (with results so far obtained in experimental animals ). It is extracted from the Gossypium species or (cotton) Gossypium is the cotton genus. It belongs to the tribe Gossypieae, in the mallow family, Malvaceae, native to the tropical and subtropical regions from both the Old and New World. The genus Gossypium comprises around 50 species, making it the largest in species number in the tribe Gossypieae.

H

Hemsleyadin

Hemsleyadin, Used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection, acute tonsillitis, mumps, pharyngitis, acute or chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, acute urinary tract infection, acute or chronic adnexitis, pelvic inflammation. A Treatment for bacillary dysentery. Bacillary dysentery is a type of dysentery, and is a severe form of shigellosis. Bacillary dysentery is associated with species of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family. The term is usually restricted to Shigella infections. Shigellosis is caused by one of several types of Shigella bacteria. Hemsleyadin is found in the Hemsleya amabilis, Hemsleya amabilis extract is derived from the medicinal herb Hemsleya amabilis, which has long been used to treat cancer and many other conditions. The underlying mechanism is not clear. The drug is the dried root tuber of Hemsleya amabilis Diels (family Cucurbitaceae), growing in shrubs, gullies, woods or at wet places, distributed in Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan of China.

Hesperidin

Hesperidin,is a flavanon glycoside found in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. Its name is derived from the word "hesperidium", for fruit produced by citrus trees. Hesperidin. is aTreatment for capillary fragility. When the smallest blood vessels, capillaries, become weak, a person has capillary fragility. A double-blind trial found a combination of two flavonoids (900 milligrams per day of diosmin and 100 milligrams per day hesperidin) for six weeks reduced symptoms of capillary fragility. the use of vitamin C with flavonoids, particularly quercetin, rutin, and hesperidin, is sometimes recommended for capillary fragility. Hesperidin is derived from Citrus species (e.g., oranges). Most cultivated Citrus seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of four core ancestral species, the citron, pummelo, mandarine, and papeda. Natural and cultivated citrus hybrids include commercially important fruit such as oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, and some tangerines. Citrus, in many ways, stands alone. So many cultivated species have come from so few primary ancestors. Just three, in fact: citrons, pomelos, and mandarins, all native to South and East Asia before they started their journeys west, to places like Florida, California, and Brazil that built entire economies around fruits from the other side of the world.

Hydrastine

Hydrastine,is an alkaloid which was discovered in 18 51 by Alfred P. Durand. Hydrolysis of hydrastine yields hydrastinine, which was patented by Bayer as a haemostatic drug during the 19 10s. It is present in Hydrastis canadensis (thus the name) and other plants of the Ranunculaceae family. The first attempt for the total synthesis of hydrastine was reported by Sir Robert Robinson and co-workers in 19 31. Following studies, which were mostly troublesome for the synthesis of the key lactonic amide intermediate. The major breakthrough was achieved in 19 81 when J. R. Falck and [6] co-workers reported a four-step total synthesis of hydrastine from simple starting materials. The key step in the Flack synthesis was using a Passerini reaction to construct the lactonic amide intermediate. it is a Hemostatic & a astringent. An antihemorrhagic agent is a substance that promotes hemostasis. It may also be known as a hemostatic agent. A styptic is a specific type of antihemorrhagic agent that works by contracting tissue to seal injured blood vessels. An astringent (occasional alternative: adstringent) substance is a chemical compound that tends to shrink or constrict body tissues. The word "astringent" derives from Latin adstringere, meaning "to bind fast". Two common examples are calamine lotion and witch hazel. It is extracted from Hydrastis canadensis also commonly known as (goldenseal). Goldenseal, also called orangeroot or yellow puccoon, is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and the eastern United States. It may be distinguished by its thick, yellow knotted rootstock.

Hyoscyamine

Hyoscyamine, Some of the Common brands are Levsin, Oscimin, Hyosyne. It is a Gut antispasmodic and anti-tremor, It can treat muscle cramps in the bowels or bladder. it can treat symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), colitis, and other digestive problems. It can treat pain caused by kidney stones or gallstones, and muscle problems related to Parkinson's disease. It can treat irritation of the nose. It can treat stomach ulcers. It can also treat anticholinesterase poisoning. it is a Anticholinergic. Opposing the actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Anticholinergic drugs inhibit the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses, thereby reducing spasms of smooth muscles (for example, muscles in the bladder). Side effects of anticholinergic medications include dry mouth and related dental problems, blurred vision, tendency toward overheating known as (hyperpyrexia), and in some cases, dementia like symptoms. It is extracted from the. Hyoscyamus niger, commonly known as henbane, black henbane or stinking nightshade, it is a poisonous plant in the family Solanaceae. So poisonous that the smell of the flowers produces giddiness. but in some cultures it is used for ritual and recreational purposes due to its strong hallucinogenic properties.

I

Irinotecan

Irinotecan, is sold under the brand name Camptosar among others, is a medication used to treat colon cancer and small cell lung cancer. For colon cancer it is used either alone or with fluorouracil. For small cell lung cancer it is used with cisplatin. It is given by slow injection into a vein. Common side effects include diarrhea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, hair loss, shortness of breath, and fever. Other severe side effects include blood clots, colon inflammation, and allergic reactions. Those with two copies of the UGT1A1 28 gene variant are at higher risk for side effects. Use during pregnancy can result in harm to the baby. Irinotecan is in the topoisomerase inhibitor family of medication. It works by blocking topoisomerase 1 which results in D N A damage and cell death. it is a Anticancer & antitumor agent, It increases cellular resistance to anticancer agents such as doxorubicin and induces apoptosis in myeloma cells. A Metabolite of sulindac that inhibits cell growth by inducing apoptosis independently of cyclooxygenase inhibition. Sulindac is a known anti-inflammatory drug that functions by inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX). There has been recent interest in Sulindac and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) because of their anti-tumor activity against colorectal cancer. derived from the Camptotheca acuminata. Camptotheca is a genus of medium-sized deciduous trees growing to 20 metres (66 ft) tall, There are two species: Camptotheca acuminata Decne & Camptotheca lowreyana S Y Li. The bark and stems of C. acuminata contain the alkaloid camptothecin.

K

Kainic acid

Kainic acid, is a natural marine acid present in some seaweed. Kainic acid is a potent neuroexcitatory amino acid agonist that acts by activating receptors for glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It is a Ascaricide. '' Ascaricides" are drugs to treat ascarias-is that is caused by infections with parasitic nematodes also known as (roundworms) of the genus Ascaris or (giant intestinal roundworms). The large roundworm of pigs (Ascaris suum) typically infects pigs while Ascaris lumbricoides affects human populations, typically in sub-tropical and tropical areas with poor sanitation. Ascaricides belong to the group of drugs collectively called anthelmintics which expel parasitic worms, (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. Digenea simplex (wireweed) Digenea simplex D. simplex is mainly used as an anthelmintic medicine or vermifuge. Its use as a vermifuge was first described in Fujian Province (China) in 15 30 A D . It is the most efficient seaweed used in the treatment of Ascaris and Oxyuris, as well as whipworm (Trichuris) and tapeworm (Taenia) because it contains kainic acids. A single dose of 5-10 milligrams of a-kainic acid is capable of driving out Ascaris in adults and no unpleasant side effects have been observed. It can also be used together with santonin, where a synergetic action results in a marked increase of the ascaricidal effect. This algal compound is one of the few "drugs from the sea" used in orthodox medicine. An extract of D. simplex from Asia is on the market under the names "Helmia" and "Digenea" for use in the treatment of worms. D. simplex also is a source of agar, but because of its small size and low agar content it is unlikely to gain any commercial importance.

Kavain

Kavain. has anticonvulsive properties, attenuating vascular smooth muscle contraction through interactions with voltage-dependent Na Plus and Ca2+ channels. How this effect is mediated and to what extent this mechanism is involved in the anxiolytic and analgesic effects of kavalactones on the central nervous system is unknown. Kavain's pharmacological activities have not been sufficiently investigated. it is a Tranquilizer, A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension. Tranquilizer, as a term, was brought into existence by F.F Yonkman. Kavain is found in the Piper methysticum also known as (kava kava), Kava or kava-kava is a crop of the western Pacific. The name kava is from Tongan and Marquesan, other names for kava include ?awa, ?ava, yaqona, sakau, and malok or malogu. The roots of the plant are used to produce a drink with sedative, anesthetic, euphoriant, and entheogenic properties. Kava is consumed throughout the Pacific Ocean cultures of Polynesia, including Hawaii, Vanuatu, Melanesia and some parts of Micronesia for its sedating effects

Khellin

Khellin, has been used as an herbal folk medicine, with use in the Mediterranean dating back to Ancient Egypt, to treat a variety of maladies including: renal colic, kidney stones, coronary disease, bronchial asthma, vitiligo, and psoriasis. It is a major constituent of the plant Ammi visnaga, also known as Bishop's Weed. Once purified, khellin exists as colorless, odorless, bitter-tasting needle-shaped crystals and is classified as a gamma-pyrone, a furanochromone derivative. In the early 20th century, researchers searched for khellin analogs with lower toxicity and better efficacy. A number of drugs were discovered through this research, such as amiodarone and cromolyn sodium, which are used in current medical practice. A Bronchodilator and Beta-adrenergic bronchodilators dilate bronchial airways by relaxing the muscles that surround the airways. Beta-adrenergic bronchodilators are beta-2 agonists. These medications stimulate beta-2 receptors on the smooth muscle cells that line the airways, causing these muscle cells to relax, thus, opening airways. Anticholinergic and bronchodilators block the effect of acetylcholine on airways and nasal passages. Acetylcholine is a chemical that nerves use to communicate with muscle cells. In asthma, cholinergic nerves going to the lungs cause narrowing of the airways by stimulating muscles surrounding the airways to contract. The "anticholinergic" effect of anticholinergic bronchodilators blocks the effect of cholinergic nerves, causing the muscles to relax and airways to dilate. Xanthine derivatives open airways by relaxing the smooth muscles in the walls of the airways and they also suppress the response of the airways to stimuli. The mechanism of action of xanthines is not fully understood. Xanthine derivatives may dilate bronchi by blocking the action of phosphodiesterase (P D E) enzymes which ultimately leads to increased concentration of chemicals that dilate bronchial airways. It is extracted from the Ammi visaga, Ammi visnaga is a species of flowering plant in the carrot family known by many common names, including toothpick-plant, toothpickweed, bisnaga, and khella. Also known as Bishop's weed. It is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but it can be found throughout the world as an introduced species. This is an annual or biennial herb growing from a taproot erect to a maximum height near 80 centimeters.

L

Lanatosides A, B, C

Lanatosides A, B, C yields acetyldigitoxin, acetylgitoxin, and acetyldigoxin, respectively; removal of glucose and the acetyl group yields digitoxin, gitoxin, and digoxin, respectively. as well as Digilanides A, B, and C are the cardioactive precursor glycosides obtained from Digitalis lanata. Removal of the acetyl group yields desacetyllanatosides A, B, and C (purpurea glycosides A, B, and C, respectively); removal of the glucose from lanatosides A, B, and C yields acetyldigitoxin, acetylgitoxin, and acetyldigoxin, respectively; removal of glucose and the acetyl group yields digitoxin, gitoxin, and digoxin, respectively. Lanatoside C (or isolanid) is a cardiac glycoside, a type of drug that can be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat). Lanatoside C can be used orally or by the intravenous route. It is marketed in a number of countries and is also available in generic form. Its main indications are rapid response atrial fibrilation and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, two common types of arrhythmia. It is found in Digitalis lanata. it is a Cardiotonic, A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. Derived from Digitalis lanata. also known as (Grecian foxglove or woolly foxglove). Digitalis lanata a species of foxglove that gets its name due to the texture of the leaves. Digitalis lanata, like some other foxglove species, is highly toxic in all parts of the plant

Lapachol

Lapachol, is a natural phenolic compound isolated from the bark of the lapacho tree. This tree is known botanically as Handroanthus impetiginosus, but was formerly known by various other botanical names such as Tabebuia avellanedae. it is a Anticancer, antitumor agent It increases cellular resistance to anticancer agents such as doxorubicin and induces apoptosis in myeloma cells. Metabolite of sulindac that inhibits cell growth by inducing apoptosis independently of cyclooxygenase inhibition. It is extracted from the Tabebuia species also known as (trumpet tree). Tabebuia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae. The common name "roble" is sometimes found in English. Tabebuias have been called "trumpet trees", but this name is usually applied to other trees and has become a source of confusion and misidentification. Tabebuia consists almost entirely of trees, but a few are often large shrubs. A few species produce timber, but the genus is mostly known for those that are cultivated as flowering trees. Tabebuia is native to the American tropics and subtropics from Mexico and the Caribbean to Argentina. Most of the species are from Cuba and Hispaniola. It is commonly cultivated and often naturalized or adventive beyond its natural range. It easily escapes cultivation because of its numerous, wind-borne seeds.

Lobellen

Lobellen, is an alkaloid found in a variety of plants, particularly those in the genus Lobelia, including Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata), Devil's tobacco (Lobelia tupa), cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis), great lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica), Lobelia chinensis, and Hippobroma longiflora. A Smoking deterrant, respiratory stimulant. a Varenicline (also called Chantix) is a prescription medicine developed to help people stop smoking. It works by interfering with nicotine receptors in the brain. This means it has 2 effects: It lessens the pleasure a person gets from smoking, A Chemoreceptor stimulant, It can treat breathing problems after surgery or drug overdose. It can also treat breathing problems caused by certain lung diseases. It is extracted from the Lobelia inflata, also known as (Indian tobacco). Lobelia inflata is a species of Lobelia native to eastern North America, from southeastern Canada south through the eastern United States to Alabama and west to Kansas.

M

Menthol

Menthol, is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above. It is a Rubefacient. A rubefacient is a substance for topical application that produces redness of the skin, by causing dilation of the capillaries and an increase in blood circulation. derived from the Mentha species. Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek míntha, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae the (mint family). It is estimated that 13 to 18 species exist, and the exact distinction between species is still unclear. Hybridization between some of the species occurs naturally. Many other hybrids, as well as numerous cultivars, are known.

Methyl salicylate

Methyl salicylate, also commonly known as (oil of wintergreen or wintergreen oil) is an organic ester naturally produced by many species of plants, particularly wintergreens. It is also synthetically produced, used as a fragrance, in foods and beverages, and in liniments. it is also a Rubefacient. A rubefacient is a substance for topical application that produces redness of the skin . by causing dilation of the capillaries and an increase in blood circulation. also commonly known as Gaultheria procumbens also commonly known as (wintergreen). Gaultheria procumbens, also called the eastern teaberry, the checkerberry, the boxberry, or the American wintergreen, is a species of Gaultheria native to northeastern North America from Newfoundland west to southeastern Manitoba, and south to Alabama. It is a member of the Ericaceae known as the (heath family).

Monocrotaline

Monocrotaline, is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment. It is a topical antitumor agent , 5-fluorouracil (5-FU): The drug most often used in topical treatment of actinic keratoses, as well as some basal and squamous cell skin cancers, is 5-FU (with brand names such as Efudex, Carac, and Fluoroplex). It is typically applied to the skin once or twice a day for several weeks, It is extracted from the Crotalaria sessiliflora. Crotalaria is a genus of herbaceous plants and woody shrubs in the Family Fabaceae, (Subfamily Faboideae) commonly known as rattlepods. The Crotalaria genus includes about 500 species of herbs and shrubs. Africa is the continent with a majority of Crotalaria species (approximately 400 species). Crotalaria are mainly found in damp grassland, especially in floodplains, depressions and along edges of swamps and rivers, but also in deciduous bush land, roadsides and fields. Some species of Crotalaria are grown as ornamentals. The common name rattlepod or rattlebox is derived from the fact that the seeds become loose in the pod as they mature, and rattle when the pod is shaken.

Morphine

Morphine,is a pain medication of the opiate type which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. It acts directly on the central nervous system (C N S). Morphine, is a Analgesic. An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. Morphine is derived from the Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae. It is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are derived and is a valuable ornamental plant, grown in gardens

N

Neoandrographolide

Neoandrographolide, is one of the principle diterpenoids isolated from A. paniculata, a well-recognized medicinal plant in Asia. Extracts from A. paniculata have Treatment for dysentery. Dysentery is an intestinal inflammation, primarily of the colon. It can lead to mild or severe stomach cramps and severe diarrhea with mucus or blood in the feces. In the United States, signs and symptoms are normally mild and usually disappear within a few days. Neoandrographolide is extracted from the Andrographis paniculata. Andrographis paniculata is an annual herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae, native to India and Sri Lanka. It is widely cultivated in Southern and Southeastern Asia, where it has been traditionally used to treat infections and some diseases..

Nickotine

Nickotine, is a nitrogen-containing chemical - an alkaloid, which is made by several types of plants, including the tobacco plant. Nickotine is also produced synthetically. it is a Insecticide. An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and by consumers. Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind the increase in the 20th century's agricultural productivity. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; some concentrate along the food chain. Nicotiana tabacum also commonly known as (tobacco), or cultivated tobacco, is an annually-grown herbaceous plant. It is found only in cultivation, where it is the most commonly grown of all plants

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, is an antioxidant compound found in the creosote bush. The creosote plant has been used in herbal medicine, but its use is controversial. it is a Antioxidant. An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid or (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. Larrea divaricata or (creosote bush), commonly known as chaparral, is a small evergreen bush in the family Zygophyllaceae. It is native to arid regions of South America, where it is known as jarilla or jarillo

nor-pseudoephedrine

nor-pseudoephedrine or L-Norpseudoephedrine, or-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychostimulant drug of the amphetamine family. Phenylpropanolamine PPA is also known as ß-hydroxyamphetamine, and is a member of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It is closely related to the cathinones (ß-ketoamphetamines). The compound exists as four stereoisomers, which include d- and l-norephedrine and d- and l-norpseudoephedrine. d-Norpseudoephedrine is also known as cathine, and is found naturally in Catha edulis (khat). a Natural Sympathomimetic. Sympathomimetic drugs are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system. Ephedra sinica (ephedra, ma huang) Ephedra sinica is a plant species native to Mongolia, Russia (Buryatiya, Chita, Primorye), and northeastern China, often called, Ma huang. Ma huang is also known as sea ephedrine, ephedra, ephedra alkaloids, sea grape, yellow horse, yellow astringent, joint fir, squaw tea, Mormon tea, popotillo, and teamster's tea. Ma huang has been used as a stimulant and for weight loss and appetite suppression. Near the same as the preciding Drug. Pseudoephredrine

Noscapine

Noscapine, is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from plants of the poppy family, without painkilling properties. This agent is primarily used for its antitussive effects. Antitussives help your cough by deterring your cough reflex. Antitussive is sometimes used in combination with an expectorant that helps to thin mucus. Antitussive drug names include dextromethorphan and codeine. derived from the Papaver somniferum a (poppy) Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae. It is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are derived and is a valuable ornamental plant, grown in gardens

O

Ouabain or also known as g-strophanthin, is a plant derived toxic substance that was traditionally used as an arrow poison in eastern Africa for both hunting and warfare. A Cardiotonic A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart, for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. Ouabain or (ouabain tree) Ouabain ,w?, b?, ?n, or ,'w? be?n, 'wæ-, (from Somali waabaayo, "arrow poison" through French ouabaïo) also known as g-strophanthin, is a plant derived toxic substance that was traditionally used as an arrow poison in eastern Africa for both hunting and warfare. Ouabain is a cardiac glycoside and in lower doses, can be used medically to treat hypotension and some arrhythmias. It acts by inhibiting the Na K-ATPase, also known as the sodium-potassium ion pump

P

Pachycarpine

Pachycarpine, An alkaloid isolated from lupin beans, Lupinus luteus and Lupinus niger. It has been used as an oxytocic and an anti-arrhythmia agent. It has also been of interest because of genetic variation in its metabolism. Oxytocic A uterotonic, also known as ecbolic, is an agent used to induce contraction or greater tonicity of the uterus. Uterotonics are used both to induce labor, and to reduce postpartum hemorrhage. Some uterotonics act as analogues of oxytocin. An oxytocinergic, or oxytocic, means "having to do with oxytocin (OXT)". derived from the Sophora pschycarpa, Sophora is a genus of about 45 species of small trees and shrubs in the pea family Fabaceae. The species are native to southeast Europe, southern Asia, Australasia, various Pacific islands, western South America, the western United States, Florida and Puerto Rico. The generic name is derived from sophera, an Arabic name for a pea-flowered tree

Palmatine

Palmatine. is a protoberberine alkaloid found in several plants including Phellodendron amurense, Rhizoma coptidis, Coptis Chinensis and Corydalis yanhusuo. It is the major component of the protoberberine extract from Enantia chlorantha. a Antipyretic & a detoxicant. Antipyretics are substances that reduce fever. Antipyretics cause the hypothalamus to override a prostaglandin-induced increase in temperature. The body then works to lower the temperature, which results in a reduction in fever and as a detoxicant. 1, a Medicine to rid a patient of a poison or its effects. 2. Pharmacology to counteract a poison. It can be found in the Coptis japonica also known as (Chinese goldenthread, goldthread, Huang-Lia) Coptis (goldthread or canker root) is a genus of between 10-15 species of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae native to Asia and North America

Papain

Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease (E C 3 4 22 2) enzyme present in papaya, (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya known as(Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis). A Proteolytic, & a mucolytic. Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. Uncatalysed, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds is extremely slow, taking hundreds of years. Proteolysis is typically catalysed by cellular enzymes called proteases, but may also occur by intra-molecular digestion. Mucolytics are medicines that thin mucus, making it less thick and sticky and easier to cough up. They are used to treat respiratory conditions characterized by excessive or thickened mucus, such as a chesty (productive) cough. It is extracted from the Carica papaya or (papaya). Carica papaya, the widely cultivated papaya (also called papaw or pawpaw), a tropical fruit tree. For the mountain papaya or (Vasconcellea pubescens) of South America, research Mountain papaya. For the Eastern North American tree (and fruit) called "pawpaw", Research Asimina triloba. For other uses research Papaya (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Chaenomeles speciosa or (flowering quince) or Pseudocydonia chinensis (Chinese quince), which like Carica papaya are sometimes called mugua.

Papaverine

Papaverine, the (Latin papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm, vasospasm (especially those involving the intestines, heart, or brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Trade names?: ?Pavabid and others. Formula?: ?C 20 H 21 N O4 with a Biological half-life? of ?1 and a half to 2 hours. Papaverine is a Smooth muscle relaxant, . A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. It may be used to alleviate symptoms such as muscle spasms, pain, and hyperreflexia. The term "muscle relaxant" is used to refer to two major therapeutic groups: neuromuscular blockers and spasmolytics. Papaverine is derived from the Papaver somniferum also known as (opium poppy, and common poppy). Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae. It is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are derived and is a valuable ornamental plant, grown in gardens

Phyllodulcin

Phyllodulcin, is an dihydroisocoumarin that is a well-known sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla and Hydrangea serrata. It is a sweetener 400-800 times sweeter than sugar. but with a liquorice-like aftertaste. Formula: C 16 H 14 O 5, Sweetener are a sugar substitute used as a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are produced by nature, and others produced synthetically. It is extracted from the Hydrangea macrophylla also known as (bigleaf hydrangea and French hydrangea) Hydrangea macrophylla is a species of flowering plant in the family Hydrangeaceae, native to Japan. It is a deciduous shrub growing to 2 meters tall by 2 and a half meters broad with large heads of pink or blue flowers in summer and autumn. Common names include bigleaf hydrangea, French hydrangea, lacecap hydrangea, mophead hydrangea, penny mac and hortensia. It is widely cultivated in many parts of the world in many climates. It is not to be confused with H. aspera 'Macrophylla'

Physostigmine

Physostigmine, is a highly toxic parasympathomimetic alkaloid, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. It occurs naturally in the Calabar bean and the Manchineel tree. it is a Cholinesterase inhibitor. Cholinesterase inhibitor attached to acetylcholinesterase preventing the attachment of acetylcholine. It is extracted from the Physostigma venenosum also commonly known as (Calabar bean) Physostigma venenosum (the Calabar bean or ordeal bean) is the seed of a leguminous plant , a native of tropical Africa, Physostigmine is poisonous to humans. It derives the first part of its scientific name from a curious beak-like appendage at the end of the stigma, in the centre of the flower; this appendage, though solid, was supposed to be hollow (hence the name from f?sa, a bladder, and stigma).

Picrotoxin

Picrotoxin, also known as cocculin, is a poisonous crystalline plant compound. It was first isolated by the French pharmacist and chemist Pierre François Guillaume Boullay in 18 12. The name "picrotoxin" is a combination of the Greek words "picros" (bitter) and "toxicon" (poison). A mixture of two different compounds, picrotoxin occurs naturally in the fruit of the Anamirta cocculus plant, although it can also be synthesized chemically. Due to its interactions with the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, picrotoxin acts as a stimulant and convulsant. It mainly impacts the central nervous system, causing seizures and respiratory paralysis in high enough doses It is a Analeptic. Analeptics are central nervous system stimulants that include a wide variety of medications used to treat depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (A D H D), and respiratory depression. It can be found in Anamirta cocculus also known as (fish berry) Anamirta cocculus is a Southeast Asian and Indian climbing plant. Its [[fruit] is the source of picrotoxin, a poisonous alkaloid with stimulant properties. The plant is large-stemmed; the bark is "corky gray" with white wood.

Pilocarpine

Pilocarpine is a medication used to treat increased pressure inside the eye and dry mouth, As eye drops it is used for angle closure glaucoma until surgery can be performed, ocular hypertension, open angle glaucoma, and to bring about constriction of the pupil following their dilation Onset of effects with the drops is typically within an hour and lasts for up to a day. By mouth it is used for dry mouth as a result of Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to shrink tumors and kill cancer cells. X-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles are types of radiation used for cancer treatment. also a Parasympathomimetic, A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (P S N S). These chemicals are also called cholinergic drugs because acetylcholine (ACh) is the neurotransmitter used by the P S N S. Chemicals in this family can act either directly by stimulating the nicotinic or muscarinic receptors (thus mimicking acetylcholine), or indirectly by inhibiting cholinesterase, promoting acetylcholine release, or other mechanisms. Some chemical weapons such as sarin or VX, non-lethal riot control agents such as tear gas, and insecticides such as diazinon fall into this category. It can be found in the Pilocarpus jaborandi also known as (jaborandi, & Indian hemp) Pilocarpus is a genus of about 13 species of plants belonging to the family Rutaceae, native to the neotropics of South America. Various species are important pharmacologically as a source of the parasympathomimetic alkaloid Pilocarpine. Many of the species have the common name jaborandi.

Pinitol

Pinitol. is a cyclitol, a cyclic polyol. It is a known anti-diabetic agent isolated from Sutherlandia frutescens leaves. Gall plant tannins can be differentiated by their content of pinitol. It was first identified in the sugar pine. A well known Expectorant. & guaifenesin, is commonly available in many cough syrups. Often the term "expectorant" is incorrectly extended to any cough medicine, since it is a universal component. A mucolytic agent is an agent which dissolves thick mucus and is usually used to help relieve respiratory difficulties. Can be found in Several plants (e.g., bougainvillea). Bougainvillea is a genus of thorny ornamental vines, bushes, and trees with flower-like spring leaves near its flowers. Different authors accept between four and 18 species in the genus

Podophyllotoxin (P P T)

Podophyllotoxin (P P T), also known as podofilox, is a medical cream that is used to treat genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. It is not recommended in H P V infections without external warts. It can be applied either by a healthcare provider or the person themselves. It is a non-alkaloid toxin lignan extracted from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum species. A Antitumor & anticancer agent, As a Antitumor agent, it is four preventing or inhibiting the formation or growth of tumors. derived from the Podophyllum peltatum also known as (mayapple), Podophyllum is an herbaceous perennial plant in the family Berberidaceae, described as a genus by Linnaeus in 17 53. In the past, several species were included in the genus, but all but one have been transferred to other genera (Dysosma, Pilea, and Sinopodophyllum). The one remaining species is Podophyllum peltatum, with common names mayapple, American mandrake, wild mandrake, and ground lemon. It is widespread across most of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Mayapples are woodland plants, typically growing in colonies derived from a single root.

Protoveratrines A, B.

Protoveratrines A, B. pro·to·ver·a·trine A and B (pro'to-ver'a-tren), A mixture of two alkaloids isolated from Veratrum album; they exert their main effect on the cardiovascular system through the carotid sinus receptors and vagal sensory endings in the heart; they cause vasodilation and are thought to bring about a redistribution to all vascular beds and thus to induce a fall in blood pressure; used in certain forms of hypertension; the maleates have the same actions. Protoveratrines A B is a Antihypertensives, Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. It is extracted from the Veratrum album, commonly known as false helleborine, white hellebore, European white hellebore, or white veratrum; syn. Veratrum lobelianum Bernh., is a poisonous medicinal plant of the Liliaceae (lily family) or Melanthiaceae. It is native to Europe and parts of western Asia (western Siberia, Turkey, and Caucasus).

Pseudoephedrine

Pseudoephedrine, is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It may be used as a nasal and sinus decongestant, as a stimulant, or as a wakefulness-promoting agent in higher doses.The salts pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine sulfate are found in many over-the-counter preparations, either as a single ingredient or (more commonly) in combination with antihistamines, guaifenesin, dextromethorphan, and or paracetamol a (acetaminophen) or an N SAID (such as aspirin or ibuprofen). Pseudoephedrine is a Sympathomimetic. Sympathomimetic drugs are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system. It is extracted from the Ephedra sinica also known as (ephedra & ma huang) Ephedra sinica is a plant species native to Mongolia, Russia (Buryatiya, Chita, Primorye), and northeastern China. . Ma huang is also known as sea ephedrine, ephedra, ephedra alkaloids, sea grape, yellow horse, yellow astringent, joint fir, squaw tea, Mormon tea, popotillo, and teamster's tea. Ma huang has been used as a stimulant and for weight loss and appetite suppression.

Q

Quinidine

Quinidine, is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart. It is a stereoisomer of quinine, originally derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. The drug causes increased action potential duration, as well as a prolonged QT interval. Quinidine is used as a class I antiarrhythmic agent, that is to prevent ventricular arrhythmias. It is also used to maintain sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation and to treat short QT syndrome. Short QT syndrome is a genetic disease of the electrical system of the heart. Quinidine is a Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart, such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter. derived from the Cinchona ledgeriana also known as (quinine tree) Cinchona ledgeriana is a plant indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Andes, where they grow from 15 hundred to 3 thousand metres in elevation in Colombia and Bolivia. Specimens grow 15-20 metres in height and have large glossy leaves

Quinine

Quinine. is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis. This includes the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum that is resistant to chloroquine when artesunate is not available. While used for restless legs syndrome, it is not recommended for this purpose due to the risk of side effects. It can be taken by mouth or used intravenously. Malaria resistant to quinine occurs in certain areas of the world. Quinine is also an ingredient in tonic water and gives it its bitter taste. Quinine is a Antimalarial and antipyretic. Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria. Such drugs may be used for some or all of the following: Treatment of malaria in individuals with suspected or confirmed infection Prevention of infection in individuals visiting a malaria-endemic region who have no immunity to (malaria prophylaxis) Routine intermittent treatment of certain groups in endemic regions (intermittent preventive therapy) Some antimalarial agents, particularly chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, are also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus-associated arthritis. also Antipyretics are substances that reduce fever. Antipyretics cause the hypothalamus to override a prostaglandin-induced increase in temperature. The body then works to lower the temperature, which results in a reduction in fever. It is found in the Cinchona ledgeriana also known as (quinine tree). Cinchona ledgeriana is a plant indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Andes, where they grow from 15 hundred to 3 thousand metres in elevation in Colombia and Bolivia. Specimens grow 15-20 metres in height and have large glossy leaves

Quisqualic acid

Quisqualic acid. is an agonist of the AMPA, kainate, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. It is one of the most potent AMPA receptor agonists known. It causes excitotoxicity and is used in neuroscience to selectively destroy neurons in the brain or spinal cord. Quisqualic acid occurs naturally in the seeds of Quisqualis species. Research conducted by the U S D A Agricultural Research Service, has demonstrated quisqualic acid is also present within the flower petals of zonal geranium or (Pelargonium x hortorum) and is responsible for causing rigid paralysis of the Japanese beetle. Quisqualic acid is thought to mimic L-glutamic acid, which is a neurotransmitter in the insect neuromuscular junction and mammalian central nervous system. Quisqualic acid a Anthelmintics or antihelminthics that are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. derived from the Quisqualis indica also known as (Rangoon creeper and drunken sailor). Combretum indicum, also known as the Chinese honeysuckle or Rangoon creeper, is a vine with red flower clusters and is found in Asia. It is found in many other parts of the world either as a cultivated ornamental or runs wild

R

Rescinnamine

Rescinnamine, known by the brand names moderil, cinnasil, and anaprel, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor used as an antihypertensive drug. It is an vinca alkaloid obtained from Rauwolfia serpentina and other species of Rauwolfia. Rescinnamine can be a Antihypertensive, or a tranquilizer. Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension. Tranquilizer, as a term, was brought into existence by F.F Yonkman. It can be found in the Rauvolfia serpentina. The Rauvolfia serpentina, Indian snakeroot or devil pepper is a species of flower in the family Apocynaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and East Asia

Reserpine

Reserpine. (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, & Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, antipsychotic, and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic symptoms, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. The antihypertensive actions of reserpine are a result of its ability to deplete catecholamines (among other monoamine neurotransmitters) from peripheral sympathetic nerve endings. These substances are normally involved in controlling heart rate, force of cardiac contraction and peripheral vascular resistance. Reserpine is a Antihypertensive, & a tranquilizer. Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension. Tranquilizer, as a term, was brought into existence by F.F Yonkman. derived from the Rauvolfia serpentina, also known as Indian snakeroot or devil pepper is a species of flower in the family Apocynaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and East Asia

Rhomitoxin

Rhomitoxin is a Antihypertensive and a tranquilizer. Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension. Tranquilizer, as a term, was brought into existence by F.F Yonkman. It can be found in the Rhododendron molle also known as (rhododendron). Predominant Flower Colors are Yellow, Orange, Red, Pink Flowers are Broadly funnel shaped, yellow, orange, red or salmon-pink, fragrant. Truss of 3-12 flowers. Fragrant with Bloom Time Midseason Leaves are ovate or obovate to elliptic, up to 5 inches long, it is deciduous. A Upright, non-stoloniferous shrub, with a Height of 4 feet in 10 years. they are Cold Hardy, Surviving Temptures from minus 15°F (minus 26°C) their Geographical Origin is Japan (Kyushu to Hokkaido)

Rorifone

Rorifone. The invention relates to rorifone derivatives and applications to preparing medicaments for treating lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, pancreas cancer and intestinal cancer. The rorifone derivatives have a general formula shown in the specification, wherein R1 is SO (sulphoxide groupc) or SO2 (sulfuryl group), R2 is S C N (thiocyano group) or N C S (isothiocyano group), n=9-12. The invention relates to the applications of rorifone derivatives to preparing the medicaments for treating cancers. Rorifone is a Antitussive. Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Rorifone It is extracted from the Rorippa indica,of the species Rorippa. Rorippa is a flowering plant genus in the mustard family, Brassicaceae, native to Europe through central Asia, Africa, and North America. Rorippa species are annual to perennial herbs, usually with yellow flowers and a peppery flavour. They are known commonly as yellowcresses. Rorippa formerly included several species of watercress, now placed in the genus Nasturtium. In particular, R. nasturtium-aquaticum (now N. officinale) and R. microphylla (now N. microphyllum) are often referred to as species of Rorippa. There are about 75 to 85 species in the genus.

Rotenone

Rotenone, is an odorless, colorless, crystalline isoflavone used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide. It occurs naturally in the seeds and stems of several plants, such as the jicama vine plant, and the roots of several members of Fabaceae. It was the first described member of the family of chemical compounds known as rotenoids. Rotenone is a naturally occurring compound extracted from the roots of several tropical plants (Miyano, in 19 65) and has been commonly used as an herbicide, insecticide, and piscicide (Draper et al., 19 99). Although thought to be safe at one time, the regular use of this compound was either prohibited or voluntarily discontinued in both Europe and the United States in 2007. Since it is highly unselective and kills useful, as well as pest, & animals. Rotenone is both a Piscicide & a Insecticide. A piscicide is a chemical substance which is poisonous to fish. The primary use for piscicides is to eliminate a dominant species of fish in a body of water, as the first step in attempting to populate the body of water with a different fish. They are also used to combat parasitic and invasive species of fish. An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, It is found in the Lonchocarpus nicou, Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string. Cubé resin is produced from the roots of L. urucu and namely ''L. utilis (cubé). It contains enough of the toxic rotenoids rotenone and deguelin to be used as an insecticide and piscicide. As these are naturally occurring compounds, they were formerly used in organic farming. Rotenone is also used in powdered form to treat scabies and head lice on humans, and parasitic mites on chickens livestock and pet animals. The compound decomposes when exposed to sunlight and usually has an activity of six days in the environment.

Rotundine

Rotundine. displays a higher affinity to dopamine D1 than D2 receptor with Ki of 124 nM and 388 nM, respectively, while the IC 50 values are 166 nM (D1) and 1.47 µM (D2), respectively. Rotundine exhibits a weak inhibitory activity against dopamine D3 with IC 50 of 3.25 µM. Rotundine also potently inhibits 5 HT1A with IC 50 of 374 nM and Ki of 340 nM. In addition to the antagonism of postsynaptic dopamine receptors, inhibition of presynaptic autoreceptors by Rotundine leads to increased dopamine release, which is probably attributed to lower affinity of Rotundine for D2 receptors. Rotundine is a Analagesic, sedative & traquilizer. An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement. At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. derived from the Stephania sinica. Stephania is a genus of flowering plants in the family Menispermaceae, native to eastern and southern Asia and Australasia. They are herbaceous perennial vines growing to around four metres tall, with a large, woody caudex. The leaves are arranged spirally on the stem, and are peltate, with the leaf petiole attached near the centre of the leaf. The name Stephania comes from the Greek, "a crown". This refers to the anthers being arranged in a crown like manner

Rutin

Rutin, also called rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin, is the glycoside combining the flavonol quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose. It is a citrus flavonoid found in a wide variety of plants including citrus fruit. Rutin is a Treatment for capillary fragility. A double-blind trial found a combination of two flavonoids (900 mg per day of diosmin and 100 mg per day hesperidin) for six weeks reduced symptoms of capillary fragility. Use of vitamin C with flavonoids, particularly quercetin, rutin, and hesperidin, is sometimes recommended for capillary fragility. It can be found in Citrus species (e.g., orange & grapefruit). Most cultivated Citrus seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of four core ancestral species, the citron, pummelo, mandarine, and papeda . Natural and cultivated citrus hybrids include commercially important fruit such as oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, and some tangerines.

S

Salicin

Salicin. is an alcoholic ß-glucoside. Salicin is produced in willow bark and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the human body. Salicin is also commonly found in the bark of Populus species, and the leaves of willows and poplars. Salicin is a Analgesic. An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, the relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which temporarily affect, and in some instances completely eliminate, sensation. Analgesics include paracetamol (known in North America as acetaminophen or simply APAP), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (N SAIDs) such as the salicylates, and opioid drugs such as morphine and oxycodone. It can be found in the bark of the Salix alba commonly known as (white willow) Salix alba or (white willow) is a species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia. The name derives from the white tone to the undersides of the leaves. It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree growing up to 10–30 meters tall, with a trunk up to 1 meter diameter and with an irregular, often-leaning crown. The bark is grey-brown, and deeply fissured in older trees. The shoots in the typical species are grey-brown to green-brown.

Sanguinarine

Sanguinarine. is a toxic polycyclic ammonium ion. It is extracted from some plants, including the bloodroot plant, from whose taxonomic name, Sanguinaria canadensis, its name is drawn; the Mexican prickly poppy or (Argemone mexicana), Chelidonium majus, and Macleaya cordata. Sanguinarine is a Dental plaque inhibitor. Humans have invented all kinds of high-tech fixes to deal with plaque in the heart, but when it comes to battling tooth decay, a manual scrubbing with a bristle-brush is still our primary line of defense. But Dutch researchers may have just bested the toothbrush by characterizing and deciphering the structure of the enzyme responsible for plaque sticking to teeth. Often extracted from Sanguinaria canadensis or (bloodroot) it is a toxic polycyclic ammonium ion. It is extracted from some plants, including the bloodroot plant, from whose taxonomic name, Sanguinaria canadensis, its name is drawn; the Mexican prickly poppy or (Argemone mexicana), Chelidonium majus, and Macleaya cordata.

Santonin. is a drug which was widely used in the past as an anthelminthic, a drug that expels parasitic worms from the body, by either killing or stunning them. Santonin is a Ascaricide. Ascaricides are drugs to treat ascarias-is that is caused by infections with parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of the genus Ascaris (giant intestinal roundworms). The large roundworm of pigs (Ascaris suum) typically infects pigs while Ascaris lumbricoides affects human populations, typically in sub-tropical and tropical areas with poor sanitation. Ascaricides belong to the group of drugs collectively called anthelmintics which expel parasitic worms, (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. Santonin, is extracted from the Artemisia maritima which is a European species of wormwood known as sea wormwood and old woman. It is native to France , the United Kingdom , Italy , Belgium , Germany , Denmark , Sweden , Bulgaria and Russia. In its many variations of form it has an extremely wide distribution in the northern hemisphere of the Old World , occurring mostly in saltish soils. It is found in the salt marshes of the British Isles , on the coasts of the Baltic, of France and the Mediterranean , and on saline soils in Hungary ; thence it extends eastwards, covering immense tracts in Southern Russia , the region of the Caspian Sea and Central Siberia to Chinese Mongolia .

Santonin. is a drug which was widely used in the past as an anthelminthic, a drug that expels parasitic worms from the body, by either killing or stunning them. Santonin is a Ascaricide. Ascaricides are drugs to treat ascarias-is that is caused by infections with parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of the genus Ascaris (giant intestinal roundworms). The large roundworm of pigs (Ascaris suum) typically infects pigs while Ascaris lumbricoides affects human populations, typically in sub-tropical and tropical areas with poor sanitation. Ascaricides belong to the group of drugs collectively called anthelmintics which expel parasitic worms, (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. Santonin, is extracted from the Artemisia maritima which is a European species of wormwood known as sea wormwood and old woman. It is native to France , the United Kingdom , Italy , Belgium , Germany , Denmark , Sweden , Bulgaria and Russia. In its many variations of form it has an extremely wide distribution in the northern hemisphere of the Old World , occurring mostly in saltish soils. It is found in the salt marshes of the British Isles , on the coasts of the Baltic, of France and the Mediterranean , and on saline soils in Hungary ; thence it extends eastwards, covering immense tracts in Southern Russia , the region of the Caspian Sea and Central Siberia to Chinese Mongolia .

Scillarin A.

Scillarin A. a crystalline steroidal glycoside (Scilla maritima), present in squill, which can be hydrolyzed to glucose and proscillaridin A; the latter can be hydrolyzed to rhamnose and the steroid aglycone scillaridin A; has the same actions and uses as digitalis glycosides. Scillarin A is a Cardiotonic. A cardiac stimulant is a substance which acts as a stimulant of the heart -- for example, via positive chronotropic or inotropic action. Examples of cardiac stimulant drugs are cocaine and methamphetamine. Scillarin A can be found in the Urginea maritima, also known as (squill) . is a species of flowering plant in the family Asparagaceae , subfamily Scilloideae (formerly the family Hyacinthaceae). This species is known by several common names, including squill, sea squill, sea onion, and maritime squill. It may also be called red squill, particularly a form which produces red-tinged flowers instead of white. It is native to southern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. This plant grows from a large bulb which can be up to 20 cm (7.9 inches) wide and weigh 1 kg (2.2 lb). Several bulbs may grow in a clump and are usually just beneath the surface of the soil. In the spring, each bulb produces a rosette of about ten leaves each up to a meter long. They are dark green in color and leathery in texture. They die away by fall, when the bulb produces a tall, narrow raceme of flowers.

Scopolamine

Scopolamine. has many effects in the body including decreasing the secretion of fluids, slowing the stomach and intestines, and dilation of the pupils. Scopolamine is used to relieve nausea, vomiting, and dizziness associated with motion sickness and recovery from anesthesia and surgery. Scopolamine is a Sedative, A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement. At higher doses it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. Scopolamine can be derived from the Datura species also known as ( Jimsonweed) Datura stramonium, known by the English names jimsonweed or Devil's snare, is a plant in the nightshade family. Other common names for D. stramonium include thornapple and moon flower, and it has the Spanish name toloache. Other names for the plant include hell's bells, devil’s trumpet, devil’s weed, tolguacha, Jamestown weed, stinkweed, locoweed, pricklyburr, devil’s cucumber and Thornapple. Datura has been used in traditional medicine to relieve asthma symptoms and as an analgesic during surgery or bonesetting . It is also a powerful hallucinogen and deliriant , which is used entheogenically for the intense visions it produces. However, the tropane alkaloids responsible for both the medicinal and hallucinogenic properties are fatally toxic in only slightly higher amounts than the medicinal dosage, and careless use often results in hospitalizations and deaths. It is believed to have originated in Mexico, but has now become naturalized in many other regions

Sennosides A B

Sennosides A B . Sennosides are used to treat constipation. They may also be used to clean out the intestines before a bowel examination or surgery. Sennosides are known as stimulant laxatives. They work by keeping water in the intestines, which causes movement of the intestines. Sennosides A, B is a Laxative and purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements. They are used to treat and or prevent constipation. Laxatives vary as to how they work and the side effects they may have. Stomach, abdominal pain or cramping, nausea , diarrhea , or weakness may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, a doctor or experienced pharmaceutical person should be contacted promptly. This medication may cause your urine to turn reddish-brown. This effect is harmless and will disappear when the medication is stopped. If your doctor has directed you to use this medication, remember that he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects. It is also found in the Cassia species also known as (cinnamon) Cassia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, and the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. Species are known commonly as cassias. Cassia is also the English common name of some species in the genus Cinnamomum of the family Lauraceae. Species of the genera Senna and Chamaecrista were previously included in Cassia. Cassia now generally includes the largest species of the legume subtribe Cassiinae, usually mid-sized trees.

Silymarin

Silymarin, is a antioxidant flavonoid C 25 H22 O 10 consisting of a mixture of three isomers isolated from seeds of the milk thistle, held to have properties protecting the liver from or clearing it of toxins, and used in dietary supplements and herbal remedies. Silymarin is a Antihepatotoxic or a Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage. Drug-induced liver injury is a cause of acute and chronic liver disease. The liver plays a central role in transforming and clearing chemicals and is susceptible to the toxicity from these agents. Certain medicinal agents, when taken in overdoses and sometimes even when introduced within therapeutic ranges, may injure the organ. According to open studies the long-term administration of silymarin significantly increased survival time of patients with alcohol induced liver cirrhosis. Based on the results of studies using methods of molecular biology, silymarin can significantly reduce tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis as well as insulin resistance. Silymarin derived from the Silybum marianum also known as (milk thistle), Silybum marianum has other common names include cardus marianus, milk thistle, blessed milkthistle, Marian thistle, Mary thistle, Saint Mary's thistle, Mediterranean milk thistle, variegated thistle and Scotch thistle. This species is an annual or biennial plant of the Asteraceae family. This fairly typical thistle has red to purple flowers and shiny pale green leaves with white veins. Originally a native of Southern Europe through to Asia, it is now found throughout the world.

Sparteine

Sparteine is a class one antiarrhythmic agent; a sodium channel blocker. It is an alkaloid and can be extracted from scotch broom. It is the predominant alkaloid in Lupinus mutabilis, and is thought to chelate the bivalent cations calcium and magnesium. It is not FDA approved for human use as an antiarrhythmic agent, and it is not included in the Vaughn Williams classification of antiarrhythmic drugs. It is also used as a chiral ligand in organic chemistry, especially in syntheses involving organolithium reagents. Sparteine is a Oxytocic & a uterotonic, also known as ecbolic, is an agent used to induce contraction or greater tonicity of the uterus. Uterotonics are used both to induce labor, and to reduce postpartum hemorrhage. Some uterotonics act as analogues of oxytocin. An oxytocinergic, or oxytocic, means "having to do with oxytocin (OXT)". Sparteine can be extracted from Cytisus scoparius also known as (scotch broom) . Cytisus scoparius, the common broom or Scotch broom,. Sarothamnus scoparius, is a perennial leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. In Britain and Ireland, the standard name is broom but this name is also used for other members of the Genisteae tribe, such as French broom or Spanish broom, and the term common broom is sometimes used for clarification In other English-speaking countries, the most prevalent common name is Scotch broom (or Scot's broom); English broom is also occasionally used. Plants of Cytisus scoparius typically grow to 1–3 meters (3.3 to 9.8 ft) tall, rarely to 4 meters (13 ft), with main stems up to 5 Centimeters (2 inches) thick, rarely 10 Centimeters (3.9 inches). The shrubs have green shoots with small deciduous trifoliate leaves 5 to 15 milimeters long, and in spring and summer is covered in profuse golden yellow flowers 20 to 30 milimeters from top to bottom and 15–20 milimeters wide.

Stevioside

Stevioside. the Steviol glycosides are the chemical compounds responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the South American plant Stevia rebaudiana and the main ingredients of many sweeteners marketed under the generic name stevia and several trade names Steviol glycosides or, Artificial sweeteners are low-calorie or calorie-free chemical substances that are used instead of sugar to sweeten foods and drinks. They are found in thousands of products, from drinks, desserts and ready meals, to cakes, chewing gum and toothpaste. It is found in the Stevia rebaudiana, a plant species in the genus Stevia of the sunflower family, commonly known as candyleaf, sweetleaf, sweet leaf, or sugarleaf. Stevia is a tender perennial native to parts of Brazil and Paraguay that favors humid, wet environments, although the root does not tolerate standing water. Stevia is widely grown for its sweet leaves, which are the source of sweetener products known generically as stevia . The chemical compounds that produce its sweetness are various steviol glycosides (mainly stevioside and rebaudioside ), which have 250 to 300 times the sweetness of sugar. The leaves can be eaten fresh or put in teas and foods. S. rebaudiana has been used for more than 15 hundred years by the Guaraní people of Brazil and Paraguay, who called it ka'a he'ê ("sweet herb"), to sweeten the local yerba mate tea, as medicine, and as a "sweet treat". In 18 99, botanist Moisés Santiago Bertoni first described the plant as growing in eastern Paraguay, and observed its sweet taste.

Strychnine

Strychnine. is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents. Strychnine, when inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the eyes or mouth, causes poisoning which results in muscular convulsions and eventually death through asphyxia. While it has no known medicinal effects, in the past the convulsant effect was believed to be beneficial in small doses. The most common source is from the seeds of the Strychnos nux-vomica tree. a CNS stimulant. Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (A D H D ) and narcolepsy. Amphetamine was discovered in 18 87 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Strychnine, found in the Strychnos nux-vomica or (poison nut tree). Strychnos nux-vomica, the strychnine tree, also known as nux vomica, poison nut, semen strychnos and quaker buttons, is a deciduous tree native to India, and southeast Asia. It is a medium-sized tree in the family Loganiaceae that grows in open habitats. Its leaves are ovate and 2 to 3.5 inches (5.1-8.9 Centimeters) in size] It is a major source of the highly poisonous, intensely bitter alkaloids strychnine and brucine, derived from the seeds inside the tree's round, green to orange fruit. The seeds contain approximately 1.5% strychnine, and the dried blossoms contain 1.0%. However, the tree's bark also contains brucine and other poisonous compounds.

T

Taxol

Taxol is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. Taxol is classified as a "plant alkaloid," a "taxane" and an "antimicrotubule agent." ... Taxol side effects are almost always reversible and will go away after treatment is complete. Antitumor agent Anticancer, or antineoplastic, drugs are used to treat malignancies, or cancerous growths. Drug therapy may be used alone, or in combination with other treatments such as surgery or radiation therapy. Taxol is derived from the Taxus brevifolia, the Pacific yew or western yew, is a conifer native to the Pacific Northwest of North America. It ranges from southernmost Alaska south to central California, mostly in the Pacific Coast Ranges, but with isolated disjunct populations in southeast British Columbia (most notably occurring on Zuckerberg Island near Castlegar) and in north to central Idaho. The Pacific yew is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree. growing 10 to 15 meters tall and with a trunk up to 50 Centimeters diameter, rarely more. In some instances, trees with heights in excess of 20 meters occur in parks and other protected areas, quite often in gullies. The tree is extremely slow growing, and has a habit of rotting from the inside, creating hollow forms. This makes it difficult and sometimes impossible to make accurate rings counts to determine a specimen's true age. Often damaged by succession of the forest, it usually ends up in a squat, multiple leader form. It has thin scaly brown bark. covering a thin layer of off-white sap wood with a darker heartwood that varies in color from brown to a magenta and or purplish hue. The leaves are lanceolate, flat, dark green, 1 to 3 Centimeters long and 2 to 3 milimeters broad, arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flat rows either side of the stem except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious.

Teniposide

Teniposide, (trade name Vumon) is a chemotherapeutic medication used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (A L L), Hodgkin's lymphoma, certain brain tumours, and other types of cancer. It is in a class of drugs known as podophyllotoxin derivatives and slows the growth of cancer cells in the body. Teniposide is a Antitumor agent, antitumor drug , Antineoplastics or Anticancer drugs are the drugs that prevent or inhibit the maturation and proliferation of neoplasms. Antineoplastic agents travel the body and destroy cancer cells. Many of the side effects associated with antineoplastic agents occur because treatment destroys the body's normal cells in addition to cancerous cells. Teniposide is derived from the Podophyllum peltatum also known as (mayapple or mandrake). Podophyllum is an herbaceous perennial plant in the family Berberidaceae, described as a genus by Linnaeus in 17 53. In the past, several species were included in the genus, but all but one have been transferred to other genera (Dysosma, Pilea, and Sinopodophyllum). The one remaining species is Podophyllum peltatum, with common names mayapple, American mandrake, wild mandrake, and ground lemon. It is widespread across most of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), refers to a psychotropic cannabinoid (dronabinol, trade name Marinol is a synthetic form of THC, approved by the F D A) and is the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis. Its chemical name is (-)-trans-??-tetrahydrocannabinol and the term T H C is used to refer to isomers as well. The pharmaceutical formulation dronabinol is available by prescription in the U.S, Canada, Germany and New Zealand. Like most pharmacologically-active secondary metabolites of plants, T H C in Cannabis is assumed to be involved in self-defense, perhaps against herbivores. T H C also possesses high U V-B (280 to 315 nano-meters) absorption properties, which, it has been speculated, could protect the plant from harmful U V radiation exposure. Antiemetic, decreases occular tension An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics, and chemotherapy directed against cancer. It is found in Cannabis sativa also known as (marijuana) Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous plant in the Cannabis genus. It is a member of a small, but diverse family of flowering plants of the Cannabaceae family. It has been cultivated throughout recorded history, used as a source of industrial fibre, seed oil, food, recreation, religious and spiritual moods and medicine. Each part of the plant is harvested differently, depending on the purpose of its use. The species was first classified by Carl Linnaeus in 17 53 The flowers of Cannabis sativa are unisexual and plants are most often either male or female. It is a short-day flowering plant, with staminate or (male) plants usually taller and less robust than pistillate or (female) plants

Tetrahydropalmatine (T H P)

Tetrahydropalmatine (T H P), is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in several different plant species, mainly in the Corydalis genus also known as (Yan Hu Suo), but also in other plants such as Stephania rotunda. These plants have traditional uses in Chinese herbal medicine. The pharmaceutical industry has synthetically produced the more potent enantiomer Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (Levo-T H P), which has been marketed worldwide under different brand names as an alternative to anxiolytic and sedative drugs of the benzodiazepine group and analgesics such as opiates. It is also sold as a dietary supplement. Tetrahydropalmatine is a Analgesic, a sedative & tranquilizer. An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. Tetrahydropalmatine is found mainly in Corydalis ambigua a tuberous early flowering east Asian flowering plant species. Its exact native range is obscure due to taxonomic confusion. It is one of the sources of the drug tetrahydropalmatine. Corydalis ambigua contains a variety of alkaloids including corynoline , acetylcorynoline d-corydalin , dl-tetrahydropalmatine , protopine , tetrahydrocoptisine , dl-tetrahydrocoptisine , d-corybulbine and allo-crytopine. Chemical derivatives of tetrahydroprotoberberines present in Corydalis ambigua have been studied as potential ways to increase pain tolerance and for treating drug addiction. Further, they may represent a category of neurotransmitter stabilizers which have potential use in broad range of psychotic and neurological disorders.

Tetrandrine

Tetrandrine, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is a calcium channel blocker. It has anti-inflammatory, immunologic and antiallergenic effects. It inhibits the degranulation of mast cells. It has a "quinidine-like" anti-arrhythmic effect. It has been isolated from Stephania tetrandra S Moore, and other Chinese and Japanese herbs. It has vasodilatory properties and can therefore reduce blood pressure. Tetrandrine may have potential use for the treatment of liver disease and liver cancer. Tetrandrine has potential therapeutic value to prevent excess scarring or fibrosis in conjunctiva following trabeculectomy or in patients with severe conjunctival inflammation. Tetrandrine also has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic actions, which make tetrandrine and related compounds potentially useful in the treatment of lung silicosis , liver cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Tetrandrine has also been shown to inhibit entry of Ebola virus into host cells in vitro and showed therapeutic efficacy against Ebola in preliminary studies on mice. Tetrandrine is a Antihypertensive, Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. It can be isolated from Stephania tetrandra that is a herbaceous perennial vine of the Menispermaceae family native to China and Taiwan. It grows from a short, woody caudex, climbing to a height of around three meters. The leaves are arranged spirally on the stem, and are peltate, with the leaf petiole attached near the centre of the leaf. Its root is used in traditional Chinese medicine (T C M).

Theobromine

Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C 7 H 8 N 4 O 2. It is found in chocolate, as well as in a number of other foods, including the leaves of the tea plant, and the kola (or cola nut.) It is classified as a xanthine alkaloid, which also include the similar compounds theophylline and caffeine. The compounds differ in that caffeine has an extra methyl group. Despite its name, the compound contains no bromine-theobromine is derived from Theobroma, the name of the genus of the cacao tree, Theobromine is a Diuretic & vasodilator. A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, that is, the increased production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics. Theobromine can be derived from the Theobroma cacao or (cocoa). Theobroma cacao, also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree, is a small evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of Central and South America. Its seeds, cocoa beans , are used to make cocoa mass , cocoa powder , confectionery , ganache and chocolate. Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10 to 40 Centimeters (3.9 to 15.7 inches) long and 5 to 20 Centimeters (2.0 to 7.9 inches) broad. The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory . The flowers are small, 1 to 2 Centimeters (0.39 to 0.79 inches) diameter, with pink calyx. The floral formula is K5 C5 A (5°+5²) G(5). While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera ) or butterflies /moths (Lepidoptera ), cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the subfamily Forcipomyiinae . Having the natural pollinator Forcipomyia midges for Theobroma cacao was shown to have more fruit production than using artificial pollinators.

Theophylline

Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (C O P D) and asthma under a variety of brand names. As a member of the xanthine family, it bears structural and pharmacological similarity to theobromine and caffeine, and is readily found in nature, and is present in tea also known as (Camellia sinensis) and cocoa also known as (Theobroma cacao). A small amount of theophylline is one of the products of caffeine metabolic processing in the liver. Theophylline is a Diuretic & bronchodilator. A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, that is, the increased production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics .... A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Theophylline can be derived from the Theobroma cacao and others (cocoa & tea) Theobroma cacao, also called the cacao tree and the cocoa tree, is a small evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of Central and South America. Its seeds, cocoa beans , are used to make cocoa mass , cocoa powder , confectionery , ganache and chocolate. Leaves are alternate, unlobed, 10 to 40 Centimeters (3.9–15.7 inches) long and 5 to 20 Centimeters (2.0–7.9 inches) broad. The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory . The flowers are small, 1 to 2 Centimeters (0.39 to 0.79 inches) diameter, with pink calyx.

Thymol

Thymol. (also known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, IPMP) is a natural monoterpene phenol derivative of cymene, C 10 H 14 O, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted from Thymus vulgaris the (common thyme) and various other kinds of plants as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. Thymol also provides the distinctive, strong flavor of the culinary herb thyme, also produced from T. vulgaris. Thymol is a Topical antifungal. Topical antifungal medications are creams, solutions, lotions, powders, gels, sprays and lacquers applied to the skin surface to treat fungal infections. They can often cure localised infections, although recurrence is common. Many suitable creams can be obtained over the counter without a doctor's prescription. Many antifungal medications are suitable for both dermatophyte and yeast infections. Others are more specific to one or the other type of fungus. Thymol, Obtained from the Thymus vulgaris or (thyme) . Thymus vulgaris (common thyme, German thyme, garden thyme or just thyme) is a species of flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe from the western Mediterranean to southern Italy. Growing to 15 to 30 Centimeters (6 to 12 inches) tall by 40 Centimeters (16 inches) wide, it is a bushy, woody-based evergreen subshrub with small, highly aromatic, grey-green leaves and clusters of purple or pink flowers in early summer. It is useful in the garden as groundcover, where it can be short-lived, but is easily propagated from cuttings. It is also the main source of thyme as an ingredient in cooking and as an herbal medicine. It is slightly spicier than oregano and sweeter than sage.

Topotecan

Topotecan. This medicine is used to treat cancer of the ovaries when other treatments have failed. Topotecan may also be used in certain types of lung cancer (for instance small cell lung cancer). Topotecan is a Antitumor, anticancer agent, Antineoplastics or Anticancer drugs are the drugs that prevent or inhibit the maturation and proliferation of neoplasms. Antineoplastic agents travel the body and destroy cancer cells. Many of the side effects associated with antineoplastic agents occur because treatment destroys the body's normal cells in addition to cancerous cells. Topotecan can be obtained from Camptotheca acuminata. Camptotheca also known as (happy tree, cancer tree, or tree of life) is a genus of medium-sized deciduous trees growing to 20 metres (66 ft tall) , native to southern China and Tibet. The genus is usually included in the tupelo family Nyssaceae, but sometimes included (with the tupelos) in the dogwood family Cornaceae. The bark and stems of C. acuminata contain the alkaloid camptothecin. Several chemical derivatives of camptothecin are under investigation for or used as drugs for cancer treatment, including irinotecan, topotecan, rubitecan. C. acuminata also contains the chemical compounds trifolin and hyperoside.

Trichosanthin

Trichosanthin, an abortifacient, immunosuppressive and anti-tumor protein purified from the traditional Chinese herb medicine Tian Hua Fen, is a potent inhibitor against H I V-1 replication. Under normal enzymatic digestion conditions, trichosanthin cleaves the supercoiled double-stranded DNA to produce nicked circular and linear DNA. Trichosanthin is a Abortifacient. An abortifacient (is "that which will cause a miscarriage" from Latin: abortus "miscarriage" and faciens "making") is a substance that induces abortion. Abortifacients for animals that have mated undesirably are known as mismating shots. Common abortifacients used in performing medical abortions include mifepristone, which is typically used in conjunction with misoprostol in a two-step approach. Oxytocin is commonly used to induce abortion in the second or third trimester. There are also several herbal mixtures with abortifacient claims, though there are no available data on the efficacy of these plants in humans. Trichosanthin can be derived from the Trichosanthes kirilowii or (snake gourd) . Trichosanthes kirilowii is a flowering plant in the family Cucurbitaceae found particularly in Henan, Shandong, Hebei, Shanxi, and Shaanxi. It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, . It is known as "Chinese cucumber" and "Chinese snake gourd" in English.

Tubocurarine

Tubocurarine. (also known as d-tubocurarine or DTC) is a toxic alkaloid historically known for its use as an arrow poison. In the mid-19 hundreds, it was used in conjunction with an anesthetic to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. It is now rarely used as an adjunct for clinical anesthesia because there are safer alternatives, such as cisatracurium and rocuronium, that are now available. Tubocurarine is a naturally occurring mono-quaternary alkaloid obtained from the bark of the South American plant Chondrodendron tomentosum, a climbing vine known to the European world since the Spanish conquest of South America. Curare had been used as a source of arrow poison by South American natives to hunt animals, and they were able to eat the animals' contaminated flesh subsequently without any adverse effects because tubocurarine cannot easily cross mucous membranes. Tubocurarine is a Skeletal muscle relaxant . A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. It may be used to alleviate symptoms such as muscle spasms, pain, and hyperreflexia. Tubocurarine formally derived from the Chondodendron tomentosum (or curare vine) Tubocurarine also known as Curare had been used as a source of arrow poison by South American natives to hunt animals,

U

V

Valapotriates

Valapotriates. A class of iridoid alkaloids from Valeriana sp. and Kentranthus sp.; for example, the drug valtratum is a member of this class. This drug is made from the plant , Valeriana officinalis. It is grown in greece and china. The essential oils in valerian appear to provide its sedative activity. Valapotriates is a sedative. A sedative is anything that makes you sedate : peaceful, calm, tranquil. In medicine this word refers to drugs that relieve anxiety that pretty much put you to sleep. But other non medical things can have sedative effects, like a soothing cup of tea or a relaxing glass of wine. Valapotriates from the Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers that bloom in the summer and can reach a height of 1.5 metres (5 ft). Native to Europe and parts of Asia, valerian has been introduced into North America. Other names used for this plant include garden valerian, setwall and all-heal . Red valerian, often grown in gardens, is also sometimes referred to as "valerian", Crude extract of valerian root is sold as a dietary supplement in the form of capsules. Valerian root may have sedative and anxiolytic effects.

Vasicine

Vasicine (also known as peganine) is a quinazoline alkaloid. It is the active compound of Justicia adhatoda, after which the chemical is named. Vasicine has been compared to theophylline both in vitro and in vivo. It has also been studied in combination with the related alkaloid vasicinone. Both the alkaloids in combination (1 to 1) showed pronounced bronchodilatory activity in vivo and in vitro. Both alkaloids are also respiratory stimulants. As Cerebral stimulant These are medicines which, to a stimulant influence over the circulation and nervous system generally, add a peculiar power over the special functions of the brain, as evinced, in their higher grades of action, Vasicine can be derived from the Vinca minor also known as (periwinkle). Vinca minor (common names lesser periwinkle or dwarf periwinkle) is a species of flowering plant native to central and southern Europe, from Portugal and France north to the Netherlands and the Baltic States, east to the Caucasus, and also southwestern Asia in Turkey. Other vernacular names used in cultivation include small periwinkle, common periwinkle, and sometimes in the United States, myrtle or creeping myrtle.

Vinblastine

Vinblastine, is a chemotherapy medication, typically used with other medications, to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, brain cancer, melanoma, and testicular cancer. It is given by injection into a vein. Most people experience some side effects. Commonly it causes a change in sensation, constipation, weakness, loss of appetite, and headaches. Severe side effects include low blood cell counts and shortness of breath. It should not be given to people who have a current bacterial infection. Use during pregnancy will likely harm the baby. Vinblastine works by blocking cell division. Vinblastine, is a Antitumor & Antileukemic agent. Anticancer drugs are the drugs that prevent or inhibit the maturation and proliferation of neoplasms. Antineoplastic agents travel the body and destroy cancer cells. Many of the side effects associated with antineoplastic agents occur because treatment destroys the body's normal cells in addition to cancerous cells. Vinblastine, derived from the Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). Catharanthus roseus, commonly known as the Madagascar periwinkle, rosy periwinkle or teresita as it is usually named in the southern part of Mexico, specifically in Champotón, Campeche and Mérida, is a species of flowering plant in the dogbane family Apocynaceae. It is native and endemic to Madagascar, but grown elsewhere as an ornamental and medicinal plant, a source of the drugs vincristine and vinblastine, used to treat cancer. Other English names include Vinca, Cape periwinkle, rose periwinkle, rosy periwinkle, and "old-maid". It was formerly included in the genus Vinca as Vinca rosea.

Vincristine

Vincristine, also known as leurocristine and marketed under the brandname Oncovin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, neuroblastoma, and small cell lung cancer among others. It is given intravenously. Vincristine is also a Antitumor & Antileukemic agent. Anticancer drugs are the drugs that prevent or inhibit the maturation and proliferation of neoplasms. Antineoplastic agents travel the body and destroy cancer cells. Many of the side effects associated with antineoplastic agents occur because treatment destroys the body's normal cells in addition to cancerous cells. Vincristine is derived from the Catharanthus roseus also known as (Madagascar periwinkle). Catharanthus roseus, commonly known as the Madagascar periwinkle, rosy periwinkle or teresita as it is usually named in the southern part of Mexico, specifically in Champotón, Campeche and Mérida, is a species of flowering plant in the dogbane family Apocynaceae. It is native and endemic to Madagascar, but grown elsewhere as an ornamental and medicinal plant, a source of the drugs vincristine and vinblastine, used to treat cancer. Other English names include Vinca, Cape periwinkle, rose periwinkle, rosy periwinkle, and "old-maid". It was formerly included in the genus Vinca as Vinca rosea.

W

X

Y

Yohimbine

Yohimbine. is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa. It is a veterinary drug used to reverse sedation in dogs and deer. Yohimbine has been studied as a potential treatment for erectile dysfunction but there is insufficient evidence to rate its effectiveness. Extracts from yohimbe have been marketed as dietary supplements for improving sexual function. Yohimbine is a aphrodisiac. a aphrodisiac is a substance that increases libido when consumed. Aphrodisiacs are distinct from substances that address fertility issues or secondary sexual dys-function such as erectile dysfunction (E D). The name comes from the Greek ?f??d?s?a???, aphrodisiakon, i.e. "sexual, aphrodisiac", from aphrodisios, i.e. "pertaining to Aphrodite", the Greek goddess of love. The opposite substance is an anaphrodisiac. Yohimbine derived from the Pausinystalia yohimbe (common name yohimbe). is a plant species native to western and central Africa (Nigeria , Cabinda , Cameroon , Congo-Brazzaville , Gabon , Equatorial Guinea ). Extracts from yohimbe have been used in traditional medicine in West Africa as an aphrodisiac and have been marketed in developed countries as dietary supplements Yohimbe is one of five Pausinystalia evergreen species growing in West and Central Africa in lowland forests. The tree grows about 30 metres tall, with a straight bole that is rarely larger that 50 to 60 Centimeters in diameter.

Yuanhuacine

Yuanhuacine, (Y C), a daphnane diterpenoid derived from the flowers of Daphne genkwa, exhibited a potential growth inhibitory activity against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Y C also suppressed the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells. Yuanhuacine is a Abortifacient. An abortifacient is ("that which will cause a miscarriage" from Latin: abortus "miscarriage" and faciens "making") is a substance that induces abortion. Abortifacients for animals that have mated undesirably are known as mismating shots. Common abortifacients used in performing medical abortions include mifepristone, which is typically used in conjunction with misoprostol in a two-step approach. Oxytocin is commonly used to induce abortion in the second or third trimester. There are also several herbal mixtures with abortifacient claims, though there are no available data on the efficacy of these plants in humans. Yuanhuacine, is derived from the Daphne genkwa also known as (lilac). Daphne genkwa Siebold & Zucc. is an evergreen shrub and one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it has the name yuán hua. The plant was discovered by the prolific plant collector Charles Maries. Daphne genkwa is a naturally compact, very free-flowering deciduous shrub. It reaches just 3 feet high and wide,

Yuanhuadine

Yuanhuadine. a Growth inhibition of human lung cancer cells via down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling by yuanhuadine, a daphnane diterpene from Daphne genkwa. Yuanhuadine like Yuanhuacine is a Abortifacient, An abortifacient is ("that which will cause a miscarriage" from Latin: abortus "miscarriage" and faciens "making") is a substance that induces abortion. Abortifacients for animals that have mated undesirably are known as mismating shots. Common abortifacients used in performing medical abortions include mifepristone, which is typically used in conjunction with misoprostol in a two-step approach. Oxytocin is commonly used to induce abortion in the second or third trimester. There are also several herbal mixtures with abortifacient claims, though there are no available data on the efficacy of these plants in humans. Yuanhuadine like Yuanhuacine, is derived from the Daphne genkwa also known as (lilac). Daphne genkwa Siebold & Zucc. is an evergreen shrub and one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it has the name yuán hua. The plant was discovered by the prolific plant collector Charles Maries. Daphne genkwa is a naturally compact, very free-flowering deciduous shrub. It reaches just 3 feet high and wide,

Z

This is the end of this series

This is the end of this series of videos about Medicinal Plants that are used in modern pharmaceutical drugs. Thank you for your time, we hope you have found them useful and found them to you liking

Page Top of Page

Support: Support@example.com
Marketing: Marketing@example.com